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09 THE 


Vol. II, No. 1. 








Issoed 26th March, 1906. 

List of Officers and Members of Council 



For the year 1906* 

President : , 

His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.O.8.I. 

Vice-FreHdents : 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asatosh Mukhopadhjaja, M. A., D.L., 

T. H. HoUand, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 
A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

Honorary General Seci'etarjr : Lieut.-Col. D. 0. Phillott, 23rd 

Cavalry, F.F. 
Treasurer : The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 

M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries : 

Philological Secretary: B. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 
Natural History Secretary : I. H. Burkill, Esq., M. A. 
Anthropological Secretary: N. Annandale, Esq., D.Sc, 

Joint Philological Secretary : Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 

Shastri, M.A. 
Numismatic Secretary : H. N. Wright, Esq., I.C.S. 

OtJier Members of Ooundl : 
W. K. Dods, Esq. 
H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 
E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Mahamahopadhaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhu^aaa, M. A. s 

C. Little, Esq., M.A. \ 

Hari Nath De, Esq., M.A. ) 

Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S. 
J. A. Cunningham, Esq., B.A. 
Major W. J. Buchanan, I.M.S. 
J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
J. A. Chapman, Esq. 


JANUARY 1906. 

Tlie Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 3rd January, 1906, at 6-30 p.m. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyata, M.A.,* D.L., 
Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present: — 

Dr N. Annandale, Mr. L. L. Fermor, Babu Amulya Charan 
Ghosh Vidyabhu^ana, Babu Hemendra Prasad Ghose, Mr. H. H. 
Hayden, Mr T. H. Holland, Mr. J. Macfarlane, Major D. C. Phil- 
lott, 231x1 Cav. F.P., Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., Pandit Yoge^a 
Chandra S'astree. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Thirty-five presentations were announced. 

It was announced that Mr. R. 0. Lees, Mr. F. J. Ede, Mr. 
W. S. Meyer, Mr. J. Bathgate, and Mr. J. Nicoll had expressed a 
wish to withdraw from the Society. 

Mr. T. H. Holland contributed an obituary notice of the late 
Dr. W . T. Blanfoi-d, and announced the steps already taken to put 
up a bust in his memory. 

W. T. Blanford, A.R.S.Mm LL.D., C.I.E., P.R.S. 

The publications of this Society more nearly represent Dr. Blan- 
ford's scientific activity in India than those of the Department of 
Government of which he was such a distinguished member. Al- 
though officially a geologist, his researches extended over much of 
the related sciences of geography and zoology, and his work in 
either branch would have been sufficient to mark his name as a 
prominent worker in Natural History. 

Dr. Blanford joined the Asiatic Society in 1869, as an Ordi- 
nary Member, and was elected an Honorary Member in 1883, the 
year after his retirement from the Indian service. Although 
he was one of the most prolific contributors to the Jowtial during 
his 27 years* service in India, his continual absence from Calcutta 
prevented his acceptance of office until 1877, when, having re- 
turned to Calcutta to revise the Manual of Indian Geology, he was 
elected Vice-President of the Society, and daring the following 
two years, 1878 and 1879, filled the office of President. His death 
on the 28rd June 1905, at the age of 73, removed one of the most 
distinguished of our members, 


ii Proceedings of the Astatic Society of Bengal, [January, 

Dr. Blanford's first formal oontribution to the Society was 
a paper in conjunction with his brother, forming No. 1 of a series 
on nidian Malacology read at the general meeting on the 7th 
March 1860, and published in volume XXIX of the Journal. 
¥vom that time till the Society celebrated its centenary in 1883, 
nearly every volume of the Journal included one or more papers 
from Blanford, describing observations made in every pi-ovince of 
India, and from beyond the frontier in Persia and Tarkistan as 
well as Abyssinia — a record of 74 papers dealing purely with ori- 
ginal work. The Journal of this Society includes but a fraction of 
Blanford's work in India. His chief work was geological and 

Sklasontological, the results being published either in the Records and 
emoirs of the Geological Survey of India, or in the journals of 
European scientific societies. Altogether, whilst still in the Indian 
service, he published just 150 scientific papers, many of which 
were comprehensive memoirs, not merely details of observation, 
but contributions to the philosophical, aspects of geology and 
zoology which have made some of his memoirs classical works in 
the history of science. 

After his retirement in 1882, most of the papers he wrote 
summed up the observations made during his service of 27 years in 
India; and, with his summaries, he indicated the philosophical 
bearing of the accumulated mass of data on current scientific doc- 
trines. Amongst publications of this kind, it is only necessary to 
refer, firstly, to his address to the British Association at Montreal in 
1884, when he demonstrated the truth of Huxley's theory of homo- 
taxis in the descent of isolated faunas and floras, bringing to a close, 
at the same time, the disputed question as to the age of the coal- 
bearing Gondwana system of Indian rocks ; and secondly to his 
address to the Geological Society of London in 1889, when, with 
reference to the much-debated question of the permanence of oceanic 
depressions and continental plateaux, he brought together in his 
inimitable way amass of isolated and apparently unrelated data to 
show that, " not only is there clear proof that some land areas lying 
within continental limits have, at a comparatively recent date, been 
submerged over 1,000 fathoms, whilst sea- bottoms now over 1,000 
fathoms deep must have been land in part of the Tertiary era, but 
there are a mass of facts, both geological and biological, in favour 
of land-connection having formerly existed in certain cases across 
what are now broad and deep oceans." 

Possibly the most conspicuous amongst the productions of his 
scientific activity was his last — his memoir on " The Distribution of 
Vertebrate Animals in India, Ceylon . and Burma," for which he 
was awarded one of the two Royal medals granted by the Royal 
Society in 1901. A considerable section of his time during retire- 
ment was occupied by the editorship of the official " Fauna of 
British India," of which he edited 18 volumes, — one on Mam- 
mals and two on Birds being entirely his own work. 

Those who were favoured by the inestimable privilege of his 
friendship will readily agree that Blanford's enormous record of 

1906.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, iii 

published work was not greater than that which he freely con- 
tributed to friends in private correspondence. Amidst his many 
duties at home, as a prominent official of several scientific societies, 
he never failed to respond to a question or difficulty presented by 
the most junior of his successors in the Indian field ; no subject 
appeared to be too small or local to be considered worthy oi his 
earnest attention, and times witiiout number, within the recollec- 
tion of the writer, by private correspondence he has shown his 
janiors new lines for profitable research, has pointed out by his 
unique knowledge of literature and width of experience, the signifi- 
cance of new observations, and has frequently saved his less 
experienced followers from the pitfalls of hasty deductions drawn 
from imperfect data in this country, where " a little learning '* in 
Natural History is as dangerous as it is in political and socio- 
logical matters. 

No reference to Blanford's scientific work would be complete 
without an allusion to one amongst the many ways in which it 
has been of economic value to the country to which he devoted his 
best energies. His geological maps of the coalfields have been^ and 
still are, the guide of colliery managers in Bengal : to their remark- 
able accuracy has been due the successful opening up of new 
ground, and the economical planning of works for the development 
of known deposits in a way which has saved the country many 
times the cost of his service, and possibly even of the whole 
Department of Government to which he belonged. And yet there 
is no prospect of reaching the end of his usefulness : scarcely a 
month passes without some new illustration of the accuracy of an 
apparently unimportant line on one of his maps, or of the signifi- 
cance of a seemingly passing thought in his reports on Indian 

Blanford's services to science were naturally recognised in 
Europe : in 1874 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society ; 
in 1881, whilst representing India at the International Geological 
Congress at Bologna, he was elected a Vice-President of the Con- 
gress, and was decorated by the King of Italy with the order of 
St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. Ho was also Vice-President of the 
Congress on three subsequent occasions — Berlin 1885, London 
1888, and Paris 1900. On his retirement from tiie Indian service 
in 1882, the Geological Society of London conferred on him the 
highest distinction at their disposal, the Wollaston medal. In 
1884 he was elected President of the Geological Section of the 
British Association at Montreal, and at the same time the MoGill 
University conferred on him the honorary degree of LL.D, He 
was elected President of the Geological Society of London in 1888, 
served three times as Vice-President of the Royal Society, and on 
other occasions as Vice-President of the Zoological and the Royal 
Geographical Societies. In 1904 the King honoured the Most 
Eminent Order of the Indian Empire by including Dr. Blanford's 
name amongst the roll of Companions. 

T. H. H. 

iv Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [January, 1906.] 

The General Secretary reported that the Council had made the 
following appointments :•— 

1. Pandit Kunja Behari Nyayabhushan, as the Pandit for the 
Oriental Library of the Society i^ice Pandit Mnhendra Nnth 
Mukerjee, resigned. 

2. Pandit Asutosh Tarkatirtha, as one of the travelling 
Pandits, and in his place Pandit Mathura Nath Mazundar Kavja- 
tirtha, as the Resident Pandit, attached to the search for Snnskrit 

Mr. J. A. Chapman, proposed by Dr. E. D. Ross, seconded by 
Mr. J. Macfarlane, was ballotted for and elected an Ordinary 

The Adjourned Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 
the 10th January, 1906, at 9-15 p m. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 
Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Syed Abul A&s, Mr. C. G. H. Allen, Dr. N. Annandale, Major 
W. J. Buchanan, I.M.S., Mr. I. H. Burkill, Mr L. L. Fermor, Babu 
Amulya Charan Ghosh Vidyabhusana, Mr. W. A Lee, Dr. M. M. 
Masoom, Mohamed Hossain Khan Midhut, Major F. P. Maynard, 
I.M.S., Major D. C. Phillott, 23rd Cav. F F., Mr. G. F. Pilgrim, 
Pandit Yogete Chandi*a S'astree, Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
Shastri, Mr. E. P. Stebbing, Pandit Raj en dra Nath Vidyabhusmia, 
Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, Rev. A. W. 

Visitors: — Dr. C. Banks, Syed Chirag Ali, Mr. A. M. Mahfuz, 
Babu Dwijendra Nath Maitra, Mrs. Maynard, Mr. A. N. Price, 
Captain Riddick, Mr. W. Withall, and others. 

Major L. Rogers gave a lecture on types of fever in Calcutta 
(lantern demonstration). 

The following papers were read :— 

1. Romaka^ or the City of Rome, as ment lotted in the Ancient Pali 
and Sanskrit u'orArs.— By MahamahopAphyaya Satis Chandra ViinA- 
BHU9HAigr, M.A. 

2. Two New Cyprinoid Fishes from the Hehnand Ba^in. — By C. 
Tate Rkgan, B A. Communicated hy LiErT.-CoL. A. W. Alcock, 
C.I.E., F.R.S. 

3. The Origin of Mankind {according to the Lamaic Myth- 
ology), — By Rai Sakat Chandra Das, Bahadur, CLE. 

4. Optimism in Ancient Nyaya.—By Pandit Vanamali Vedania- 


This paper has been published in the Journal and Proceedings, 
N.S., Vol. I, No. 10, 1905. 

5. Persian Folk Songs, — By Major D. C. Phillott, 23rd Cav., 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings, 

FEBRUARY, 1906. 

The Annual Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 
the 7th February, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 
F.R.S.Iij., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Dr. N. Annaiidale, Babn Muralidhar Banerjee, Babu Amrita- 
lal Bose, Major W. J. Buchanan, I.M.S., Babn Nobin Chand 
Baral, Babu Damodar Das Barman, Babn Monmohan Chakravarti, 
Mr. J. A. Chapman, Mr. B. L. Chaudhuri, Mr. J. A. Cunningham, 
Mr. J. N. Das- Gupta, Mr. Hari Nath De, Bnbu Mucksoodan Dass, 
Mr. F. Doxey, Rev. Father B. Francotte, S.J., Babu Amulya Cha- 
I'an Ghosh Vidyabhushana, Babu Hemeudra Prasad Ghose, Mr. 
H. G. Graves, Mr. T. H. Holland, Mr. D. Hooper, Dr. W. C. 
Hossack, Mr. J. Macfarlane, Kumar Ramessur Maliah, Dr. M. M. 
Masoom, Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., Mr. W. H. Miles, Moha- 
mad Hossain Khan, Babu Panchanan Mukhopadhyaya, Hon. Mr. 
J. D. Nimmo, Mr. W. Parsons, Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott, 23rd 
Cavalry, F.F., Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., Rai Ram Brahma Sanyal 
Bahadur, Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastri-Samkhyaratna-Vedntirtlia, 
Dr. C. Schulten, Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, Babu 
Chandra Narain Singh, Dr. Amrita Lai Sircar, Pandit Promatha 
Nath Tarkabhushan, Maham ahopad hyaya C handra Kanta Tarkalan- 
kara, Babu Nagendra Nath Vasu, Pandit Jogindra Nath Vidja- 
bhushan^ Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushan, 

Mr. E. H. C. Walsh, Mr. E. R. Watson. 

Visitors : — Babu Devendra Nath Banerjee, Babu Gopal Das 
Banerjee, Babu Manindra Nath Banerjee, Babu Rakhal Das Baner- 
jee, Babu K. C. Baral, Mr. J. W. A. Bell, Babu Kali Krishna 
Blmttacharjee, Babu Sasi Bhushan Bhattacharjee, Babu Tara 
Sunder Bhattacharjee, Sri Padmanande Bheksha, Mr. J. C. Brown, 
Babu Purshottam Das Burman, Babu Kali Chandra Chakravarti, 
Babu Sivavrata Cbattopadhyaya, Dr. J. N. Cook, Babu Asutosh 
Dey, Mrs. F. Doxey, Mr. H. M. Hanifuddiqni, Mr. J. Home^ 
Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Le Quesne, Mr. and Miss Macdonell, Mr. A. 
M. Mahfuz, Babu Birajmohan Mazumdar, Mr. and Mrs. Meares, 
Babu Charu Chandra Mitra, Babu Byomakesh Mustaphi, Mr. A. 
J. Oliver, Babu Radha Kishna Pall, Mr. Perkins, Rev. Fr. James 
Power, S. J., Mr. D. N. Ray, Babu Haradhan Ray, Babu Sashee 
Bhushan Ray, Mr. C. K. P. Roberts, Babu Hitavrata Samakantha, 
Mr. J. C. Samajpati, Babu R. L. Seal, Babu Satyendra Nath Sen, 

▼1 Annual Report, [February, 1906. 

Mr. P. N. Singh, Mr. K. V. Smith, Rev. Fr. J. Vauckell, S.J., 
Mr8. A. W. Tonng. 

The Secretary read a letter from His Honour Sir Andrew 
Fraser, President of the Society, expressing his great regret at 
being unable to be present at the Annual Meeting of the Society. 

According to the Rules of the Society, the Chairman ordered 
the voting papers to be distributed for the election of Officers and 
Members of Council for 1906, and appointed Major L. Rogers and 
Mr. L. L. Fermor to be scrutineers. 

The Chairman announced that the Elliott Prize for Scientific 
Research for the year 1905 would not be awarded as none of the 
essays received in competition were of sufficient merit to justify 
the award of the Prize. 

The Chaiiman called upon the Secretary to read the Annual 

Annual Report for 1905. 

The Council of the S'»ciety have the honour to submit the 
following Report on the state of the Society's affairs during the 
year ending 3 1st December, 1905. 

Member List. 

There has been a steady increase in the b'st of Ordinary 

Daring the year under review, 43 Ordinary Members were 
elected, 18 withdrew, 3 died, and 8 were removed from the list, 
v%9, : 3 under Rule 38, as defaulters ; 3 under Rule 40, being more 
than 3 years absent from India ; and 2 under Rule 9, not having 
paid their entrance fees. The election of one member was can- 
celled at his own request. The total number of members at the 
close of 1905 was thus 357 against 343 in the preceding year. Of 
these 144 were Resident, 133 Non-Resident, 12 Foreign, 20 Life 
and 47 absent from India, and one Special Non- Subscribing Mem- 
ber, as will be seen from the following table, which also shows 
the fluctuations in the number of Ordinary Members during the 
past six years : — 

February, 1906.] 

Annual Beport, 




































































The three Oixlinary MemberB, whose loss by death during the 
year we have to regret, were Mr. H, W. Peal, Dr. W. T. Blanford 
(Life Member) and Raja Jay Krishna Das, Bahadur. 

Owing to the death of Dr. W. T. Blauford, Life Member and 
Honoi*ary Member, the Council has recommended Lord Curzon to 
fill this yaomcy. 

The list of Special Honorary Centenary Members and Asso- 
ciate Members continued unaltei*ed from last year, theii* numbers 
standing at 4 and 13 respectively. 

^o Members compounded for their subsci*iption during the 

By the operation of Nos. 5 and 7 of the Society's Rules, some- 
times nearly two full months elapsed between the date of applica- 
tion of a candidate and the ballot for his election. To shorten this 
Seriod, the Society has revised Rules 5 and 7, and at present acan- 
idate is ballotted for within one week after the submission of his 
name to the Council. 

Indian Museum. 

Only one change has occurred amongst the Trustees, namely, 
that caused by the retirement of Sir J. A. Bourdillon, K.C.S.I., 
and the Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, D.L., was 
appointed to fill the vacant place. The other Trustees who 
represent the Society have been : — 

The Hon. Sir Alexander Pedler, KL, F.R.S., CLE. 

G. W. Kuchler, Esq., M.A. 

T. H. Hollaud, Esq., F.G.S., F.R.S. 

J. Macfarlane, Esq. 

yiii Annual Report. [February, 1906. 


The Accounts of the Society are shown in the Appendix 
under the usual heads. In this year's account there is an addi- 
tional statement under the head '* Bardic Chronicle MSS." State- 
ment No. 10 contains the Balance Sheet of the Society and of the 
different funds administered through it. 

The credit balance of the Society at the close of the year 
was Rs. 1,93,143-1-9 against Rs. 1,92,939-7-5 in the preceding- 

The Budget for 1905 was estimated at the following figures : — 
Receipts Rs. 18,100, Expenditure Rs. 22,683 (ordinary Rs. 17,664, 
extraordinary Rs. 5,029). Taking into account only the ordinary 
items of receipts and expenditure for the year 1905, the actual 
results have been: — Receipts Rs. 20,689-2-11, Expenditure 
Rs. 15,521-14-1, showing a balance in favour of the Society 
on its ordinary working of Rs. 5,167-4-10. Against this balance 
there have been several extraordinary items of expenditure amount- 
ing to Rs. 6,452-12-6. The total expenditure of the year has, 
therefore, been a little more than the income. There is a Tempo- 
rary Investment of Rs. 45,100 at the close of the year, out of 
which Rs. 31,946-3-10 is in favour of the Society (besides 
Rs. 9,132-9-10 due to the Society from the Oriental Publication 
Fund, Members, etc.), Rs. 3,274-9-9 Oriental Publication Fund 
(after a loan of Rs. 2,000 from the Society's fund to pay off 
bills), Rs. 3,120-2-5 Sanskrit MSS. Fund (less Rs. 1,000 advanced 
to the Joint Philological Secretary for the purchase of Sanskrit 
MSS.), Rs. 4,459 Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund (less Rs. 3,000 
advanced to the Officer in charge of the Arabic and Persian Search 
for the purchase of Arabic and Persian MSS.), and Rs 2,400 
Bardic Chronicle MSS. Fund. In addition to this, a sum of 
Rs. 1,200 has been added to the Reserve Fund from entrance fves 
received during the year. 

The Ordinary expenditure was estimated at Rs. 17,654, but 
the amount paid out was only Rs. 15,521-14-1. On the expendi- 
ture side, the items of "Salaries," "Pension," "Commission," 
*' Postage," " Freight," " Meetings," " Contingencies," " Books," 
" Binding," " Printing Circulars, etc.," all show a slight increase, 
excepting "Freight," "Books," "Binding," and "Printing Cir- 
culars, etc." Owing to several consignments of books received 
during the year, " Freight " shows an increase of Rs. 60-0-6. 
For the same reason, there is an increase of Rs 232-9-4 under 
" Books." This was expected, an extra grant of Rs. 1,000 hnving 
been sanctioned. The estimate for " Binding " has been exceeded 
by Rs. 507-10. This is due to binding a large number of books in 
the Society's librnry, for which an extra grant of Rs. 1,000 was 
also sanctioned. As certain acknowledgment forms had to be 
printed, and a larger number of circulars than usual was required, 
there is an increase of Rs. 86 -11 -9 under the head " Printing Cir- 
culars, etc" The actual expenditure on the Journal and Proceed- 
itiys and Memoirs* was Rs. 5,732-1-3 against a budget provision 

February, 1906.] AnntMil Report, ix 

of Bs. 7,300, but all the bills for the pnblications of the past 
year have not yet been paid. 

There was only one extraordinary item of expenditure during 
1905 under the head " Furniture " not provided for in the Budget. 
B4S. 183-8 was paid for a book-case for the Society's library, and 
Bs. 136-3-6 was spent for new shelves and chairs. 

The expenditure on the Boyal Society*s Catalogue (including 
subscription sent to the Central Bureau) has been Bs 1,597-15, 
while the receipts under tliis head from subscription received on 
behalf of the Central Bureau (including the gi'ant of Bs 1,000 
from the Government of India) Bs. 1,481-5. A sum of Bs. 854-8 
has been remitted to the Central Bureau, and Bs. 236 is still due 
to them. 

Three Extraoi'dinary items of expenditure wei'e budgetted for. 
Out of the sum of Bs. 1,0(X) for the Library Catalogue, only 
Bs. 177 has been spent on account of printing charges. B«. 2,809 
was budgetted for picture-frames but Rs. 3,313-2-6 has been 
spent, the excess being due for backing the pictures with oil-cloth 
and other expenses incurred B^s. 1,265 were spent on the building, 
while a sum of Bs. 1,220 was budgetted for. Bs. 1,220 were paid 
for white-washing and colour-washing part of the Society's premis- 
es, and Bs. 45 for repairing the roof. 

The Budget estimate of Beceipts and Disbursements for 1906 
has been fixed as follows:— Beceipts Bs. 18,7(X), Expenditure 
Bs 18,683. The items "Salaries," "Commission," "Pension," 
" Municipal Taxes," " Postage," and " Contingencies " have all been 
increased. " Salaries " have been increased by Bs. 2(X), owing to 
certain increments sanctioned to the office staff. '* Commission," 
'* Pension," and " Postage" are based upon the actuals of the last 
year. There is a heavy increase of Bs. 581 on account of Municipal 
Tax owing to a new assessment. " Contingencies " has been 
increased by Bs. 150. This is due to providing the menial servants 
with new clothing for the cold weather. 

Ten extraordinary items of expenditure have been budgetted 
for during the year 1906, namely, Bs. 1,000 for the new Library 
Catalogpie, Bs. 830 for book racks for storing periodicals, Bs. 1()0 
for illuminating the Society's building on the night of the illumina- 
tion during the visit of T.B H. The Prince and Princess of Wales, 
Bs, 1,(XX) for new books, Bs. 5(X) for binding, Bs. 2,3(X) for printing 
the Journal and Proceedings and Memoirs published during 1905, 
Bs. 1,8(X) for printing the Persian translation of Morier*s Haji 
Baba, Bs. 5(X) the cost of a complete lantern for the Society's Meet- 
ing, Bs. 155 for renewing the lights and fans in the room let to the 
Automobile Association of Bengal, and Bs. 288 for picture rods. 
Besides these provisions, there will be a heavy expenditure on ac- 
count of repairs and certain structural improvements in the 
Society's building, the total cost of which is not yet settled. 

The Hon. Mr Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya continued 
Treasurer throughout the year. 

Annual Report, 

[February, 1906, 













... 7,800 



Sale of Publications 




Interest on Investments 

... 6,000 



Bent of Room 




Government Allowances 

... 3,000 








... 18,100 























Lights and Fans . 




Municipal Taxes . 




















Books ... 








Journal, Part I 



• •• 

„ n 



• *• 

» III. 



. • • 





" Journal and Proceedings " and 

** Memoirs " 

,, ,,, 




Printing Circulars, 





Auditor's Fee 

.. ... 




Petty Repairs 












February, 1906.] Annual Beport, 

Extraordinary Expenditure. 





Actuals. Estimate. 
















ikwks ... 








** Journal and ProceedingH" and 





Printing Haji Baba 


. .• 






Renewal of winng for Electric 

Lightd and Fans for Automo- 

bile Association of Bengal ... 




Picture Rods 




Picture Frames 



• •• 




• •• 





The number of the copies of the Journal and Vroceedings and 
of the Bihliotheca hidica sent to Mr. Bernard Quaritch, the 
Society's London Agent, during the year 1905, for sale, were 
respectively 540 and 639, valued at £75 and Bs. 881-12, of which 
£49-9 and Rs. 105-14 worth have been sold for us. 

Nino invoices of books purchased and of publications of 
various Societies sent in exchange were received during the year, 
the value of the books purchased amounting to £108-12-4. 

The number of copies of the Journal and Proceedinys and of 
the Bihliotheca Indica sent to Mr. Otto Harrassowitz, the Society's 
Continental Agent, during 1905, for sale, were 417 and 516, valued 
at £43-16 and Rs. 256-10. The sale proceeds have been £19-13 
and Rs. 306-6, respectively. 


The total number of volumes or parts of volumes added to the 
Library during the year was 2,559, of which 653 were purchased 
and 1,906 presented or received in exchange for the Society's pub- 

The new edition of the Society's Library Catalogue is still 
in press, and a little over half the MS. has already been set up. 
The work of reading the pix)ofs has been entrusted to Professor 
Hari Natb De under the supervision of the General Secretary. 

There were several Meetings of the Library Committee during 
the year, and it was resolved to remove all the periodicals to 
the ground floor of the building and to bind all the books and 

xii Annual Report. [Febmaay, 1906. 

periodicals in the Society which required it. For this purpose 
nearly two-thirds of the Library has been examined, and 22 book 
racks have-been purchased for the accommodation of the periodicals. 

Owing to increase in the number of Sanskrit MSS., it has been 
found necessary to separate the Sanskrit MSS. from those in 
Arabic and Persian, and the west room has been set apart to 
accommodate the former. 

At the suggestion of Sir Charles Lyall, the Hebrew MS. con- 
taining the translation of an early Italian work on the Koran in 
the Society's Library was presented to the British Museum. 

In modification of the order regarding the proposed rejection 
of certain books from the Society's Library, the General Meeting 
resolved that the Library Committee be empowered to settle the 
prices of books with authority to ofFer Government publications 
to Government. Only two such publications have been accepted (by 
the Imperial Library), and other public bodies have written to say 
that the books offered for sale were not required by them. The 
books will now be stamped with a special stamp and put up to 
public auction. 

The question of the procedure to be followed in lending out 
MSS., both in India and Europe, was referred to a Sub- Committee, 
which drew up the new rules- published in the Proceedings for 
December 1905. 

In continuation of the Council order, the Imperial Libraiy 
has been allowed to borrow books and MSS. from the Society for the 
use of its readers, until 31sb August 1906, subject to the new rules 
for lending out MSS. During the period from September 1904 to 
August 1905, forty-nine books and MSS. have been thus borrowed. 

Babu Mahendra Nath Mukerjee resigned his appointment as 
the Pandit for the Oriental Library in October, and Babu Kunja 
Behari Nyayabhushana was appointed to fill the vacant post. 

The Library was in charge of Mr. J. H. Elliott, the Assistant 
Secretary and Librarian of the Society. 

International Catalogue of Soientifio Literatiire. 

During the year the volumes on Chemistry, Meteorology, 
Botany and Zoology of the second annual issue, and volumes on 
Mathematics, Mechanics, Physics, Astronomy, Physiology, and 
Bacteriology of the third annual issue were received and have 
been distributed to the subsctibers. 

On completion of the 2nd Annual Issue of the International 
Catalogue bills have been made and submitted to subscribers for 
payment of the amount of subscription. A sum of Rs. 854-8 has 
been remitted to the Central Bureau during the year, representing 
part of the subscription to 1st and 2nd Annual Issues. 

The Director International Catalogue of Scientific Literatui-e 
informed the Regional Bureau that a convention was to meet in 
London on 25th July, to consider the question of extending the 
issue of Scientific Catalogue beyond the first five annual issues, 
and asked this Bureau to appoint one or two delegates to represent 

Febmarj, 1906.] Anniml Beport, xiii 

tlie Regional Bureau for India and Ceylon. Dr W. T, Blanford 
and Lt.-Col. D. Prain, upon tlie invitation of the Council, 
agreed to perform this duty. The death of Dr. Blanford, shortly 
before the date fixed for the Convention, left no time to appoint a 
delegate in his place, and, accordingly, Lt.-Col. D. Prain attended 
the Convention alone and voted with the majority in favour of the 
continuation of the publication of the International Catalogue to a 
further period of five years. 

The Government of India was pleased to sanction a grant of 
Rs. 1,000 for the expenses of the Regional Bureau. During the 
year 786 Index slips were made, and after having been checked 
by the experts, were sent to the Central Bureau, London. 

Elliott Prize for Scientifio Besearch. 

On the recommendation of the Director of Public Instruction, 
Bengal, a second medal was awarded to Babu Surendra Nath 
Maitra for his essay submitted in competition for the Elliott Prize 
for Scientific Research for 1904 under rule G ; nnd Babu Sarasilal 
Sarkar was paid Rs. 150, being part of the award for his essays 
Eubmitted in competition for the Elliott gold medal during the 
years 1897 and 1901. 

Barclay Memorial Medal. 

In connection with the Barclay Memorial Medal, the Council 
awarded the medal for 1905 to Lieut. -Col. D. D. Cunningham, 
F.R.S., in recognition of his biological researches. 

Society's Premises and Property. 

The proposed thorough repairs and stnictural improvements 
in the Society's buildings have not yet been completed, although 
Messrs. Mackintosh, Bui:n A Co. have substituted steel joists 
for all the wooden beams except in two rooms on the ground floor. 
Mr. E. Thornton has promised a complete scheme for the restora- 
tion of the building, and the work will be taken in band during the 
present year. 

All the pictures of the Society have been temporarily hung, 
and after the repairs to the Society's building are completed, they 
will be suspended on picture-rods, to be fitted up by Messrs. Leslie 
& Co. at a cost of Rs. 288 sanctioned by CounciL 

Bxchange of Publications. 

During 1905, the Council accepted seven applications for ex- 
change of publications, vt2; : (1) from the Victoria University of 
Manchester, the Society's Journal and Proceedings and the 
Memoirs being exchanged for their publications; (2) from the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, the Society's Jouitial and. Pro- 
ceedings and the Memoirs being exchanged for the publica- 
tions of that Society; (3) from the Bureau of Government 

xiv Anntuil Report. [February, 1906, 

Laboratories, Manila, the Society's Journal and Proceedings and 
the scientific portion of the Memoirs for the publications of 
their Laboratory ; (4) from Dr. F. Fedde, editor of the Botanis- 
cher Jahresbericht, the Society's Journal and Proceedings and 
the Memoirs containing biological articles only for his " Lit- 
teratur der Morphologie und Systematik der Phanerogamen" ; ( 5) 
from the Colombo Museum, the Society's natural history publica* 
tions being exchanged for their '* Spolia Zeylanica " ; (6) from 
the University of Michigan, the Society's Journal and Proceed* 
ings and the scientific portion of the Memoirs for the Report 
of the Michigan Academy of Science ; (7) from the Ethnological 
Survey of the Philippine Islands, Manila, the Society's Journal 
and Proceedings and the anthropological and scientific portion of 
the Memoirs being exchanged for the publications of that Survey. 
The exchange of publications with the Royal Statistical So- 
ciety of London has been stopped. 

The revision of the Society's list of Exchanges and the distn- 
bution of the Memoirs to Societies, etc., ai*e under considera- 
tion. The following gentlemen have been appointed to report on 
them : — 

J. Macftirlane, Esq. 

T. H. Holland, Esq. 

Dr. E. D. Ross. 

Dr. N. Annandale. 


The question of extending and improving the Society's publi- 
cations has occupied the attention of a special Sub- Committee, and, 
after due deliberation, the Council accepted their recommendations, 
namely: — 

1. Publication of a quarto series styled Memoirs. 

2. Publication of a new series (8vo.) containing the Journal 
and Proceedings combined. 

3. Paper and type selected for the purpose to be used. 

4. Insertion of advertisements relating to books and instru- 

5. Appointment of Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co. to secure 

6. Publication of such resolutions of Council as the Council 
may determine in the Proceedings, 

The arrangements for insertions of advertisements are not yet 
complete, and none have appeared. 

There were published during the year fourteen numbers of 
the Proceedings and Journal (Proceedings Nos. 9-11 of 1904; 
Journal Part I, Extra No. 1904; Journal Part II, Supplement 
1904, Jouifial Part III Extra No. 1904, and Journal and Pro^ 
ceedingsy N.S., VoL I, Nos. 1-8 of 1905) containing 500 pages and 9 

Of the MemoirSf six numbers were published (Vol. I, Nos. 
1«5 and 7) containing 118 pages and 7 plates. 

February, 1906.] Annual Repo7't, zv 

The Numismatic Supplement Nos. 4 <& 5 have been pablisbed 
in the Journal Part I, Extra No. of 1904, and Journal and 
ProceedingSf N.S., Vol. I, No. 4 of 1905, under the editorship of 
Mr. Nelson Wright. 

There were also published the Indexes to Joui-nal Parts II and 
III for 1904 and a Persian translation of Morier's Adventures of 
Haji Baba of Ispahan by Hajl Shaikb A^mcd-i-Kirmani, edited 
with very valuable notes bearing on idiomatic peculiarities of 
modem Persian by Major D. C. Phillott. 

Owing to the increased number of members, it was found 
necessary to print 700 copies of each issue of the Journal and 
Proceedings and MeTnoirs, instead of 650. 

To facilitate the publishing of papera, and to avoid the delay 
often caused by reference to Council, that body has appointed a 
Standing Publication Committee composed of the Editors of the 
Journal and Proceedings, giving them power to sanction the 
the printing of papers within the amount of the sanctioned grant, 
but not to reject any paper. 

In order to secure a uniform and suitHble system of 
transliteration for all the publications of the Society, the Council 
has invited Lieut.-Col. Phillott and Dr. Ross to draw up a revised 
scheme for the transliteration of Persian, Urdu and Arabic 
Alphabets. For the Devanagari alphabet and for all the alphabets 
relating to it, tlie system in foixje seemed to call for no alteration. 

It is proposed to publish in the Society*s Memoirs a series 
of photographic facsimiles of autographs and signatures of famous 
Eastern authors and monarchs at a cost of Rs. 250. 

The Proceedings were edited by the General Secretary, Mr. 
J. Mncfarlane. The Philological section of the Jonrfial was edited 
by Dr. E. D. Ross, the Philological Secretary. The coin cabinet 
was in charge of Mr. H. N. Wright, the Numismatic Secretary, who 
also reported on all treasure trove coins sent to the Society. 
Mahamahopadhjaya Haraprasad Shastri was in charge of the 
Bihlioiheca hulica and the work of collecting Sanskrit MSS. The 
Natural History section of the Joui-nal was edited by Major 
L. Rogers, I. M.S., and the Anthropological section by Dr. N. 
Annandale, with the exception of two months when Mr. H. E. 
Stapleton officiated for him. 

Philology, etc. 

There were several papers of historical importance published 
in the Journal, 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri gave a brief Histoiy 
of NySyasdstra from Japanese Sources, the logical system of Ak^a- 
pada which, though completely lost to India, is still studied and 
commented upon in China, Japan, Corea, and Mongolia. In 
Japan, says the writer, it has a rival in the European sj^stem, 
but this rivalry has only strengthened the position of that ancient 
school of logic. 

MahSmahopadhyaya Professor Satis Chandra Yidyabhusana, 
M.A., gives the story of the life of Sarvajna-mitra, a Tantrika 

xvi Annual Beport. [February, 1906. 

Buddhist author of Kfi^mira, in the eighth century A.D. The 
same scholar described Lankavatfira Sutra, an ancient Buddhist 
Sanskrit work, which gives an account of an imaginary visit paid 
by Buddha to Ravaua, the king of Lai^ka, and contains a copious 
explanation of the Buddhistic metaphysical doctrines. In another 
number he gave an account of Anuruddha Thera, a learned Pali 
author of Southern India, in the twelfth century A,D. 

Babu Granga Mohan Laskar, M.A., a research scholar, de- 
ciphered four new Copper-plate charters of the SomavamSi kings of 
Ko^a and Kataka, sent some time ago from the Patna State in 
the Central Provinces to the Society. They form an addition to 
the six charters of these kings edited by Mr. Fleet in the Epigra- 
phia Indica (Vol. Ill, pp. 328-359). Of these new land-grant 
charters, one belongs to Maha-Bhavagupta I. and the rest to 
Mahi-S'ivagupta. 'i'he language and characters of both the old 
And new charters are the same. 

The identity of Haliyudha, the author of Brilhmanasarbasva 
and Prime Minister of Lakshmana Sena, son of Ball&la Sena 
of Bengal, was discussed by Pundit Yogesa Chandra S'astree, who 
came to the conclusion that he was not the same personage as 
Hal&yudba of the Chatta family wh) was honoured by Ballila 
Sena, or Hal&yudha, the ancestor of the Tagore family of Calcutta. 
Babu Monmohan Chakravarti, M.A., described and edited the 
poem Pavana-dutarh, or Wind- Messenger, byDhoyika, a court-poet 
of Lak^mauasena of Bengal. The appendix on the Sena Kings of 
Bengal, which forms part of this paper, is a brief but useful con- 
tribution to the history of this Dynasty. 

Mr. W. N. Edwai^ds described some interesting archaeological 
remains in Bishnath in the way of fortifications, temples, etc. Thei*e 
are, he tells us, several inscriptions there which have not yet been 
described. Balju Nagendra Nath Gupta wrote on the well-known 
Maithil poet Vidyapati Thakur, and Mr. Justice Sarada Charan 
Mitra contiibuted a note on Candesvara Thakkura, the author of 
a recognized work on the Mitak^ara system of Hindu Law. 

Only three contributions were mad a to Mohammedan history 
during the period under review. Mr. William Irvine continued 
liis most valuable monograph on the Later Mughals (1707-1803) 
and treated the subject with that thoroughness which characterises 
all his contributions to the history of the Mahomedan period. 
Major W. Haig, I. A.., wrote some notes on the Bahmani Dynasty ; 
and Mr. H. Beveridge briefly told of some interesting facts relat- 
ing to the Emperor Babar which are not mentioned in Erskine 
and Abul FmzI. 

Of papers of Linguistic interest there was one containing a 
collection of 100 Kolarian riddles current among the Mundaris in 
Chota Nagpur by the Rev. Paul Wagner, and another on the 
Similarity of the Tibetan to the Kashgar-Brahmi Alphabet by the 
Hev. A. H. Francke, which was published in Vol. I., No, 3 of the 

No less than half a dozen valuable papers on Tibetan subjects 
were contributed by Bai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, CLE. 

February, 1906.] Annual ^port. xvii 

All of these papers were at once important and interesting, and 
bore testimony to the knowledge and industry of the writer. 
The following were the more important ones : — (1) The Hierarchy 
of the Dalai Lama (1406-1745) ; (2) The Monasteries of Tibet ; and 
(3) Tibet under the Tartar Emperors of China in the 13th Century 
A. D. Mm hamahopadhyaya Professor Sa tis C handra Y idyabh usana, 
M.A., also wrote a useful paper on certain Tibetan Scrolls 
and Images lately brought from Gyantse during the recent British 
Expedition to Tibefc, in Vol. I., No. I , of the Memoirs. A very 
important paper on Anibic Alchemy was published by Messrs. 
Stapleton and Azoo, which, though properly belonging to our 
scientifio publication, has considerable philological importance. 

Natural History, etc. 

The activity of the Natural History Section of the Society has 
been well maintained during the past year, during which a numbir 
of important papers have been published, extending over a wide 
range of subjects. Among the Zoological contributions are four 
papers on Indian snakes and lizards by Dr. Annandale, describing 
the additions made to the collection of the Indian Museum for some 
years past, and including some new species, and on the lizards of the 
Andaman Islands. The same author also contributes some other 
papers including Studies of the Fauna of Indian tanks, about 
which very little is yet known, while the earwigs of the Indian 
Museum have been named by Mr. Burr. Botany is well repre- 
sented by further work on the Flora of the Malayan Peninsula by 
Sir George King and Mr. Gamble, and by a paper on the yams by 
Colonel Prain and Mr. Burkill. Two papers on the chemistry of 
certain insects and plants have been contributed by Mr. Hill, while 
a notable one entitled "Sal Ammoniac* — a study in Primitive 
Chemistry," by Mr. Stapleton, has appeared as a Memoir ; as has also 
one on the Chemistry of the Arabs by Messrs. Stapleton and Azoo. 
Among the Geological papers may be mentioned a valuable one on 
the chemical analysis of a clay found in Bundelkand by Mr Silber- 
rad, while at the December meeting a most interesting and instruc- 
tive lectare was delivered by Mr. Holland on the Kangra Valley 
earthquake, illustrated by a series of lantern slides. The great 
success of this meeting in attracting an unusually large attendance 
will encourage the Council to continue its recent efforts to make the 
meetings more interesting than they have been for some time past, 
by having pui^ly technical papers taken as read, and, as far as 
possible, providing some subject of general interest for considera- 
tion of each meeting. 

Anthropology, etc. 

During the past year several short communications and one 
leather lengthy one (in continuation of a former paper) have been 
published in the Joumdl and Proceedings^ while three anthropological 

* Also noticed under the heading Anthropology. 

xviii Annual Beport, [February, 1906. 

Memoirs have appeared and others are in the press. Of the 
published Memoirs one is of gi'eat general interest, illustrating the 
close relations between animism and the beginnings of physical 
science in the East, while the others are important contributions to 
local folklore and ethnology. It cannot be said, however, that the 
progress of the study of anthropology has been altogether satis- 
factory as regards the Society. Abundant material is received for 
publication ; but no discussion is aroused at the meetings, and there 
seems to be a tendency to treat the different branches into which 
the study of man may be divided as devoid of scientific dignity, to 
ignore all that has previously been written on the subjects treated, 
and to forget external relationships. Every branch of biology — 
anthropology as much as any other— may be legitimately treat-ed 
in one of three ways : — (1) the investigator may content himself 
with compiling and abstracting in a detailed manner all that has 
already been published on any one subject ; (2) he may record 
fiicts previously unknown or ignoi'ed ; or (3) be may aspii*e to the 
more ambitious task of treating his theme in a comparative manner, 
from tho standpoint of a wide and deep study of allied and conflict- 
ing phenomena. In India the compiler (acknowledged as such) 
and the recorder can add very largely to the sum of human know- 
ledge, but if they mingle things new and old indiscriminately, they 
run the risk of having their work ignored by serious students of 
anthropology. The Anthropological Secretary must appeal to con- 
tidbutora not to cast on him the solo burden of discovering, in every 
case, whether a communication contains suflicient original matter, 
or forms a sufficiently " thorough •' account, to merit publication. 
The bulk of anthropological literature is already so great, and 
increases so rapidly, that unnecessary repetition of details can 
only complicate the student's task. If anthropology is a science, 
it merits some preliminary study. 

A scheme is in hand for the publication in the Memoirs 
of figures and descriptions of interesting Asiatic implements, 
weapons, and the like ; but as nothiujj has yet been produced, 
details must be postponed until next year. 


Thii-teen gold, one hundred and fort3^-six silvei* and one copper 
coins have been presented to the Society during the year 1905. 
The coins ai-e of the following periods : — 

Mediaeval India 
Independent Bengal . 

.. Sassanian types iR 

Gadhaiya coins M 
,. Shamshuddin Iliyas M 

Husen Shah M 
.. Akbar J^ 2, Ml, Ml 

Jahangir JR 

Shahjahan „ 

... 5 
... 3 
... 2 
... 5 
... 4 
... 2 
... 2 

Carried over 

... 23 

Pebraary, 1906.] Annual Report. xix 

Brought forward 
Mughal — contd» Aurangzeb JR 

Farrukhsir „ 

Muhammad Shah ,, 

Ahmad Shah „ 

Alamg^r II. „ 

Shah Alam II. „ 

Assam ••• ... Rudra Singh „ 

Shiva Singh and Pramatheswari 

Begam A\ 

Shiva Singh and Phuleswari 

Pi-amatha Singh „ 

Rajeswara Singh „ 

Lakshmi Singh „ 

Gauri Nath Singh „ 

French Gompagnie des Indes ... ... „ 

South India ... Vijayanagar J/^ 

European ... Venetian ducats „ 

Ottoman Sultans ... ... ... ,, 







Of these twelve (nine gold and three silver) were presented 
by the Bombay Government, and one (a copper coin) by the 
United Provinces Government. 

During the year the Honoraiy Numismatist examined and 
reported on 8,548 coins forwarded as treasure ti-ove fix)m various 
districts in Bengal, Assam, the Central Pix)vinces, and the Punjab. 

One find alone contained 4,500 copper coins, but of these only 
218 were recommended for acquisition. 

By order of the Government of India, the name of the Numis- 
matic Collection attached to the Public Library at Shillong wa.s 
added to the list of institutions among which coins are distributed 
under the Indian Treasure Trove Act. 

Bibliotheoa Indioa. 

The publication of the Bibliotheoa Indica series waii sapervised 
by the Joint Philological Secretary. The regular income of the 
Oriental Publication Fund can benr the cost of publishing twenty- 
four fasciculi. In 1903, however, thirty-six fasciculi were issued, 
end in 1904 forty-two, whereby the accumulated balance became 
e7[hau8ted. In September 1905, it was found tliat the number of 
fasciculi due to appear would cost much more than the regular 
income of the fund, and it was necessary to prevent the publica- 
tion of more than one fusciculus of each work in hand. In spite 
of this limitation, thirty-four fasciculi have been published in the 
year under review, and special measures had to be taken to meet 
the cost of their publication. 

XK Annual Report. [Febmarj, 1908»; 

These thirty-four fasciculi were issued at a cost of Bs. 13,231, 
the average cost per fasciculus being Rs. 389. 

Bjr a resolution of the Council, dated 30th September 1898, 
the annual statement of Bibliotheca Indica publications is limited 
to those works which were either commenced or which came to a 
close during the year. 

Among the works taken in hand during the course of the 
year may be mentioned SaddnrSana-Samuccaya, by Haribhadra, 
a great Jain writer who died in A.D. 479. He wrote'a short work 
on the six Systems of Indian Philosophy, namely, Bauddha, 
Xaiyiiyika, Jaina, Saipkhya, YaiSo^ika and Mimaipsaka. Those 
who consider Nyftya and VaiSesika to be one and the same 
system add Carv&ka to the list. The text was published some time 
ago iii' Italy. The present edition is accompanied by a commen- 
t«ry entitled Tarkarahasya, by Gunaratna, who flourished in the 
fourteenth century. The Commentary though modem gives copi- 
ous information about the schools, their works, their authors and 
their teachers. It furnishes ampler materials for a history of 
Hindu philosophy than any other single book. The editor is Dr. 
Luigi Suali of Bologna, a distinguished pupil of Professor Hermann 

The other work taken in hand is the Lower Ladakhi Version 
of the Kesar Saga by the Rev. A. H. Francke, Moravian mission- 
ary. The version was dictated slowly to him by an inhabitant of 
Kholotse who was brought up in Lardo near Tagmacig, and is 
likely to clear up many obscure points in the Kesar epic. 

Of the works that came to an end the most important is an 
English translation of the Maikaudieya Purana by the Hon*ble 
Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter. The work was undertaken 20 years 
ago, and after many interruptions has now come to an end. The 
conclusion of the editor is that the work was written at two differ- 
ent periods, one some centuries B.C., the other some centuries A D. 
The scene is laid in Central India amid the wilds of the 

Another is the Kala Viveka by Jimuta Vahana, under the 
editorship of Pancjiita Pramatha Natha Tarkabhu^ana, Professor 
of Smrti in the Sanskrit College, Calcutta. In the preface, the 
editor determines the long unsettled point of the author's era, 
which he believes to have been A.D. 1191. 

The Tattvarthadhigamasutra, by Umasvati Vacaka, was com- 
posed at Patftliputm early in the second century A.D. It is a 
curious work giving the cosmogony, configui*ation of the earth and 
heavens and so on, of the Jains of his day. It was edited by Vakil 
Keshablal Premcluind of Ahmedabad, under the supervision of 
Professor Hermann Jacobi. 

Suddhi Kaumudi by Govindananda Kavi Kaokanacarya, under 
the editorship of a young fol pandit of Bhatpa^a, named Kamala 
Kf^na Smrtibhu^na, has come to an end, practically completing 
the whole series of 6ovindananda*s work. The series was written 
between A.D. 1478 and 1535. It was composed for the benefit of 
the Vaidika brahmanas professing principally the Rg Veda, and 

February, 1906.] Annual Bejport xxi 

pieceded the code of Raghunaudana, the standard work of the 
Bengal school, by at least half a century. 

Professor Dr. W. Caland of Utrecht, Holland, has been obliged 
to put a stop to his edition of the Srauta Sutra of Baudhayana, 
after the ninth PraSna, for want of MS. materials. 

The Society's stock has been arranged by the Assistant 
Secretary, and the Cashier is engaged in counting the books and 
writing up the stock- book. 

On an application from Prof. Louis de la Vallee Poussin, 
his name was placed ou the list of individuals in Europe receiving 
the Bibliotheca Indica gratis. 

The Council sanctioned the publication in the Bibliotheca 
Indica of an Index of Place names to the second volume of Col. 
Jarrett's translation of the Ain-i-Akbari, compiled by Mr. W. 

Owing to financial difficulties (see Appendix- Accounts) of the 
Oriental Publication Fund the Council sanctioned Rs. 2,000 from 
the fund of the Society as an advance to pay off the bills passed 
for payment and for work already done. 

Search for Sanskrit MSS. 

This department published the '* Catalogue of Palm leaf and 
selected paper MSS in the Durbar Library, Nepal," by Mahlmaho- 
padhyaya HaraprasadShastri. It gives descriptions of 457 rare 
and valuable MSS., some of tliem written in charactei-s of the 7th 
and 8th centuries. It brings many tantric works to light, and its 
poet-coloplion statements have enabled Professor C. Bendall to 
compile a chronological list of Nepal kings, fuller and more 
accurate than those hitherto published by him. This Catalogue 
has been published as an extra number of the ^* Notices of Sanslbdt 

The third volnme, in course of publication, will contain notices 
of 366 MSS. mostly seen in Benares. 

The year has been very fruitful in the collection of MSS., no 
less than 1,360 having been acquired. Of these about 1,100 are 
Jain MSS. This, with about 800 Jain MSS., already collected 
with great industry from various quarters, raises the Government 
Jain collection to 2,000. The Jaina works are in Sanskrit, Jaina 
Prakrit, Maijiwari, Guzerati, Hiudi and other languages, and con- 
tain works of all classes — stotras, biographies of saints, Angas, com- 
mentaries, and so on. The collection brings to light two facts — that 
the Jainas had tantras, and that they had smftis of their own and 
were not dependent on brahmanical sm^tis as hitherto supposed. 

At the request of His Honour tlie Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal, ten bound copies of the Notices of Sanskrit MSS., Extra No. 
of 1905, containing a Catalogue of Palm-leaf and selected paper 
MSS., belonging to the Durbar Library, Nepal, was presented to the 
Nepal Durbar, in return for their courtesy to Professor Bendall 
and Mahftmahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shftstri, when on their visit 
to Nepal in 1898, for the purpose of compiling this work. 

xxii Annual Report [February, 1906. 

In response to an application made by the Society, the 
Govemment of India sanctioned a special grant of Rs. 5,000 for 
the purchase, on behalf of Government, of a valuable collection of 
Jain MSS. 

Search for Arabic and Persian MSS. 

During the yenr, tlie search has been conducted by Dr. Ross 
with great success, and a considerable number of important MSS. 
acquired. The public have become acquainted with the existence 
of this search, and offers of valuable MSS. are being received 
from all parts of India. To meet these opportunities of cwiquiring 
really good MSS., the Council has applied to the Govemment of 
India for an extra grant of Rs. 5,000. The following first Annual 
Report for the official year 1904-1905, was submitted to Govem- 
ment by Dr. Ross : — 

Report on the Search for Arabic and Persian MSS. for the 
omcial year 1904-1905. 

The work has been of two kinds: (1) Research in existing 
libraries ; (2) Purchase of MSS. offered for saJe. In this latter 
task I had in view the principle of purchasing only rare works and 
MSS. of ancient date. I have been fortunate enough to find some 
really good MSS. of early authors, copies of which are not to be 
found in any of the European libraiMes, and these have been bought 
for the Society. 1 shall notice some of them in the course of my 
report. The field is still to a great extent unexplored, and we can 
only gradually discover the obscure comers in which these oriental 
treasxires lie hidden and uncared for. Up till now the search for 
MSS. has been confined to the town of Lucknow, which was the 
centre of Muhammadan learning and literature in India after the 
decline of the Moghul Power. 

Lucknow abounds in libraries. Some of them are really first- 
<5lass ones, and others, though small by comparison, contain very 
valuable books. I give below a short account of the libraries 
visited during the year. 

L Maulavi Nasir Hosatn^s Library, 

Maulavi Nasir Hosain is a learned Mujtahed of the Shi'ah 
community, and his library is located in the Nazim's garden at 
Lncknow. This library contains some very rare and valuable MSS . , 
including a priceless collection of books on History and Biography 
of Traditionists, and India should be proud to possess such a library. 
This library owes its origin to Maulavi Ham id Hosain, the deceased 
father of Maulavi Nasir Hosain. This is the only library of its 
kind in Lucknow containing religious books of both Sunnis and 
Shi'ahs. The books here are arranged in different groups accord- 
ing to the different branches of literature and science. In all 
there are 22 book-cases containing about 6,000 volumes. There 

February, 1906.] Annual Report, xxiii 

is nnfortTiiiately no proper catalogae of this library. This 
valuable collection of MSS. includes 20 works on the principles of 
Shi'ah religion known as the Usui. The four books on Hadis, which 
Are considered to be the great authorities of the Shi'ahs, and upon 
which the Shi 'ah doctrine entirely depends, have, in fact, been ab- 
ridged from 400 books on Hadis, each of which is called Asl. Thus 
the sources of the four books : (a) Kafi ; (6) Man la Yahduruhu-al- 
Faqih ; (c) Tahdib-ul-Ahkam, and (d) Istibsar, are 400 books. And 
of these 400 books about 92 Usuls, 20 are in this library, 12 
are in the library of the late Syed Taqi in Lucknow, and 60 are in 
the library of the late Maulavi Gulshan Ali nt Jonepore. 

There is a book here named Kitab-ul-Munammaq, by Abu 
Ja'far Muhammad bin HabibJHashimi Baghdadi, died A.H. 245. 
It is a history of the tribe of Quraish. This unique copy belongs 
to the 13th century. 

J J. Library of the late Maulavi Abdul Hai. 

This library was founded by the late Maulavi Abdul Hakim, 
father of Maulavi Abdul Hai. It is now in the possession of Mufti 
Muhammad Yusuff, the son-in-law of the late Maulavi Abdul Hai. 
There is a manuscript catalogue in this library in which the books 
are arranged and classified according to the different subjects they 
treat of. The number of pamphlets on different subjects that are 
to be found here is very remarkable. I had a copy of this catalogue 
made for purposes of reference. This library contains some 4,000 
volumes of ancient and modern authors. 

III. Library of Maulavi Abdur 2{a\if. 

The real founder of the library is the late Maulavi Abdur- 
Razzaq, but it is now in the possession of his grandson Maulavi 
Abdur Ra'uf. The books are better arranged here than in the 
other two libraries. There is a manuscript catalogue in which 
books are arranged according to the different subjects they treat 

This library contains about a thousand manuscripts, but a few 
of them only are the production of old authors, and even those are 
very commonly known and cannot claim to have any i-arity. 

In this library, however, the works of modern authors, t.c, those 
authors who flourished after the 8th century Hejira are more nu- 
merous than in the other libraries. 

The following are the more interesting small libraries of 
Lucknow : — 

1 . Library of Nawab Mehdi Hasan. 

2. Library of Meer Agha. 

3. Library of Maulavi Laft«i-Hosain, 

As to the purchase of manuscripts, I beg to say that the total 
number of books bought for the Asiatic Society of Bengal is 113. 
This comprises books on ftlmost all branches of literature and 

xxiv Annual liepin't. [February, 1906. 

science. Below 1 give a list of some of these books with very sborib 
descriptions of each : — 

1 Qnrb ul-Isnad ; a book on Imamite Tradition. 

Author — Abdullah bin Ja'far bin al Hosain bin Malik bin 
Jumi'-al-Himyari. He was the disciple of Imam Abu Mahaminad- 
i-' Askari, and died in A.H 290. Neither tbe book nor its autlior is 
mentioned by either Brt)ckelmaimor Ahlwardt. Dated A.H. 1068. 

2. Jami'-ul Iskandarani, a collection of the works of Galen 
made by the Alexandrians, and translated by Hunain bin Ishaq ; for 
particulars and full information consult Ibn Oseiba, vol. I., pp. 
90-92. These interesting pamphlets by Galen deal with diiferent 
brandies of medical science, and in no European library is the 
complete collection to be found. 

3. Shaih Kashf-ul- Afirar ; a commentary by Najmud-Din al 
Katibi, died A.H. 675, on Kashf-ul-Asrar of Mnhammad bin Khunji. 
Only two copies of the text Kashf-ul-Asrar are known — one in the 
Escurial Libi'ary, and tbe other in Cairo ; but no copy of the com- 
mentary is mentioned by either Brockelmann or Ahlwardt. The 
manuscript bears two seals of the last two kings of Oudh and 
several other important personages. 

4. Kifayat-ul-Asar ; a Shi*ah work in praise of the twelve 
Imams. Dr. Ahlwardt (Herlin catalogue, vol. ix.. No. 9675) men- 
tions Ibn-i Tawus as the author of the book. But the genuine author 
of the book appears to be 'Ali I'in Muhammad bin *Alial-Qummi. 

5. Tafsir Zubdat-al Bayan ; a commentary on the Qui^an by 
Abmad bin Muhammad Ardabili, died AH. 993. (Not mentioned 
by Brockelmann or Ahlwardt. ) 

6. Kitab-al-Arba'in ; a collection of 40 Imamite Traditions by 
Shekih-ush-Shahid Muhammad bin Makki. 

7. Shawariq-al-Lamiah ; a book on the knowledge of God and 
his attnbutes, by Hosain bin Abdus Samadal-Harisi, died A.H.904. 
(Not mentioned by Brockelmann or Ahlwardt.) 

8. Kitab-al-Qaza-wal-Qadr ; a book on God's Decree and 
Destiny, by Sudruddin Shirazi. (The work is not mentioned by 
Bix)ckelmann. ) 

9. Rauzat-ul-'Ulama ; a book on theology, by Abu 'Ali Hosain 
bin Yahya Zandubasti. (There is no mention of this work in 
Brockelmann ) 

The following three manuscripts are the most important of 
all collected in point of age, as the dates mentioned against them 
^\\\ show: — 

Date A.H. 

1. As-Sib ah of «1 Jawhari ... ... (Cii-ca) 450 

2. Sharh-i-Kashful Asi-ar 740 

3. Tanqih-nl-Maknun 775 

The dates of a large numi er of manuscripts i*ange from 
A.H. 800 to 1000. 

Bardie Chronicles. 

At the request of the Government of India, the Society under- 
took a se..rch for MSS. of Rajput and other bardic clironicles^ 

February, 1906.] Annual Beport. xxv 

similar to the wox'k of Chand Bardai abeady published by the 
Society, and as a preliminary to make a inspection of libraries of 
Bajputana and Gujrat believed to contain such works. For this 
purpose the Government has sanctioned a grant of Rs. 2,400 to the 
Society for expenditure during the year. The work will begin as 
soon as a suitable pundit can be found. 

The Report having been read and some copies having been dis- 
tributed, the Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, Vice- 
President, addressed the meeting. 

Annual Address, 1905. 

During many years past, it has been the established practice 
for the President of our Society to deliver an address on the 
occasion of the Annual Meeting. Such addi-esses have varied 
widely in scope, but many of them have, from time to time, re- 
viewed the work of the Society, and the progress of litei'ary and 
scientific research in connection with questions which have engaged 
the attention of our members. On the present occasion, all of 
us had hoped to listen to the eloquent words of His Honour the 
Lieutenant-Governor, and to benefit by his kindly advice and 
encouragement. But public business of a pressing character has 
kept him away, and no one, I know, regrets his absence more 
keenly than His Honour himself does; our rules, however, are 
unfortunately so inelastic that the dates of our meetings cannot be 
altered so as to suit the convenience even of our President. It 
is, therefore, by an accident that I find myself called upon to take 
the chair this evening, and the time at my disposal since I have 
had an intimation that I should have to do so, has been so limited 
as to make it impossible for me to attempt an elaboi^ate I'eview of 
the work of the Society during the year 1905, and of the progress 
of the researches in which the Society is interested. I must con- 
sequently crave your indulgence for confining my remarks to a few 
points of special interest and importance. 

During the last year, the material prosperity of the Society 
has been satisfactory, and the number of members on our rolls 
now exceeds what it has been in recent years. But we have lost, 
during the year, one of our most distinguished Past Presidents, 
who was originally one of our life-members and subsequently an 
Honorary Member. A full account of the scientific work of 
Dr. W. T. Blanford, who passed away, full of years and 
honours, on the 23rd June, 1905, is contained in the obituary notice 
contributed by Mr. Holland, whicb will be published in our Pix)- 
ceedings ; but his services to the Society were so conspicuous that 
they demand more than a passing reference on the present occa- 
sion. He joined the Society in 1859, and the number of papers he 
had contributed to our Journal and Proceedings between that date 
and 1883 exceeds seventy. I make a pointed reference to this fact, 

xxvi Annual BeporU [February, 1906, 

because, if the Society is to flourish aud maintain itb reputation 
as a learned body, it can only be by the publication of original 
contributions of its members. The researches of Dr. Blanford 
related principally to Geology and the cognate branches of natural 
science, namely. Geography and Zoology, but it must not be sup- 
posed that they recorded merely details of observation, for many 
of them treated of the fundamental principles of Geology and 
Zoology and are rightly regarded as classical memoirs in the 
history of those sciences. Refei'ence may specially be made to 
his remarkable address to the British Association at Montreal 
in 1884, delivered as President of the Geological section ; and his 
equally important address to the Geological Society of London 
when he was its President five years later. In the first of these 
addresses, he demonstrated the truth of Huxley's Theory of 
Homo taxis, in the descent of isolated /a wnas and floras^ and in the 
second, he strengthened the theory of land connection in former 
times in certain cases across what are now broad and deep oceans. 
These generalisations were the result of inferences drawn from a 
mass of details indicating the accuracy which always chai'acterized 
his work. No better illustration of this remarkable accuracy 
can be mentioned than his Geological maps of the coal-field, 
which, as Mr. Holland observes, have always been and still ai^e 
the guide of coUierj' manager's. It is impossible, I think, to 
estimate too highly the practical utility of these maps in explor- 
ing the mineral resources of the country. I do not use, therefore, 
the language of mere platitude when I say that, by the death of Dr. 
Blanfoixi, we have lost fi^om our I'anks a man remarkable for his 
scientific attainments and for his contributions to the advance- 
ment of science, and that the members of this Society will fail 
in their duty if they do not raise in his memory a suitable memo- 
rial in this hall. 

I shall turn now to the work of the membera of the Society 
during the last year, but before I deal with it, some reference is 
necessary to what appeal's to me to be the most important event 
of the year from the point of view of oriental research and 
scholarship. Members of the Society are no doubt aware that a 
large number of valuable manuscripts and books were brought 
from Tibet by the late Tibet Mission, which are now desposited in 
the British Museum in London. If I am not very much mistaken, 
the materials thus placed at the disposal of scholars are calculated 
to throw light upon some of the darkest comera of Indian history 
and antiquities. That such a result is more than likely will be 
obvious, if we remember what intimate relation subsisted at one 
time between Tibet and India, the birthplace of Buddhism, and 
to what extent the literature of Tibet has been influenced by the 
literature of India. It is well known that the two chief periods 
in the history of the literature of Tibet are the period of transla- 
tions extending roughly from the seventh to the twelfth century 
of the Christian ei^, and the period of original composition ex- 
tending from the thirteenth century to the present times. In the 
first of these periods the Tibetan monks were principally engaged 

Febmarj, 1906.] Annual Report. zxvii 

in eiiricliing their literature by faithful versions of many of the 
great books of Sanskrit literature. The course which the seclu- 
ded monks of Tibet pursued was somewhat similar to what was 
followed in Rome, when Greek authors were freely copied by the 
dramatists of the Republic ; and in England, when the great trans- 
lations which form a remarkable monument of English literature 
were made during the Tudor period. Now it has so happened in 
the case of Tibetan literature, that although the Sanskrit origi- 
nals have been, in many instances, lost, in course of time in this 
country, the translation and in some cases the original itself has 
survived in Tibet. As one illustration, mention may be made of 
the Avadana Knlpalata of Kshemendra, no manuscript of which 
could be traced in this country ; indeed, it was supposed to have 
been lost, but was recovered in Tibet, in original, with a Tibetan 
version. The publication of this work was undertaken some years 
*go by our Society, and although some progress has been made, it 
has remained in abeyance by reason of the death of one of the 
editors. If one wishes to find a parallel to an incident of this 
description in the history of modem literary research, one must 
tmvel to Egypt, which has given back to Europe some of the most 
exquisite products of the Greek intellect, the fragments of Bac- 
chylides, the Mimes of Herondas, and the long-lost work of 
Aristotle on the Constitution of Athens. It is obvious, therefore, 
that a widei' knowledge of Tibetan litei*ature, specially of such 
poiiiions of it as are translated or mainly founded on Sanskrit 
literature, must thi-ow considerable light on the latter, either by 
giving us back books which have been lost in this country or by 
enabling us to determine with some approach to certainty, the 
original forms of works which, as they now stand, are believed on 
good gix)unds to be full of later interpolations. It has been 
generally supposed that the literature of Tibet is mainly, if not 
entirely. Buddhistic ; this, however, is en-oneous because the 
Tibetans possess translations of Kalidas's Meghduta, Vararuchi's 
Satagatha, Rabigupta's Aryakosh, Valmiki's Raraayana, Vyasa's 
Mahabharat, Chanakya's Nitisastra, Dandi's Kavyadarsha, 
Panini's Vyakarana, Chandra Vyakarana, Pramanasamuccaya of 
Dignaga, and various other works including several, the originals 
of which cannot be ti'aced in this country. It looks, therefore, as 
if the most profitable course which a serious student of Indian 
antiquities may pursue is to take himself to the study of Tibetan, 
and a minute examination of the manuscripts at our disposal, 
beginning with those which were bix)ught nearly eighty years ago 
by Mr. Hodgson while Resident at Nepal and ending with those 
bi-ought last year by the Tibet Mission. Of the manuscripts 
brought by Mr. Hodgson, those known as the Kangyur, consisting 
of a hundred volumes, are deposited in oui' library, while those 
known as the Tangyur, consisting mainly of non-Buddhistic 
Sanskrit works and extending over two hundred and twenty-five 
volumes, wei'e deposited in the India Office, London. Only a small 
fragment of these has, up to the present moment, been worked 
through by scholars, and as regards those brought by the Tibet 

aixviii Anntwl Beport, [February, 1906. 

Mission, they have not yet been completely examined and cata- 
logued. But an inkling of what rich harvest is in store for us may 
be obtained from one or two recent instances. Thus the Tibetan 
translation of the logical work of Dignaga, which must be placed 
in the front rank of works on modem Nyaya, but the original of 
which is not available in this country, enables us to trace the 
history of the rise and development of this branch of Hindu 
Philosophy. I need only refer to the scholarly paper on the sub- 
ject by Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, pub- 
lished in the November number of our Journal, Another valu- 
able paper from the same learned member which opens the first 
volume of our new series of Memoirs indicates how additional 
light may be thrown on the somewhat obscure problem of the 
progress of Tantricism by an intelligent study of Tibetan scrolls 
and images. The existence of the Tantra Sastras may thus 
apparently be traced at least as far back as the 6th century A.D., 
and the question may ultimately arise whether the credit or dis- 
credit of founding that system and its attendant practices may not 
have to be shared by the Buddhists along with the Brahmins. It 
would be a mistake, however, to suppose that the only department 
of knowledge which is likely to be benefited by an examination of 
Tibetan books and manuscripts is the domain of Sanskrit litera- 
ture ; if from Tibetan sources we are likely to be in a position to 
determine with some precision the early fonn of books like the 
Ramayana and the Mahabharata, there can be no reasonable 
doubt that a somewhat similar result must follow in the case of 
Pali literature as well. It has been usually supposed hitherto 
that no Pali books were ever translated into Tibetan, and that the 
Tibetan monks confined their attention to versions of Buddhistic 
works written in Sanskrit. It now turns out, however, that almost 
the entire Pali Tripitakas are preserved in Tibetan in translation. 
It is difficult to say whether the translations were made direct 
from Pali into Tibetan, or, as seems not unlikely, were first trans- 
lated into Sanskrit and then into Tibetan. The Sanskrit versions, 
however, are extremely rare. Scholars interested in Pali litera- 
Hure must consequently turn to Tibetan sources to determine to 
what extent interpolations have been introduced by the Buddhists 
of Ceylon and Burma into their religious books. Under these 
circumstances, I trust the case is not put too high in favour of 
Tibetan studies, when it is maintained that they are likely to open 
up sources from which considerable light may be expected upon 
the history of Sanskrit as well as Pali literature. 

Amongst the papers published in our Journal and Proceed- 
ings and in the new series of Memoirs, there have been several 
contributed during the last year which may be I'egarded as of 
more than average interest and importance. Babu Ganga Mohan 
Laskar, a young epigraphist of talent who made a special study of 
the epigraphy and palaBOgraphy of Northern India as a research 
scholar under the Government of Bengal, and who has pre- 
pared a complete concordance to the Inscriptions of Asoka, 
contributed a note on four new copper-plate chai'ters of 

February, 1906.] Annutil Report, xxix 

the Somavansi Kings of Kosala. These charters, written in 
characters of the lOth century, refer to a dynasty of four 
kings who reigned for over half a century. They were called 
Trikalinga Adhipati and their dominions included Tosali, which 
the writer con-ects into Kosala. I am not quite sure that this 
emendation is well founded ; and it has been suggested on good 
grounds that the place may be Dhauli, near which there is an 
inscription of Asoka addressed to the officers of Tosali. Babu 
Monmohan Chakravarti furnished an edition of the Pabanaduta, 
which was first brought to the notice of the Society in 1898 by 
Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Sastri. The work appears to 
have been written by Dhoyika, one of the court poets of Laksh- 
man Sen, the last Hindu King of Bengal. Pandit Yogesa 
Chandra Sastree discussed the question of the identity of the 
Prime Minister of the same king, Halayudha, the author of 
Brahmana Sarvasa. Mahamahopadhyaya Hai'aprasad Sastri con- 
tributed a paper on the history and development of the Nyaya 
Philosophy, which must be I'egarded as one of a highly contix)ver- 
fiial character. It is well known that the Nyaya Sutras, attribut- 
ed to Grautama or Akshapada, have been studied in this country 
with the aid of the Vashya, the Vartik and other commentaries 
by eminent Sankrit writers. Hindu Logic, however, has travelled 
to China and Japan, and there it has been studied for centuries on 
somewhat diffei*ent lines, as the students thei'e start with Dignaga 
as the last of the great writers on Logic in India. The work of 
Dignaga was translated into Chinese about the middle of the 7th 
century by Hiouentsiang ; and two of his disciples, one a Chinese 
and the other a Japanese, wrote great commentaries on it. The 
history of the introduction of Hindu Logic into China and Japan is 
a subject of abiding interest, and was examined recently by a dis- 
tinguished Japanese scholar, Mr. Sugiura, in a thesis presented to 
the University of Pennsylvania. We have, thei^efore, from Chinese 
and Japanese sources, Hindu Logic as it existed in the beginning 
of the 7th century, and on that foundation Pandit Harapi-asad 
Sastri has set himself to investigate the original form of the 
Nyaya Sutras. His conclusion is that the work is not homogeneous - 
but consists of three independent ti'eatises on Logic and three 
independent treatises on Philosophy. He maintains that the 
system was originally Hindu, dating back to pre-Buddhistic times, 
that it was modified by an infusion of Buddhistic ideas and 
subsequently altered again by the Saivas. The question, as I 
have already indicated, is one of great difficulty, and inferences, 
when they are drawn largely from internal evidence, have always 
to be accepted with caution. I trust the pi-oblem will engage the 
attention of other members of the Society, but unfortunately 
we have none who is qualified to approach the subject with a first- 
hand knowledge of Chinese, Japanese, and Sanscrit. 

Tibetan and Pali Scholarship are well represented in the 
contributions of Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, and Mahamho- 
padhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana. The papers contributed 
by the former cover sevei-al centuries of the history of Tibet, and 

XXX Annual Eeport, [February, J 906. 

in addition to an account of the various monasteries in Tibet and 
the rise of different sects of Buddhism in that countr}', throw con- 
siderable light upon the external history of Tibet in its relations^^ 
with Mongolia and China. Professor Satis Chandra's papers, ta 
two of which I have already referred, bear testimony to his 
acquaintance with Pali and Tibetan. His paper on Anurudha 
Thera, who was bom at Kanchi and whose chief work was done 
at Tanjore and Tinnevelly, shows that Buddhism lingered in the 
great cities of Southern India as late as the 12th century A.D., and 
that Pali used to be studied even up to that time. His other 
paper on Dignaga, to which I hqive previously referred, enables us 
to fix the end of the 4th century as the time when that great 
authority on Indian Logic flourished, and this conclusion agrees 
substantially with that of Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Sastri, 
who placed him (in the 5th century and varies slightly from the 
result obtained by the Japanese scholar Takakusu, who, in a power- 
ful article on Vasubandhu, contnbuted to the Royal Asiatic 
Society of London last year, fixed the period in the sixth century. 

Apart fix)m these papers, which are more or less of a philo- 
logical character, the number of papers dealing with historical 
problems has been unusually limited. Mr. Irvine gave us a further 
instalment of his exhaustive monograph on the Later Moghuls, 
while Mr. Beveridge brought to light some interesting facts about 
the Emperor Babar, not mentioned in Abul Fazl and overlooked 
by Erskine. It must be conceded, however, that the history of 
the Mahomedan period deserves greater attention at the hands of 
our members. 

In the department of the physical and natural sciences, we 
have had ample indication of activity on the part of oui' members. 
Botany is represented by further work on the Flora of the Malayan 
Peninsula by Sir George King and Mr. Gamble. Dr. Annandale's 
Zoological contributions include papers on Indian snakes describ- 
ing the additions made to the collection in the Indian Museum, 
and on the lizards of the Andaman Islands. Chemistry is repre- 
sented in two interesting papers, one on Sal Ammoniac by 
Mr. Stapleton, and the other on Alchemical Equipment in the 11th 
century by Mr. Stapleton and Mr. A zoo. In the first of these 
papers an attempt is made to carry back the history of Sal Am- 
moniac through Mahommedan times and to throw light on the 
pidmitive conceptions of nature which led to its intix)duction as an 
alchemical dnig. The paper is of value as illustrating the close 
relation between animistic theories and the first germs of physical 
science in the East. The second paper is mainly historical in 
character and embodies an analysis of an Arabic treatise on 
Alchemy composed towards the beginning of the 11th century A.D., 
which shows the great importance attached to weights in chemical 
operations, seven centuries before the age of Black and Lavoisier. 
In Geology, we had a valuable note from Mr. Silberrad on the 
chemical analysis of clay found in Bundelkhand, and an extremely 
instructive lecture by Mr. Holland on the Kangra Valley earth- 
quake illustrated by a series of lantern slides. Finally, we had 

February, 1906.] Annual Report, xxxi 

from Major Rogers an important paper on fevers in Dinagepore,. 
followed by a very suggestive lecture on Calcutta fevers. 

In the department of Anthropology, although we have had 
important contributions to local folklore and ethnology, I am 
afraid it would be difficult to say that it has aroused as much in- 
terest as its nature and importance would justify. In connection 
with this subject, our Anthropological Secretary, Dr. Annandale, has 
made an important suggestion which, when it is carried out with 
the co-operation of our members, will, I trust, promote and popu- 
larise its study. The proposal is to publish in our Memoirs a 
series of papers entitled " Miscellanea Ethnographica " giving illus- 
trations and descriptions of implements, utensils, apparatus, weapons 
and the like fix)m different parts of India and the neighbouring 
countries. The scheme is one of great practical importance, 
because, if realized, it will help to bring together and preserve a 
mass of scattered knowledge which would otherwise be probably 
lost. Very little information is available regarding the distribu- 
tion, uses, and manufacture of the common implements of the 
people, specially the apparatus used by different tribes and castes 
in agriculture, hunting and other pursuits of daily life. It is a 
great mistake to suppose that specimens of these are of value only 
if they are objects of rarity or artistic workmanship. It is equally 
erroneous to hold that such specimens are of value only if they 
are habitually used by primitive races in the lowest scale of civili- 
zation. The truth is that these implements of daily life, if proper- 
ly studied, furnish an excellent guide in the examination of the 
growth of human intelligence. It is essential therefore that such 
specimens should be collected, classified and studied, before they dis- 
appear in the face of the Euix)pean or semi-European methods and 
implements which are fast making their way in many directions. 
Dr. Annandale has recently given us illustrations of the work 
which may usefully be taken up in this direction by exhibiting to 
members of the Society the use of the Blow gun in Southern India 
and the Malayan Peninsula, and the use of peculiar types of 
weighing beams in different parts of Asia, closely analogous to 
what prevails in Europe and is thei'e traceable to Scandinavian 
influences. The subject is obviously one of great interest and 
importance, and I trust it may engage the attention of some of our 

During the last year, the publication of Oriental works and 
their translations in the series known as the '* Bibliotheca Indica " 
has been carried on with more thaxr nsual zeal and activity. As a 
result, not only has the surplus m this fund been exhausted, 
but the Society has found it necessary to contribute 
temporarily a sum of Rs. 2,000 to meet the expenses for 
'work already done. There will consequently be a reduction in 
the number of works to be published in the course of the pi^sent 
year, and the Council have decided that, in future, a complete list 
of the works which may be undertaken in the coui*se of any one 
session, must be definitely settled andbudgetted for in advance. 
Of the works which have been published during the year in the 

rxxii Annual Report. [February, 1906. 

" Bibliotheca Indica " an account has been given in the report sub- 
mitted to you this evening. I would only invite attention to the 
completion of the English version of the " Markandeya Purana" by 
Mr. Justice Pargiter. The learned ti*anslator has furnished an 
elaborate introduction in which he shows that the work was 
composed at two widely distant periods, one probably some cen- 
turies before the beginning of the Christian era, and the other some 
centuries after it. The approaching retirement of Mr. Justice 
Pargiter cannot fail to be a source of sincere regret to every mem- 
ber of this Society, and the regret is deepened by the fact that 
there are few, if any, amongst the junior members of the dis- 
tinguished service to which he belongs, who are qualified to take 
his place in the field of Oriental scholarship. Another work which 
was completed during the year and which deserves special men- 
tion is the Persian version of Morier's Haji Baba by Shaik Ahmad 
of Kirman, upon which Major Phillott had been engaged for some 
time past. It may no doubt be said that in undei'taking the publi- 
cation of this work, the Society has departed from its hitherto 
invariable practice of publishing only classical Ai*abic and Persian 
works. The work, however, furnishes so good an example of 
modem Persinn, and is so truthful a pictui^e of the manners and 
customs of the people, that its inclusion in om* list of publications 
is amply justified. The value of the edition has been greatly 
enhanced by the not«s of the editor, in which all the slang tenns 
and colloquialisms not found in the dictionaries are lucidly ex- 

There are two other topics to which I shall like to invite your 
attention before I bring my address to a close. During the year 
which has just ended, considerable progress has been made in the 
search for Sanskrit manuscripts, as also in the seai'ch for Arabic 
and Persian manuscripts. So far as the search of Sanski'it manu- 
scripts is concerned, which was conducted under the supei^vision 
of Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Sastri, the progress of the 
operations during the year is marked by three important events. 
The first is the publication of the Catalogue of Palm-leaf and 
selected paper manuscripts in the Dui^bar Library in Nepal. The 
second is the report submitted to Government on the progi'ess of 
the search during the last five years The third is the acquisition 
of about twelve hundred Jain manuscripts for which the Govern- 
ment of India made a special grant of Rs. 5,000 to the Society. 
The Catalogue as also the Report contains valuable information 
upon Tan trie literature, and they have been received with consider- 
able interest by European scholars. The Jain collection has only 
been recently acquired and has not been yet completely catalogued, 
but so far as can be judged from the materials at our disposal, 
even these works may throw some light upon Tantric lore. We 
have thus accumulated a mass of material which is of the highest 
value in examining the political and literar}^ condition of Eastern 
India for several centuries, as also in studying the evolution of the 
doctrines which lie at the foundation of oui' Tantras. 

As regards the search for Arabic and Persian manuscripts 

February, 1906.] Antiual Report. xxxiii 

which was conducted under the supervision of our Philological 
Secretary, Dr. Ross, the success has been still more remarkable. 
The total number of manuscripts purchased up to the middle of 
October last was about seven hundred, and you will be able to 
appreciate the value of the collection when I tell you that manu- 
scripts of great rarity have been acquired from different parts of 
India, such as Lucknow, Delhi and Hyderabad, as also from two 
valuable collections which were brought by two Arabian travellers. 
The books represent almost every branch of Oriental literature, and 
as many as eighty of these are unique, giving us works of ancient 
and modem authors which are not even mentioned in any of the 
European Catalogues. As regards the age of these manuscripts, a 
sufficient indication is afforded by the fact that at least a hundred 
of them range in date between the thirteenth and the fifteenth 
centuries. Dr. Ross has been able to secure autograph copies of 
the works of about sixteen authors, some of which bear the 
original corrections and marginal notes of the authors themselves, 
while the interest attaching to othera is enhanced by the fact that 
they bear upon them lines from the pen of eminent scholars who 
flourished during the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries. 
Amongst the most important of the additions made to the collec- 
tion during the year, I may mention specially a work written in 
the foui-teenth century by the Spanish Vizir Lisanuddin, which 
gives biographical notices of all the Moorish poets of the eighth 
century of the Mahomedan era. We have also secured an impor- 
tant book on tradition written by Yusoof bin Abdur Rahaman in 
A.D. 1341, which enumei'ates all the traditions and sayings of the 
Arabian Prophet, ari*anged in such a manner as to indicate at a 
glance how many traditions have refeired to each traditionist. 
In addition to these we have secured the manuscript of an impor- 
tant work called " Rubab Nama," by the son of Jelaluddin Rumi, 
the greatest Sufi poet of Persia. When we add to these the valu- 
able historj" of authoi*s of the sixth century of the Mahomedan 
era compiled by Ispahani in the beginning of the thii-teenth 
century A.D., we ought to be able to realize the value and the 
importELUce of the materials at our disposal. Our first duty is to 
undertake an examination of this collection and the preparation 
of proper catalogues. Our next duty would be the publication of 
some of these unique manuscripts and make them available to 
scholars all over the world If we neglect the duty which has thus 
been cast upon us, we may rightly be likened to those unhappy 
beings who will hoaitl their wealth and neither use it themselves 
nor allow others to be benefited by it. From the genei'ous nid 
which the Government of India has already given to us, we may 
legitimately expect that the Government will not l>e slow to render 
assistance if the work is undertaken and systematically candied on 
by competent scholars under the supervision of the Society. Tlie 
past history of the Society, however, makes it painfully clear that, 
while the interests of Sanskrit learning have been carefully 
watched and nurtui'ed, the interests of Arabic and Persian Litera- 
ture have, of late yeai's, been sadly neglected. In this department 

xxxiv Annual Beport. [February, 1906. 

at any rate we have distinctly lost ground since the days of 
Sprenger and Blochmann ; and I trust that under the guidance of 
Dr. Boss, whose devotion to these studies is well known, a serious 
effort will now be made to retrieve our reputation in this 

I have now given you a brief, and, I am afraid, a very 
imperfect account of the work done by the Society during the last 
year, and I have ventured to indicate some of the directions in 
which research may be profitably carried on. Our illustrious 
founder defined the bounds of our investigation to be the geo- 
graphical limits of Asia, and he sought to include within the scope 
of our enquiries whatever is performed by man or produced by 
nature. It is manifest that although our Society has been in 
existence for about a century and a quarter, the field of in- 
vestigation has been by no means exhausted. True it is that we 
are no longer in a position to repeat the triumphs of the early 
years of our existence when Sir William Jones discovered Sanskrit 
and James Prinsep deciphered the edict of Asoka. Yet the 
problems in oriental scholarship, both literary and scientific, which 
still await solution, are so numerous and so fascinating, that I can- 
not conceive any adequate reason why our Society should ever 

The Chairman announced that the scrutineers I'eported the 
result of the election of Officers and Members of Council to be as 
follows : — 


His Honour Sir A. H. L. Fraser, M.A., LL.D., K.C.S.l. 


The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A., D.L., 

F R S E 
T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., F R.S. 
A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

Secretary and Treasurer, 

Honorary General Secretary : — J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
Treasurer : — The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional Secretaries. 

Philoloqicnl Secretary : — E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 
Natural History Secretary : — T. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 
Anthropological Secretary: — N. Annandale, Esq., D.Sc, 

.Joint Philological Secretary : — Mahamahopadhyaya Hara- 

prasad Shastri, M.A. 

J'ebruarj, 1906.] Annual Eejport xxxv 

Other Members of Council, 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Mahamabopadhjaja Satis Chandra Yidjabhushan, M.A. 

Lieut.-Col. D. C. PhUlott, 23rd Cavalry F.F. 

C. Little, Esq., M.A. 

Hari Nath De, Esq., M.A. 

Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S. 

J. A. Cunningham, Esq., B.A. 

Major W. J. Buchanan, I.M.S. 

The Meeting was then resolved into the Ordinary General 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhtaya, M.A., D.L., 
F.R.S.E., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Fifty-five presentations were announced. 

It was announced that Mr. M. G. Simpson had expressed a 
wish to withdraw from the Society. 

A vacancy having occurred owing to the death of Dr. W. T. 
Blanford, the Council recommended the Right Hon'ble Baron 
CJurzon of Kedleston, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., for election as an 
Honorary Member at the next meeting. 

For many years before coming to India as Viceix)y, Lord 
Curzon had devoted himself to a large section of the problems 
which form the special province of this Society. In 1895, he was 
awarded tbe Patron's gold medal of the Royal Geographical 
Society for his great work on the Geography, History, Archaeology 
and political questions of Persia ; for journeys of exploration in 
Fi'ench Indo-China ; and for an expedition t^ the Hindu Kush, 
the Pamirs and the Oxus. For many years, like the distinguished 
scientific man whose lamented death has created a vacancy in our 
list of Honorary Members, Lord Curzon was a Member of 
Council and Vice-President of the Geographical Society of which 
he has been a Fellow since 1888. 

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1898 before 
his departure for India. 

Lord Curzon's personal interest in the welfare of this Society, 
shown on so many occasions, was an expression of his devotion 
to the questions which it is our main object to study. His address 
to this Society, at the Annual Meeting in 1899, on the value of 
ancient historical monuments in the country, found practical 
•expression in his resuscitation of the Archteological Department 
for the restoration and study of historical marks that woidd other- 
wise have been lost. 

Of all the distinguished men who have accept-ed our Honorary 
Membership, there is none who has been more closely linked with 
the special problems that form the peculiar province of the 

xxxvi Annual liejjort, [February, 1906. 

original Asiatic Society, and ncne who would more thoroughly 
appreciate this opportunity of keeping in touch with the work 
which he commenced as an independent investigator and continued 
as Vicei-oy and Governor- General of India. Lord Curzon's emi- 
nence in the world of letters has been recognised by the Hony. 
Degree of D.O.L. conferred on him by the University in which 
he had had such a distinguished career before taking up political 

T. H. Holland. 

Mr. C. Russell, Professor, Presidency College, proposed by 
Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, seconded by Mr. J. Mac- 
farlane ; Babu Girindra Kumar Sen, proposed by Mr. Hari Nath 
De, seconded by Mr. J. Macfarlane ; and The Hon. Mr. G. A. Logan, 
I.C.S., proposed by Mr. J. Macfarlane, seconded by the Hon. Mr. 
H. H. Risley, were ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

Mr. H. H. Hayden gave a lecture on the scenery of Tibet, 
illustrated by lantern slides. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Supplementary note on the Bengal poet Dhoyika and the 
Sena Kinys^'^By Monmohan Chakravarti, M.A. 

2. A list of a small collection of Mammals from the plains of 
the Mad ,ra District. --By R. C. Wrouohton, with notes hy Dr. N. 
Annand.- MS. 

Th paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

March, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 7th March, 1906, at 9.16 p.m. 

His Honor Sir Andrew Frasbr, k.c.s.i., President, in the 

The following members were present : — 

Lient.-Col. A. Alcock, c.i.e., f.r s.. Dr. N. Annandale, Mr. 
I. H. Borkill, Babu Monmohan Chakrayarti, Mr. B. L. Chandhnri^ 

j^y^ ||, Ti. Fftry^nr. Ri^v F. FrRnfinfi^ «J Bahn ATnnlvftf>hitm.n 


Regan, C. Tatb — Two New Cyprinoid Fishes from the Helmand 
Basin. Joam. and Proc. As Soc. Beng., Vol. II., No. 1, 
1906, pp. 8-9. 

1. Scaphiodon Macmahoni sp. no v., by Regan, C. Tat ), p. 8. 

2. Nemachilw rhadiruew sp. nov., by Regan, C. Tate, 

pp. 8-9. 

appoinMNi juemDers ot the Uoancii. 

The General Secretary read the names of the following 
gentlemen who had been appointed to serve on the various Com- 
mittees for the present year. 

Bviance a7ul Visitiny Committee. 

J)r. N. Annandale. 
' Mr. I. H. BurkiU. 
Mr. J. A. Chapman. 
Mr. W. K. Dods. 
Mr. A. Earle. 
Mr. T. H. Holland. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya 
Major L. Rogers, I.M.S. 
Dr. E. D. Ross. 
Mahamahopadhyaja Hara[)i»asad Sliastri. 

xxxviii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 

Idbrary CommUtee. 

Dr. N. Annandale. 

Mr. J. A. Cunningham. 

Mr. Hari Nath De. 

Mr. L. L. Fermor. 

Mr. J. N. Das Gupta. 

Mr. H. H. Hayden. 

Mr. D. Hooper. 

Mr. T. H. D. LaTouche. 

Mr. J. Macfarlane. 

Dr. H. H. Mann. 

Mr. C. W. McMinn. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya. 

Major L. Rogers, I. M.S. 

Dr. E. D. Ross. 

Mahamahopadhjaya Haraprasad Shastri. 

Mr. B. Thornton. 

Philological Committee, 

Baba Mural idhar Banerji. 

Babu Monmohan Chakravarti. 

Mr. Hari Nath De. 

Mr. E. A. Gait. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya. 

Dr. E. D. Ross. 

Pandit Satya Vrata Samasrami. 

Pandit Yoge^ Chandra Sastri-Sankhyaratna-Vedatirtha. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Chandra Kanta Tarkalankara. 

Dr. C. Thibant. 

Babn Nagendra Nath Yasu. 

Mr. A. Venis. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushana. 

The Right Hon'ble Baron Curzon of Kedleston, M.A., 
D.O.L., P.B.S., was ballotted for and elected an Honorary Mem- 

Knmar Shyama Kumar Tagore, proposed by Mr. T. H. 
Holland, seconded by Mr. J. Macfarlane ; Mr. W. P. S. Milsted, 
proposed by Major L. Rogers, seconded by Mr. T. H. Holland; 
Babn Puran Chand Nahar, proposed by Mr. Hari Nath De, 
seconded by Mr. J. Macfarlane ; Babu Mohini Mohan Mitra, pro- 
posed by Mr .Hari Nath De, seconded by Mr. J. Macfarlane; 
Mr. Phra Maha Chandima, proposed by Mr. Hari Nath De, 
seconded by Mr. J. Macfarlane ; and Mr. A. C. Woolner, proposed 
by Mr. J. Ph. Vogel, seconded by Dr. E. D. Ross ; were ballotted 
for and elected Ordinary Members. 

1906.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. xxxix 

The following papers were read ;— 

1. An account of the Ourpa Hill in the District of Oya, the 
probable site of the KuJckutapadagiri — By Bakhal Dass Banerji. 
Com/muntcated by Dr. T. Bloch. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings, 

2. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, — By Dr. N. Annan- 
dale. No. L — A variety of Spongilla lacustris from Brackish Water 
in Bengal. No, 11, — The Polyzoon Hislopia, 

3. Some instances of Vegetable Pottery. — By David Hooper. 

4. Sanskrit Literature in Bengal during the Sena rule, — By 


This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings. 

5. Notes on some Sea-Snakes caught at Madras. ^-By T. V. B 
AiYAK. Communicated by H. Maxwell Lefrot. 

6. A descriptive list of the Sea^ Snakes {HydrophiidaB) in the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta,— By Captain F. Wall, I.M.S. Com- 
municated by the Natural. History Secretary, 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

7. Wormia Mansoni, a hitherto undescribed species from 
Burma.—By Captain A. T. Gage, I.M.S. 

8. On a cup-mark inscription in the Ghumbi Valley. — By 
E. H. C. Walsh. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

5L Testudo baluchiorum, a new species. — By Dr. N, Annan dale. 

APRIL, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held op 
Wednesday, the 4th April, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

E. D. Boss, EsQ«, Ph.D., in the ohair. 

The following members were present : — 

Dr. N. Annandale, Mr. I« H. Bnrkill, Babn Monmohan Chakra* 
yarti, Mr. B. L. Ghaudhnri, Mr. L. L. Fermor, Babn Amnlya* 
charan Ghosh Yidyabhnshai], Mr. H. G. Graves, Mr. T. H, 
Holland, Mr. D. Hooper, Mr. A. H. Lewes, Dr. M. M. Masoom, 
Iiient.-Gol. D. C. Phillott, Bai Bahadnr Ram Brahma Sanyal,. 
Pandit Yoge^ Chandra S^aetree-Sankhyaratna-Yedatirtha, ^bn 
Chandranarain Singh, Pandit Pramauia Nath Tarkabhnshan, 
Pandit Yanamali Yedantatirtha, Pandit Bajendra Nath Yidya* 
bhnsan, Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Yidyabhnshan, Mr. E. 
R. Watson, Rev. A. W. YonDg. 

Visitors : — Mr. G. F. Abbott, Babu Hem Chandra Das-Gnpta, 
Mr. D. W. K. Hamilton. 

The minntes of the last meeting were read and conGrmed. 

Thirteen presentations were annonnced. 

It was annonnced that the Hon. Mr. Jnstice F. E. Pargiter, 
and Major P. R. T. Gnrdon, I.A., had expressed awish to withdra^r 
from the Society. 

Bev. A. H. Phillips, proposed by the Rev. A. W. Yonng,^ 
seconded by Mr. D. Hooper ; Mv. L. D. Petrooochino, proposed by 
Mr. J. Macfarlane, seconded by Lient.-Col. D. G. Phillott ; Mr. 
Evan Mackenzie, proposed bv Miss Flora Bntoher, seconded by Dr. 
E. D. Boss ; and Mr. M. Krishnamaohariar, proposed by Pandit 
Yogesa Chandra Sastree-Sankhyaratna-Yedatirtha, seconded by 
Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Yidyabhnshan were ballotted 
for and elected Ordinary Members. 

Dr. E. D. Boss read the following report on the search for 
Arabic «nd Persian MSS. for the official year 1905-06 :-*• 

Annual Beport of the Search fbr Arabio and Pendan 
udS.) 190o— o. 

In submitting the following report I have to state at the outset, 
that I have adopted three princiirfes in carrying ont the duties 
of the research work entrusted to me by the A.S.B. : — (1) to take 
notes of all the important works in Indian libraries both public 
and private ; (2) to purchase valuable MSS. ; and (3) to procure 
transcripts of rare works. 

xlii Proceedings of the AHatic Society of Bengal. [April, 


In oonnection with the first item, I this year paid a visit to 
the Rampnr Library which is one of the finest libraries in this 
oonntrj and one of which India may well be proud. The col- 
lection owes its inception to the learned Nawwib Mnhammad Fa4- 
nl-Lah of Rampnr, but the greater part was bought together in 
the time of the late Nawwab Kalb 'AH Kh4n, who was a great 
patron of learning. He also removed the books from the Tosha- 
khana to the present Library which he had built at a cost of forty 
thousand rupees. There are in all 8,494 volumes of Arabic and 
Persian works in manuscript, print or lithograph, of which about 
5,000 belong to the first category. 

Out of this number upwards of three hundred represent very 
scarce works ; 347 are distinguished for their beautiful penman- 
ship, and no less than forty are authors' autographs. The oldest 
dated book is uiWlj «£*^iJt U^ (Kitah-un-Nukat-waU^Uyun), a 
commentary on the Qur4n. This copy was made in a.h. 557. 
The author of the book, Abu'l ^asan 'Ali b. Muhammad 
b. Habib alMawardi, died in a.h. 450. Besides, being an old copy, 
the work itself is rare, no copy being mentioned in any of the 
catalogues I have consulted. Brockelmann, in his admirable 
work Gteschichte der Arabischen Litteratur, p. 386, gives the 
names of some nine books written by this author, but he does not 
mention this particular work. An interesting anecdote about 
this author's compositions is given in histories. On his death- 
bed he said to one of his friends : — 

*' When I am on the point of death, take my hand into yours. 
^' If I press your hand it will indicate tiiat my works have not met 
" with the approval of Almighty Gk)d, so vou may take them 
*^ out of the place, where they are now secretly hidden, and throw 
*' them into the river. But if I do not press your hand then take 
'4t for granted that my productions have been approved by the 
" Almightv, and do your best to propagate them.'* 

It so happened that the hand of the ^AlldmsJi remained steady 
to his last breath and, consequently, his friend did all he could for 
the publication of his works. 

Another very interesting work— of which no other copy 
appears to exist — is cU-Taisvr fi ^Ilm-it'Tafsir by Abu'l Q&sim 
' Abd-ul-Karim b. Hawazin Al Qusj^airi, who died in a.h. 465. It 
is dated a.h. 679. 

I give below a list of some of the oldest-dated MSS. belonging 
to this library.* 

Book. Author. Dateoftran- Remark. 

il) Gharib- *Ali b. 'Omar ad a.h. No copy in 

ul-Lugibat. D&raqutni 566. Europe, 

d. 385-995. 
(2) Amg&lus S&'irah Abu ITbaid a.h. Common, 

al Qdsim b. Sal&m 574. 
d. 223-837. 

1906.] Proceedings of the Asiatio Society of Bengal. xliii 




al Maiser. Abal Hasan 'Ali 


No copy in 




d. 400-1009. 

Diwan-ul-9adirah Qotba b. Ads 


For ot.ber 

al ip^dira. 


copies see 
Bk. p. 26. 

Diwan-ul-Fitydn AbA Mntammad 


No copy in 

Fityan b. *Ali 



b. Jamdl-ud-Din al 

Asadf an Natvi. 

d 560. 1164. 

Al Mnstau'ab Abu *Abd-UUah 


No copy in 

Ma^ammad b. 




*Abd-UUab as- 
Samiri al Qanbali. 


The total number of MSS. purchased in the year 1905 was 
657. They have been procured from different parts of India such 
as Delhi, Bombay, Hyderabad, and specially from Lucknow. In 
addition to this we were fortunate enough to purchase two Col- 
lections of MSS., which had been brought to us this year by 
two Arab trayellers. These Collections contain some very rare 
and old MSS. The majority of the MSS. are in Arabic. Our 
Persian Collection does not contain more than 105 books. The 
following classified list will show the number of books under each 
subject : — 

Commentaries on the Quran ... ... 30 

Tradition ... ... ... ... 88 

Law ... ... ... ... 75 

Zaidi Law ... ... ... ... 20 

Sufism ... ... ... ... 75 

Kthics ... ... ••• ... 61 

Medicine ... ... * ... ... 31 

Literature ... ... ... ... 67 

History and Biography ... ... ... 12 

Science ... ... ... ... 46 

Rhetoric ... ... ... ... 13 

Dictionary ... ... ... ... 8 

Principles of Jurisprudence ... ... ... 25 

Science of Controversy ... ... ... 9 

Law of Inheritance ... ... ... 10 

Miscellaneous ... ... ... ... 49 

Grammar ... ... ... ... 38 


i B.E.I. 106. 

xliv Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [Aprils 

The following fiacts in connection with this year's collection 
ai*e worthy of mention: — 

(1) Out of the total number of books purchased we 

have some eighty MSS. which are unique. Many 
of these being the works of ancient or modem authors 
which are not even mentioned in European catalogues. 

(2) In about one hundred cases the dates range from a.h. 635 

to 900. 

(3) There are some sixteen autogi'apli copies of the authors 

such as 'All b. 'Abdul Knfi as Subki, d. a.h. 756, a.d. 
1355 ; Muhammad b. Usman al Khaiili, c. a.h. 751, a.d. 
1350 ; Abd-ui--R^*tif al Munawi, d. a.h. 1031, a.d. 1621. 

(4) About half a dozen of our MSS. bear upon them some 

lines from the pen of such eminent scholars as Ydsuf 
b. 'Abdur Rahman b. Yusuf ul Mizzi, d. a.h. 742, a.d. 
1341; Ahmad b. ' Ali 'Asqalani, d. ah. 852, a.d. 
1448 ; Al^mad b. Muhammad al Qus^alani, d. a.h. 923, 
a,d. 1517. 

(5) And there are about half a dozt^n MSS. which bear the 

original corrections and marginal notes of the authors 

Among the most interesting additions to our collection are 
the following : — 

(1) Al Katibat-al-Kaminah by Muhammad b. ' Abd-ul-Lah 

Lisan-ud-Din ibn ul-Khatib, t)>e Spanish vezir, d. a.h. 
713, AD. 1313. It is an unique copy in Maghribi 
hand and contains the biographical notices of all the 
Moorish poets of the 8th Century Hijri. 

(2) The rough draft of the valuable work entitled Kharidat 

ul-Qasr by Katib al Isfahani, d. a h. 597, a.d. 1201 ; 
dealing with the biographical accounts of the poets of 
' Iraq, Sham, Misr, J azira and Maghrib who flourished 
from a.h. 500 to a.h. 592. 

(3) Tul?fat-til-Ashraf by. Ytisuf b. Abdur-Rafeman b. YAsuf 

al Mizzi, d. a.h. 742, a.d. 1341. This book enu- 
merates all the traditions and sayings of the Prophet 
related by the Companions of the Prophet ; arranged 
in such a manner that one can easily know at a glance 
how many traditions have been referred to each 

(4) An unique autograph copy of al-Ikhtisdr wat-Tajrid by 

Muhammad b. 'Usman b. 'Umar al-J^alili, dated a.h. 
728. It is a digest of the two most important and 
authoritative books on Had is or Tradition. 

(5) A rough draft of Maqa^id-ul Hasanah by Muhammad 

b-'Abd-ul-Bdqi az-Zarqain dated a.h. 1099, a.d. 1688^ 
a unique work containing the known traditions of ttie 
Prophet arranged in alphabetical order. 

(6) History of the battle of Siffin by Na?r b. Muz£bim. The 

author belongs to the Second Century of the Hijra and 

1906.] Proceedings of the AnaJtic Society of Bengcd. xlr 

he is one of the earliest Shi*ah writers. No copy of 

this book exists in Europe. 
(7) Ithaf-nz-Zaman by Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Fazl a^Tabari 

ash-Shdfa'i. It contains a chronological history of the 

successive Shsrifs of Mecca from the time of the 

Prophet down to A.H. 1141. 
<8) Tadkirat-u1.Faqah& by Hasanb-Yusaf b-Ali b-al-Mutah- 

har al-Hilli, d. 726 -1826, dealing with Shi'ah JuriB- 

prudence on an extensive scale in three big volumes. 

This rare work is not found in any European 

{9) The commentary on the well-known Tafsir al-Kasj^shif 

by Mat^mdd b-Mas'&d ash Shirdzi, d. 710-1310. Al- 

though two copies of the work exist, one in Pazis and 

the other in Aya Sofia in Stambal, it is very rare in 

•(10) The Persian translation of the famous Arabic work 

SboUsat-ul-Wafi by Samhddi, d. 911-1505, entitled 

A^bar-i-^asinah. It contains a general history and 

topographv of Madinah. 

(11) Knb&b Namah or Masnavi-i-Walad by Saltan Walad 

(son of Jal&l-ud-Din B6mi, the greatest Sufi Per* 
sian poet) d« lh. 712, a.d. 1312. It is partly in 
imitation of the Magnavi of Uakim Sati4*i (d. 545* 
1150) and partly of the Magnavi of his father JaUU* 
ad-Din B6mi (d. 672-1273). It is in two sepfirate 
parts. This MS. is in the hand-writing of the 
author's grandson 'Hgman b-'Abd-ul-Lih b.- Walad, 
copied in 718 A H , 1318 A.D., only six years after the 
death of the author. 

(12) A valuable copy of Nafabdt-ul-Uns by Jami d. 898-14M. 

bearing the seals of the Emperors of Delhi and the hand^ 
writing and signature of Bairam Kban. Copied in A.ii« 
902, only four years after the death of the author. 
(I3j Mas&lik wa MamaHk by Abul J^asan l^4d b-'Ali al- 
Jurjini, d. 881-1476. A Persian treatise on geography, 
dated 920 a.h. 


The last item of business in my programme was to get 
Tare MSS. copied for the Society. 

I procured in hU ten transcripts, among which may be men- 
tioned the following rare works on Medical Science by Galen. 

(1) Tabrim-ud Dafn, in which the author forbids the burial 

of a dead body within 24 hours after death« 

(2) ManAfi'-ul-A'4a, on the respective utilities of the limbi 

of the body. 

(3) Kit4b lJgl6qan, a book on diagnosis, written at thereijueet 

of a Greek philosopher Ugluqan (literally the blue-eved) . 

(4) Kitab-ul-Agoiyah wal At'imah, on nutrition and fool 

xlvi Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [April, 1906.] 

It will not be out of place to mention that I commissioned 
Sbams-nl Ulama Manlavi Atawar Rahman, who was proceeding on a 
pilgrimage to the Hijaz, to keep a lookout for ancient Arabic MSS. 
in that coontry. Bnt I regret to say the Manlavi met with no 
success : for all the books offered to him for sale were well-known 
works and of recent transcription. 

In conclnsion I desire to express my his^h appreciation of the 
Taloable assistance which I have receiyed thronghont the year 
from Monlvi Hidayat Qosein, the first travelling Manlavi. With- 
out his enthusiastic zeal, his untiriug indnsti^, and his quick 
intelligence, it would have been impossible for me to submit to the 
Council such a satisfactory report. 

Bai Bam Brahma Sanyal, Bahadur, exhibited a melanoid 
.variety of Siumopastor contra, Hodg., the common Pied Starling. 
He remarked that although individuals of the species vary a great 
jdeal in shades of colour, a uniformly black specimen is rarely 
been. About forty-five years ago Tytler observed a caged speci- 
!men of uniform black colour, which he described aa StumopaBtor 
moorii. As far, however, as it is known, Blyth disagreed with 
Jhim, and considered the bird to be a variety of Stumopaetor contra. 
It may be interesting to note in this connexion that uniformly 
white specimens of Pied Starlings, like white or partially white 
bulbuls and common barbets {Thereiceryx zeylonicas) are not at 
all uncommon. Stumopastor contra inhabits the plains of North- 
Western India including the Nepal and Sikhim Terai, extending^ 
eastwards to Assam and Gachar and south to Madras. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Oyantse Bock Inscription of Ohoi-gyaUgnyis-pn ^ a ruler nnder 
fhe Sahyapa Hierrarch in the 14th century A^D. — By MahI- 


2. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. — By N. Annan- 
dale, D.Sc, G.M.Z.S. No. 3, — An Ivdian Aquatic Cockroach and 
Beetle Larva. No. 4. — Hydra orientalis and its relations with other 

3. Notes on '* Pachesi " and similar games, as played in th^ 
Karwi subdivision. — By E. de M. Humphbies. 

4. On the Hindu Method of Manufacturiug Spirit from rice, and 
its scientific explanation.-^By J. C. Bat. Communicated by Dr^ 
P. C. Bat. 

5. Silver dioxide and silver peroxynitrate. — By E. B. Watson^ 
B.A,, B.Sc. 

6. Persian Proverbs collected from dervishes in the South of 
Persia. — By Lieut.-Col. D. 0. Phillott, Secretary to the Board of 

This paper will be published in the Mem>oirs. 

•7. Notes on the Sihandar-NHma of Niffimi. — By LiEUT.-OoL, 
D. (3. Phillott, Secretary to the Board of Examiners. 

MAY, i9o6. 

The MontUj General Meeting of the Society was held oi^ 
Wednesday, the 2nd May, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhtata, M.A., D.L.^ 
Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following memhers were present : — 

Dr. A. 8. Allan, The Hon. Mr. C. G. H. Allen, Dr. N. Annan- 
dale, Mr. B. L. Ghaudhuri, Babu Girindra Nath Dntt, Mr. L. L. 
Femnor, Dr. W. C. Hossack, Mr. T. H. D. La Touche, Dr. H. H. 
Mann, Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., Lient.-Gol. D. 0. Phillott, 
Mr. G. E. Pilgrim, Rai Bahadur Ram Brahma Sanyal, Pandit 
Yogesa Chandra Sastree-Sankhyaratna-Vedatirtha, Dr. G. SchnU 
ten, Mr. B. B. Simpson, Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra 
Vidyabhusana, Mr. B. H. Walsh. 

Vtsttors : — Mr. W. Bussenins, Dr. J. N, Cook, Major P. C. 
Haghes, I.A., Captain R. B. Lloyd, I.M.S., Dr. F. Pearse, and 

The minntes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Twenty-six presentations were annonnoed. 

The General Secretary reported the death of Mahamahopa- 
dhyaya Mahes Chandra Nyayaratna, an Ordinary Member of the 

The General Secretaiy read a letter from the Right Hon. 
Baron Curzon of Kedleston, expressing his thanks for being elected 
an Honorary Member of the Society. 

The Chairman announced the following appointments : — 

1. Mr. R. Bum, Numismatic Secretary during the absence 
of Mr. H. Nelson Wright. 

2. Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Sbastri, temporarily ap- 
pointed to officiate as Philological Secretary during the absence 
of Dr. B. D. Ross. 

3. Mr. J. A. Chapman, Treasurer, vice The Hon. Mr. Jostice 
Ashutosh Mukhopadhyaya, resigned. 

The proposal to create a Medical Section in the Society, of 
which intimation had already been sent to resident members in 
accordance with Rule 64A, was brought up for discussion. 

Mr. E. B. Howell, I.C.S., proposed by Mr. R. Bum, seconded 
by Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott ; Raja Prabhat Chandra Baruah, 
proposed by the Hon. Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
seconded by Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastree-Sankhyaratna- Veda- 
tirtha ; Manlavi Sakhawat Husain, proposed by Shams-ul-Ulama 
Maulavi Mahammad Shibli Nomani, seconded by Nawab Ali 
Husain Khan ; were ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

xlviii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [May, 1906.] 

Gapt. B. E. Lloyd exhibited specimens of BtUhynomus giganteus; 
Aulastomomorpha phosphorops and a new species of the same 
genns ; two new deep-sea Skates ; a gigantic deep-sea Holothurian, 
and a lar^ specimen of Spongodes with commensal Crastacea, 
all dredged by the R.I.M. Snrvey Ship, " Investigator." 

The following papers were read :— 

. 8ome Persian Biddies collected from Dervishes in the South 
of Persia. — By Likut-Col. D. C. Phillot, Secretary to the Board of 

This paper has been pablished in the Journal and Proceedings 
for April, 1906. 

2. The Proportion between Sexes in Helopeltis theivora, Water- 
house.— By H. H. Mann, D.Sc. 

3. Preliminary note on the Bats of Calcutta. — By W. C. 
HossACK, M.D. 

4. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No, V. — Some 
Animals found associated vnth Spongilla carteri in Calcutta. — By 
N. Annandalb. No. VL — The Life-History of an Aquatic Weevil, — 
By N. Annandale, and C. A, Paiva. No. VII.— A new Goby from 
Fresh andBrackish Water in Lower Bengal. — By N. Annan dale. 

5. Elements of the Qrammar of the Kanawar Language 
explained in English tcith English illustrations. — By Pandit Tika 
Ram Joshi. Communicated by the Philological Secretary, 

This paper will be published as a special nnmber of tha 
Journal and Proceedings. 

6. The Coinage of Tibet.— By E. H. Walsh, I.C.S. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings. 

June, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 6th June, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

Major F. P. Matnabd, I.M.S., in the chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Dr. N. Annandale, Mr. I. H. Bnrkill, Mr. J. A. Chapman^ 
Mr. L. L. Permor, Rev. E. Prancotte, S.J., Mr. H. G. Graves,. 
Mr. D. Hooper, Dr. M. M. Masoom, Captain J. W. Megaw, I.M.S., 
Mr.R. D. Mehta, Lt.-Col. D. C. Phillott, Major L, Rogers, I.M.S., 
Mr. R. R. Simpson, Major J. C. Vanghan, I.M.S., Mr. B. 

Visitors :— Rev. G. W, Olver, Mr. W. W. R. Prentice. 

The minntes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Porcy-two presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary announced that Major-General M. G. 
Clerk, Lt.-Col. D. S. E. Bain, I.M.S., Mr. P. P. Dixon, and Lt.-CoL 
A. Alcock, P.R.S., had expressed a wish to withdraw from th& 

Tbe proposed creation of a Medical Section in the Society, 
of which intimation had already been given by circular to all 
members, was brought up for final disposal. The votes of the 
members were laid on the table, and the Chairman requested any 
Resident Members, who had not expressed their opinion, to take the 
present opportunity of filling in voting papers. Two such papers 
were filled in, and with the 80 returned by members were scrutinized. 
The Chairman appointed Messrs. L. L. Permor and B. Vredenburg 
to be scrutineers. The scratineers reported as follow : — Por 73. 
Against 9. 


Panedya Umapati Datta Sharma, Principal, Sree Visuddhar 
nand Saras wati Vidyalaya, proposed by Lt-Col. D. C. Phillott, 
seconded by Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri ; Kumar 
Manmatha Nath Mitra, Zemindar, Calcutta, proposed by Maha- 
mahopadhyaya Hnraprasad Sliastri, seconded by Babu PanchRnan 
Mukhopadhyaya ; Sri Surendra P. Sanyal, Private Secretary to 
Raja Bahadur, Majhaali, U.P., proposed by Mahamahopadhyaya 
Haraprasad Shastri, seconded by Lt.-Col. D. C. Phillott; and 
Mr. C. C. Young, Engineer, East Indian Railway, proposed by 
Maior L. Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Dr. W. C. Hossack ; were 
ballotted for and elected Ordinary Members. 

Mr. L. L. Permor exhibited some Indian stony meteorites 
recently acquired for the Geological Museum. 

They were as follows : — 

(1) Two aerolites, weighing 1674-35 and 1000-6 fframmes, re- 
spectively, which fell on 29th October, 1905, at Bholghfti, Morbhanj 

1 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906.] 

State, Bei)gal. (The larger stone is the property of the Morbhanj 
Museum). Thej were seen to fall in the daytime when the sky 
was clear, and the observer distinctly states that they were not 

(2) Two portions of an aerolite, weighing, respectively, about 
14,700 grammes, and 3086-6 grammes, which fell on the 27th 
April, 1905, at Karkh, Jhalawan, Baltichistan This fall took 
place in the daytime when the sky was clear, and was first noticed 
as a meteor or fire-ball having a tail of smoke. The larger 
specimen shows beautiful pittings and flow markings on the crust. 

(3) An aerolite weighing 1078*8 grammes which fell, it is said, 
during a thanderstorm, in August or September, 1678, near 
Haraiya, Basti district, U.P. This meteorite is notable on account 
of its crust which shows delicate linear ridges radiating from the 
middle of one side of the stone. These ridges were produced by 
the action of the air on the fused exterior of the meteorite as it 
sped rapidly through the atmosphere ; they enable one to orientate 
the stone with regard to its line of flight. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Note on a rare Indo-Pacific Barnacle. — By K". Annandale, 
D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

2. Oontributions to Oriental Herpetohgy. No. IV. — Notes on 
the Indian Tortoises. — By N. Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

3. Bawdts and MerSts of Bajputana. — By R. C. Bbamlet. 
Communicated by Mr. R. Burn. 

4. An old reference to the Bhotias. — By H. Beveridge, I.C.S. 

6. The Oommx)n Hydra of Bengal; its systematic Position and 
Life History, — By N. Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 
This paper will be published in the Memoirs, 

6. Revenue Begulatiofis of Aurangzih (with the Persian T'exts 
of unique FarmUns from a Berlin Manuscript.) — By Jadu Nath 
Sarkab, M.A. 

7. The Bards at Khalatse in Western Tibet,— By Rev. A. H. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs, 

8. Parasites from the Qharial (Gavialis gangeticus, Geoffr.) — 
By Dr. von Linstow, Qoettingen. Communicated by Dr. Annandale. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings, 

9. Shaista "Khmi in Bengal^ 1664-66. — By Jadu Nath Sarkar, 

10. Some current Persian Tales told by Professional Story ' 
Tellers. — By Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott, Secretai-y, Board of 
Examiners, Calcutta, 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

ta^Mi^ ^' 

JULY, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held oa 
Wednesday, the 4th Jnly, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

A. Barlb, Esq., I.C.S., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : — •' 

Dr. N. Annandale, Babu Sasi Bhushan Bose, Mr. I. H» 
Burkill, Mr. J. A. Chapman, Mr. B. Jj. Chaudhuri, Mr. L. L, 
Fermor, Mr. H. G. Graves, Mr. T. H, D. La Touche, Dn H» H. 
Mann, Dr. M. M. Masoom, Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., Mr. 
R. D. Mehta, Lt.-Ool. D. C. Phillott, Mr. G. E. Pilgrim, Major L. 
Rogers, I.M.S., Mr. B. B. Simpson, Mr. G. H. Tipper, Mahama- 
hopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhoshana, Mr. E. Vredenbnrg, 
Mr. E. H. Waleh, Mr. E. R. Watson, The Rev. A. W. Yonng. ' . 

Visitors : — Kamar Kshitindra Deb Rai Mahasai, Mr. J. M. 
Maclaren, The Rev. E. C. Woodley. 

The minates of the last meeting wer& read and confirmed. 

Twenty-seven presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary announced that Kumar Birendra 
Chandra Singh had expressed a wish to withdraw from the 

The Chairman announced that Major P. P. Maynard, I.M.S., 
had been appointed Secretary of the Medical Section of the Society. 

The Rev. E. C. Woodley, Principal, L.M.S. College, Bhowani- 
pur, proposed by the Rev. A. W. Young, seconded by Mr. D, 
Hooper ; Lt..Col..G. F. A. Harris, M.D., P.R.C.P., I.M.S., Professor 
of Materia Medica, Medical College, Calcutta, proposed by Major 
F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., seconded by Major L. Rogers, I.M.S. ; 
Lt.-Col. F. S. Peck, I. M.S., Professor of Midwifery, Medical 
College, Calcutta, proposed by Major P. P. Maynard, I.M.S., 
seconded by Major L. Rogers, I.M.S. ; Major D. M. Moir, M.D., 
I.M.S. , Professor of Anatomy, Medical College, Calcutta, proposed 
by Major F. P. Maynard, I. M.S., seconded by Major L. Rogers, 
I.M.S. ; Major J. Lloyd T. Jones, M.B., I.M.S., Assay Master, 
H.M's Mint, Calcutta, proposed by Major L. Rogers, I.M»8., 
seconded by Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S. ; Major J. Mnlvany, 
I.M.S., Superintendent, Presidency Jail, Calcutta, proposed by 
Major L. Rogers, I.M S., seconded by Major F. P. Maynard, 
I.M.S. ; Captain J. G. P. Murray, M.B., T.M.S., Second Resident 
Surgeon, Presidency . General Hospital, Calcutta, proposed by 
Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Major F. P. Maynard, 
LM.S. ; Major E. Harold Brown, M.D., M.R.C.P., I.M.S., Civil 
Surgeon of the 24-Parganas, proposed by Major F. P. Maynard, 

lii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906.] 

I.M.S., seconded by Major L. Rogers, I.M.S. ; Captain F. P. 
Connor, F.B.C.S., I.M.S., in Medical Charge, 13t1i Bajpnts, Alipnr, 
proposed by M^or F. P. Maynard. I.M.S., seconded by Major 
L. Rogers, I.M.S. ; Dr. Arnold Caddy, F.R.C.S., Eng., proposed 
by Mr. W. K. Dods, seconded by Major F P. Maynard, T.M.S. ; 
were ballotted for and elected as Ordinary Members. 

Mr. I. H. BorkiU exhibited two host-plants of Thesium him- 
alayense, Royle. The roots of Thesium htmalayense were traced 
to suckers entering roots of Andropogon contortus^ Linn., and 
Micromeria hiflora^ Benth., at Alsundi, in the State of Suket, 
North- Western Himalaya. 

Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushana exhibited 
a Tibetan almanac for 1906-1907, prepared by a Mongolian Lama 
living near Lhasa and containing figures of stars, etc., and prog- 
nostications of coming events. 

Tbe following papers were read : — 

1. On some Freshwater Entomostraca in the Collection of the 
Indian Museum^ Calcutta. — By R. Gurnet. Communicated hy Db. 

N. Annandale. 

2. An old form of Elective Oovemment in the Ohumhi Valley, — 
By E. H. Walsh, I.C.S. 

3. Preliminary note on the Chemical Examination of the Milk 
and Butter-fat of the Indian Buffalo.— By E. R. Watson, M,A., B.Sc. 

4 A new Oeckofrom the Eastern Himalayas.-^By N. Annan- 
DALE, D.So., C.M.Z.S. 

5. Freshwater Fauna of Lidia, No. VIIL-^Some Him>alayan 
Tadpdes.—By K Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

6. Some Street Cries of Persia. — By Libut.-Col. D, C. 
Phillott, Secretary, Board of Examiners, Calcutta. 

7. Proposed correction with regard to the reading of an inscrip- 
tion on some of the Suri dynasty coins. — By Col. C. E. Shbphbbd- 
Oommunica,ted hy the Philological Secretary. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings. 

8. A Parasite upon a Parasite* A Viscum apparently V. 
ariiculatum, Burm., on Loranthus vestttus, Wall., on Quercus incana, 
Eoo^. — By I. H. BuBKJLL. 

9. Oentianacearum Species Aeiaticas Novas descripsit I. H. 

10. Swertiam novamjaponicam ex afflnitate Swertias tetrapterm, 
Maxim, descripserunt S. le M. Moorb et I. U. Bubkill. 

AUGUST, 1906. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the Ist August, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadutata, M.A., 
D.L., Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Dr. A. S. Allan, Dr. N. Annandale, Babu Sasi Bhushan Bose, 
Mr. I. H. Burkill, Mr. B. L. Chaudhuri, Mr. L. L. Termor, Capt. 
A. T. Gage, I.M.S., Babu Amulya Charan Ghosh Vidyabhushana, 
Mr. H. G. Graves, The Hon'ble Mr. K. G. Gupta, Dr. H. H. Mann, 
Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., Pandit Pandeya Umapati Datta 
Sharma, Lient.-Coloiiel D. C. Phillott, Pandit Yogesa Chandra 
Sastri-Sankhyaratna-Yedatirtha, Mr. G- H. Tipper, Mahamaho- 
padhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhushana, Mr. E. Vredenburg, 
Rev. E. C. Woodley, Rev. A. W. Young. 

Visitors .—Mr. H. Hughes, Mr. C. A. Paiva, Mr. W. D. R. 
Prentice, Mr. R. E. Whichello. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Seventy -one presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary announced that Col. P. B. Longe, 
R.E., and Mr. S. C. Hill have expressed a wish to withdraw from 
the Society. 

The General Secretary also announced the death of Mr. M. H. 
Oung, and Mr. W. C. Bonner jee (ordinary members) and Moulvie 
Abdul Hai (an Associate Member of the Society). 

Lieut Arthur 0. Oshurn, R.A.M.C, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 
(Loud.), proposed by Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott, seconded by 
Mr. H. H. Hayden ; Mr. 0, Stanley Price, Victoria Boys* School, 
Kurseong, proposed by Mr. J. A. Chapman, seconded by Mr. 
W. K. Dods ; Captain O. B. Biddick, R.A.M.C., proposed by 
Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Captain J. W. Megaw, 
I.M.S. ; Dr. Wdliam Wdloughhy Kennedy, M.A. (Glasgow), M.D. 
(Lond.), M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H. (Camb.), proposed by Major 
L. Rogers, I.M.S. , seconded by Dr. H. C Garth ; Dr. A. M. Leake, 
Chief Medical Officer, Bengal Nagpar Railway, proposed by 
Lieut.-Col. G. F. A. Harris, I.M.S., seconded by Major L. Rogers, 
I. M.S., were ballotted for as ordinary members. 

Dr. N. Annandale exhibited specimens of a birnacle {Dichelas- 
pis maindroni, Gruvel) which is very common on the gills of 
crabs from the mouth of the Ganges. Specimens were found on 

liv J'roceedmgs of the Astatic Society of Bengal, [August, 1906.] 

a considerable number of (edible crabs (Scylla serrata) exposed for 
sale in Calcutta during July. It is probable that this barnacle is 
beneficial to its host, as the movements of its cirri must aid in 
the circulation of the water in the gill-cavity of the crabs and 
other Crustacea to which it attaches itself. Its presence cei-tainly 
does not render the flesh of these Crustacea unfit for human con- 
sumption, as appears to have been thought by some persons in 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Bihltoviancy, Divination, Superstitions , among <t the 
Persians, — By Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott. 

2. Qentiana Hugelii, Griseb., redescrihed. — By Du. Otto 
Staff. Gummwiicated by I. H. Burkill. 

3. On Swertia anguttifolia, 'H.a.m., and iti Allien. — By 1, H. 


4. Notes on Some Bare and Interesting Insects added to the 
Indian Mu eum Collectiofi during the year 1905-1906. — By C. A. 
Paiva. Communicated by Dfi. N. Annandale. 

5. Hdgo and hii Grandson i, (A leaf from the history of 
ancient Kamarupa.) — By Sattakanjan Ray. Communicated by 
the Philological Secretary. 

6. Bulbmphyllum Burhilli^ a hitherto unde cribed specie •■ from 
Burma.— By Captain A. T. Gage, I.M.S. 

NOVEMBER, 1906. 

Tbe Monthly General Meeting of tbe Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 7th November, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

The Hon. Mr. Jnstioe Asatosh Mnkhopadhjaja, M.A., D.L., 
Vice-President, in the chair. 

The following members were present :— 

Dr. N. Annandale, Babn Sasi Bhnsban Bose, Mr. I. H. 
Bnrkill, Mr. R. Bam, Babu Monmohan Chakaravarti, Mr. J. A. 
Chapman, Mr. J. A. Canningham, Mr. Hari Nath De, Mr. L. L. 
Fermor, Rev. Fr. B. Prancotte, S.J , Mr. H. G. Graves, Mr. D. 
Hooper, Mr. W. W. Homell, Mr. T. H. D. La Tonche, Mr. C. Little, 
Dr. M.M. Masoom, Lieut. Col. D.C.Phillott, Pandit Togesa Chandra 
Sastri-Samkhyaratna-Vedatirtha, Babn Jadoo Nath Sen, Maha- 
mahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri, Mr. H. E. StMleton, Pandit 
Vanamali Vedantatirtha, Pandit Bajendra Nath Vidyabhnsana, 
Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Oliandra Vidyabhnsana, Bev. A. W. 

Vvtitors :— Mr. G. S. Abbott, Mr. E. Branetti, Babu A. Das, 
Mr. J. M. D. La Tonche. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

One hundred and forty-two presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary announced that Kumar Narendra Nath 
Mitra Bahadur and Mr. E. Thurston have expressed a wish to 
withdraw from the Society. 

The President announced that the exhibits which had been 
lent out to the Victoria Memorial Gtdlery in the Lidian Museum, 
have been received back temporarily. 

Mr. Oharles Henry Kedeven, Offg. Solicitor to Govergment ; 
Mr. W. B, Whiteheady I.C.S., Assistant Commissioner, Simla; 
Mr. F. B. Bradley-Btrt, I.C.S., Joint Magistrate, 24-Parganas; 
Pandit Gawri Dtdta Mura Vidyahhushan, M.RA.S., Gauhati; 
Captain 0. B. Luard, I. A., Indore ; Mr. Boberi 8. Finlow, Fibre 
Expert to the Government of Eastern Bengal and Assam ; and 
Mr. William Wood/ward Homell, Assistant Director of Public 
Instruction, Bengal ; have been elected Ordinary Members during 
the recess in accordance with Rule 7. 

Mr. P. B. Bramleyy United Provinces Police, proposed by Mr. 
T. D. LaTouche, seconded by Lieut.. Col. D. C. Phillott ; Mr. 0. A. 
Olarke, I.O.S., Post Master General, Madras, proposed by Mr. R. 
Bom, seconded by Lieut. Col. D. C. Phillott ; Mr. W. 0. MaeQabe, 

Ivi Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [Nov., 1906. 

Chief Engineer to the Calcutta Corporation, proposed by the Hon. 
Mr. C. H. G. Allen, seconded by Dr. W. C. Hossack; Mr. 0. Bergtheil, 
Imperial Bacteriologist, proposed by Mr. I H. Bnrkill, seconded by 
Mr. D. Hooper ; and Lieut* J. Inglis Eadie, 97th Deccan Infantry, 
proposed by Lient. Col. D. C. Phillott, seconded by Dr. N. 
Annand$tle ; were ballotted for as. Ordinary Members. . 

The following papers were read : — 

1. ' Notes on the latitude of the Presidency College Astronomical 
Observatory, — By Phanjndralal Ganodli, M.A. Oommunicated by 
Mb. C. Little. 

2. A Further note on Earwigs ( Dermaptera) in the Indian 
Museum, with the description of a New 8pecies,-:-By . Malcolm 
BuER, B.A., F.E.S., F.L.S., F.C.S. CoTnmunicated by Dr. N. 

3. Note on the habits of the Earwig i Labi dura lividipes, 
Dufour. An addt^dum to Mr. Burr's paper entitled ** A Further note 
on Earwigs in the Indian Museum.^' — By Dr. N. Annandalr. 

4. Oirrihipedes Operculis de V Indian Museum, de Oalcntta. — 
Par A. Gruvbl. Oommunicated by Dk. N. Annandalb. 

This paper will be pnblished in the Memoirs. 

,5. Notes on the HoubHra or Ba4ard Bustard (Houbara 
macqukenii). — By Lt. Col. D. C. Phillott, Secretary, Board of 
Examiners, Calcutta. 

6. Some notes on the so-called MaMpSla Inscription of 
Samath.—By Arthur Yknis. 

7. Description of two Indian Frogs, — By G. A. Boulengrr, 
F.R.S. Cowmumcatei 6y Dr. N. Annandale. 

8. The Paladins of the Kesar Saga, A Collection of Sagas 
from Lower Ladakh, Tales 1-2. — By Rev. A. H. Francke. 

This paper will be published in a subsequent issue of the 
Journal and Proceedings, 

9. Soms Arab Folk Tales from Ha^ro.m,nut, — By Lt. Col. D. 
C. Phillott and R. F. Azoo. 

10. . Notes on the Pollination of Flowers in India, Nos. 1-3. — 
By I. H. BuKKiLL. 

11. Ascaris lobulata, Schneider, ein.Parantaus des Darms von 
Platanista gangetica — yon Dr. V. Linstow. Oommunicated by 
Dr. N. Annan uAJifi. 

12. Notex on the Freshwatpr Fauna of India, No IX. Des- 
cription of new Freshwater Sponges from Calcutta, with a record of 
two known species from the Himalayas and -a list of the Indian format, 
— By Dr. N. Annandalb. 

13. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, No. X. Hydra 
orientalis cjurm^ *^ .2i?atn». — By Dr. N. <\mnandalb. 

Nov., 1906.] Proceedings of the Asiaiic Society of Bengal. Irii 

14. Some notes on the Mawrya Inscription at SamatK^^By A. 

15. Indian Logic a^ preserved in Tibet, — By Mahamaho- 


These last six papers will be published in a subsequent issue 
of the Journal and Proceedings, 

The First Meeting of the Medical Section of the Society was 
held on Wednesday, the 8th August, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

Lt. Col. G. F. A. Harris, M.D., F.R.C.P., I.M.S., in the. chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Dr. A. S. Allan, Lt. Col. F. J. Drury, I.M.S., Dr. W. C. 
Hossack, Dr. W. W. Kennedy, Captain W. McCay, I.M.S., 
Captain J. W. Megaw, I.M.S., Major J. Mulvany, I.M.S., Captain 
J. G. P. Murray, T.M.S., Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., Captain J. J. 
Urwin, I. M.S., and Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S,, Honorary 

Lt. Col. G. F. A. HaiTis, I.M.S., was elected Chairman. 

1. Lt. Col. Drury showed water-colon r drawings of a case 
of the red variety of Mycetoma. 

2. Captain Megaw showed for Lt. Col. Lukis, who was 
unavoidably absent, coloured drawings and stereoscopic photo- 
graphs of a case of Ichthyosis Hystrix (Crocker). 

3. Major Rogers showed drawings of a case of congenital 
unilateral naevus in a native boy, of which only two cases have so 
far been recorded. 

4. Lt. Col. Harris showed drawings of cases of Raynaud's 
disease, Exfoliative Dermatitis, Lupus Erythematosus and Syphili- 
tic Psoriasis. 

5. Major L. Rogfers read a ** Short Historical Note on 
Medical Societies and Medical Journals in Calcutta.** 

DECEMBERt 1906. 

Thd Monthlj General Meeting of IJm Society waa held on 
Wednesday, the 5tli December, 1906, at 9^15 p.m. 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asdtosh Mukhopadhyaya, M.A.» 
D.L., Vice-President, in the chaor. 

The following memberB were present;-^ 

Dr. N. Annandale, Baja Bam Chandra Bhanj, Mr. F. B, 
Bradlej-Birt, Mr. I. H. Barlull, Mr. B. Bnm, Rai Sarat Chandra 
Das Biuiadnr, Baba Amnlja Charan Ghosh Yidyabhnsan, Mr. H. Qt, 
Graves, Mr. H. H. Hayden, Mr. D. Hooper, Mr. W. W. Homell, J)r. 
W. C. Hofisaok, Mr. C. Little, Dr. M. M. Masoom, Mr. B. D. Mehta, 
CLE., Capt. W. P. O'Connor, R.A., Lieut.-CoL D. C. Phillatt, 
Major L. Bogers, I.M.S., Pandit Yogesa Chandra Sastri-Sanl^a* 
ratna-Vedatirtha, Mr. B. B. Simpson, Babu Chandra Narain 
Singh, Mr. H. E. Stapleton, Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra 
Vidyabhnsana, Mr. E. Vredenbnrg, Bev. E. C. Woodley. 

VMUm .—Mr. B. C. H. Creeswell, Babn P. K. Das, Mr. H. C. 
Jones, S. Naseer Hosain Khan, Babu Dwijendra Narain Bay, 
Babn Pnmendra Narain Singh, and others. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

SoTenty-three presentations were announced. 

In aooordanoe with Council ord^, the Generial Seeretary read 
the following report submitted by the Delegates to the Aberdeen 
Uniyersity's 400th Anniversajy on behalf of the Society. 

^* Your IMegates to the Aberdeen Uniyersity on the Qccai|ion 
of its xeeent Qut^imventenary Celebrations have the pleasure to 
submit a short report of their mission. They do not propose to 
describe the FestivieJ, as they understand that the official Publica- 
tioQa Committee of the Uniyersity intends to present Books of the 
proceedings to aU the bodies that sent i^epresentatiyes. 

The Celebfations, which extended oyer four days^— September 
25th-28th — of exquisite weather, were beg^n by a service in one 
of the two oonstitnent coUflges ol the University (King's College) 
and were ended by an eyening Reception in the otb«r (Mwisch^ 
College). During the entire week the City waa «ii f Ae« 

& the afternoon of the Fibst Day^ the DeUgsAwi, itpwards of 
240 in numberi and r^pveeentiag the Universities, CollegMt and 
chief Learned Societies of the United Kingdom, as wcU aa the 
jHrineipal Universitiea and Academies of the British Possessions, 
and tlu)i« of Amerioa, Anstro-Hunganf, Belgiunii Denmark, 
Tvaaoe, Oermsiny, Hottand, Italy, J^kpan, Norw^f , Biwsim Sweden, 

Ix Proceedings of the Anatic Society of Bengal, [December, 

and Switzerland, were received by the Chancellor and great offi- 
cers of the Uniyersity and formally presented the addresses of 
congratulation with which they were entrusted. This was one of 
the biggest functions ..of the four days, and was so managed that 
the whole population of Aberdeen might see something of it ; for 
the members of the University (among them a most charming 
band of' moi^ t}ian a hundred girl undergraduates), tc^ether with 
the special Ouestsof the University, the Delegates, the Magis- 
trates and the Town . Council, all arrayed like King Solomon in 
all their academic or civic glory, marched in procession through 
some of the streets of the city to the place appointed for the Dele- 
gates' reception. The place of reception was a temporary hall, 
sj>ecj[ally coQstructed at the charges of the Chancellor, Lord 
Strathcona, and capablei of accommodating 4,000 people. The 
dais of the hall was occupied by the senior members of the 
University and the special Guests and Delegates : the body of 
the hall was filled by the invited public. ■ 

The Delegates from the United Kingdom' were the first to be 
received ; after them came those from the Calonies and India, and 
then those from foreign countries in alphabetical order. As the 
Delegates of each country were announced the whole assembly 
stood up while a band played the appropriate national anthem 
or air. 

The addresses were presented to the Chancellor unread : 
indeed, it would have been impossible to read them, for the mere 
formality of presenting them engaged the greater part of the 
afternoon.: but a selected delegate of each country or group of 
countries delivered a short speech in behalf of his colleagues. In 
this procedure, ,the delegates from all the British Dominions 
beyond the seas, India included, were represented by Principal 
Peterson of the University of Montreal and were attuned to the 
national air of Canada. 

The addresses, however, weiie afterwards publicly displayed 
in one of the museums of Marischal College, and were one of the 
chief attractions of the Reception that brought the celebrations 
to an end- . ' 

Some of the addresses were real works of art, upon which 
considerable time, thought, money, and in some cases scholarship, 
must have been spent. Ours was not, by a long way, one of the 
most attractive, though it was by no means one of the plain- 

After this great reception; the Delegates wei« entertained at 
a banquet given, in one of the public halls of the city, by the 
Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Town Council. 

In the morning of the Second Day honorary degrees were 
conferred upon 122 distinguished • guests. Among those thus 
honoiired were Sir John Jardine, K.C.I.E., M.P., the delegate 
from Bombay University, and Mr. John Sime, C.I.E., who repre- 
sented the Punjab University, as well as on Professor Kielhoi^ of 
'Gottingen, who is^ one of our Honorary Members, Major Bonald 

1906.] Proceedings of f he Asiatic Society of Bengal. hd- 

Boss, G.B;, FB.B., late of the Indian Medical Serrice, and. Pro- 
fessor C. B. Lanman, professor of. Sanskrit at Harvard. 

In the afternoon of the same day there was a Beception by 
the University at King'9 College, and in the evening another pub- 
lic Beception at the Art Gallery. 

The Third Day \yasjAe day of the celebrations, when the 
new buildings at Marischal College were formally opened by the 
King, who was accompanied by the Queen. The weather was 
truly imperial, nnd all the emiujence of Scotland — academic, civic, 
political — and all the adorned beauty of Aberdeen, were present. 

In the evening .a banquet, almost comparable in magnitude 
with the feeding of the multitude in the wilderness — ^for tbe num^ 
her of the guests. amounted to 2,400— was given by the Chancellor^ 
Lord Strathcona, to all the graduates, guests, and delegates. 
Many of the guests wore their academic robes ; nor did any one 
lack anything of. the equal feast. 

The principal function of the Foueth Day was the evening 
Beception at Marischal College, at which upwards of 4,000 guests 
were present, and doctors' robes of many colours were displayed 
to soft Lydian airs and the powerful strains of the national instru- 
ment of Scotland. 

Tour Delegates came away with vivid impressions of the 
wonderfully perfect management of the long series of ceremonies, 
and of the splendid hospitality shownto all the guests and dele- 
gates both by the University and by the city." 

. . A. Alcock." 

I8th OdoheTj 190&. • Qeorog A. Grierson. 

The Chairman announced that Dr. E. D. Ross having return- 
ed to Calcutta had taken oyer charge of the duties of Philolo^cal 
Secretary from Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Sastri. 

Lieut J, C. More, 51st Sikhs, F.F., Bannu, proposed by Lieut.- 
Col. D. C. Phillott, seconded by Dr. N. Annandale ; Mr. B. J. 
Hirst y Assistant Superintendent, Bengal Police, Calcutta, proposed 
by Lieut.-Col. D, C. Phillott, seconded by Dr. N . Annandale ; 
Oaptain 8. Morton, 24th Punjabis, Dilkusha, Lucknow, proposed 
by Lieut.-CoL D. C. Phillott, seconded by Dr. N. Annandale ; 
Diwan Teh Chand, B.A.,. M.B.A.S., I.C,S., Deputy Commissioner, 
Ludhiana, proposed by Lieut.-Col. .D. C. Phillott, seconded by 
Dr. N. Annandale ; Mr, H. 0. Norman^ Professor of English, 
Queen's College, Benares, proposed by Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott, 
secoiided by Mr. H. E. Stapleton ; Mr. Henry Sharp, Director of 
Public Instruction, Eastern Bengal and Assam, Shillong, proposed 
byMr. H.E. Stapleton, seconded by Lieut.-Col. D. C. Phillott ; Mr. 
G. JR. Kaye, Bureau Assistant to the Director- General of jBduca- 
tion, Simla, proposed by Dr. £. D. Boss, seconded by Mr. 11. 
Bum ; Captain (J, L. Peart, 106th Hazara Pioneers, Quetta, pro- 
posed by .Lieat.*CoL D^ C. Phillott, seconded by Dr.N. Annan- 

Ixii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, '. [December, 

dale ; Captain Claude BJ Stokes, 3rd Skiiiner*^ Horse, Deokdi, 
proposed by Lieut. -Col. D. C. PhiUott, seconded by Dr. N. An- 
nandale ; ijeiut. 0. Harrit^ 56th Infantry, F.F., proposed by 
Lieut.-Col D. C. Pbillott, seconded by Dr. Annandale ; Major F, 
O'Kinealy, I.M.S., Civil Snrgeon, Darjeeling, proposed by Major 
L: Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S ; Mr. 
Arthur William Dentithy I.C.S., Assistant Comptroller, India Trea- 
snries, proposed by Lient.-Col. D. C. Phillott, seconded by Dr. 
N. Annandale ; Major W. Donnan, I.A., Examiner, Ordnance and 
Factory Accounts, Calcutta, proposed by Lieut -Col. D. C. Phillott, 
seconded by Dr. N. Annandale ; Mr, J. C, Jack, I.C.S., Joint 
Magistrate, Backergunge, proposed by Mr. H. £. Stapleton, se- 
conded by Lieut -Col. D. C. Phillott ; Dr. Adrian Caddy, M.D., 
M.B., B.S. (London), F.R.C.S. (Eng.), M.R.C.S. (Eng.), L:R.C.P. 
(Lond.), D.P.H., Calcutta, proposed by Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., 
seconded by Dr. Arnold Caddy ; Dr. H. Ftnck, M,D., Surgeon 
to the Consulate-General for Germany, proposed by Major L. 
Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S. ; Fro* 
fessor S. 0. Mahalanahis, proposed by Mr. J. A. Cunningham, 
seconded by Dr. N. Annandale ; Major B. H. Dears, D.P.H., 
I.M.S., Civil Surgeon, Patna, proposed by Major Ji. Rogers, I.M.S., 
seconded by Major W. J. Buchanan, I.M.S. ; Ca^^tain H. B. 
Foster, I.M.S., Eden Hospital, Calcutta proposed by Maior L. 
Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Captain J. W. Megaw, I.M.S. ; 
Captain J. C. Holditch Leicester, M.D., F.R C.S., M.R.C.P., I.M S., 
General Hospital, Calcutta, proposed by Major L. Rogers, I.M.S., 
seconded by Captain J. G. Murray, I.M.S. ; Major W. J. Hay- 
ward, M.B., I.M.S., Police Surgeon, Calcutta, proposed by Major 
L. Rogers, I.M.S., seconded by Dr. W. C. Hossack ; Captain 
Harvey, R,A.M.C., Station Hospital, Calcutta, proposed by tiajor 
L. Rogers, seconded by Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S. ; and Cap- 
tain C. C. B. Murphy, The Suffolk Regiment, proposed by Lieut.- 
Col. D. C. Phillott, seconded by Dr. N. Annandale ; were balloted 
for as Ordinary Members. 

Mr. D. Hopper exhibited some primitive candles made from 
the seeds of Myristica eanarica, one of the wild nutmegs of South- 
em India. The tree is found in South Kanara, Malabar and 
Travancore. The seeds, which contain half their weight of fat, 
are beaten into a paste and pressed into the' hollows of small 
bamboo stems, and then heated over a fire. The black candles, 
moulded in this peculiar fashion, are removed and used for illumin- 
ating purposes by villagers. The fat of the seeds consists 
mainly of myristicin, is readily saponifiable^ ai^d warrants a wider 
commercial application. 

On behalf of Mr. J. W. Ryan, Manager of the Govemikient 
Rubber Plantations at Mergui, the Natural History Secretaiy 
exhibited a photograph of a prostrate but vigorously growing 
tree of Hehpa hrueiliensis, the Para rubber tree. The purpose of 
the exhibit was to illustrate the vitality of this species. 

Id06.] Proceedings of the Anaiic Soci^y of Bengal. had 

The following papers were read :— 

1. A list of 124 new words^ chiefly European, that constantly occur 
in modem Persian Neirspapers ; cotlect'^d from the newspapers of the 
paH six months. — By Muhammad Kazim Shirazi, Persian Insh'uetor 
to . the Board of Examiners. Oommunicaied by Lt.-Col. D. C. 

' This paper will be published in a snbfleqaent number of the 

2. Salima Sultan Begam. — By H. BsvERiDaif. 

. 3, The Paladins of the Kesar 8a>ga. A collection of Sagas from 
Lower Ladakh Tale No. III.— By Rev. A. H Prakcke. 

• This paper will be published in a sabseqaent number of the 

'4. Note on the Obmmon Kestril (Tinnunoulns alaudarius). — By 
Lt.-Col. D. C. Phillott. 

5. Note on the Lager Faloon (Faico jugger). — By Lt.-Col. 
D. C. Phillott. 

6. A note on Swertia tongluensi^ and on a new variety of 
Swertia purpwrascens. — By I. H. Bubkill. 

These papery will be published in a subsequent number of the 

7. A Chapter on Hunting Dogs, being an extract from the 
Kitdh**UBazyarahf a treatise on Falconry, by Ibn Kushffjimy an Arab 
writer of the Tenth Century. — By Lt.-Col. D. C Phillott and Miu 
R. P. Azoo. 

8. Note on a specimen of Felis tristis, Milne-Edwards, in <&« 
Indian Museum. — By N. Annandale. 

9. Notes on Indian Mathematics. — By G. R. Kate. Com- 
municated by Db. E. D. Ross. 

These papers will be published in a subsequent number of 
the Journal. 

10. Miniature Tank Worship in Bengal. — Compiled by A. N. 
Mobeblt, I.C.S., Superintendent of Ethnography, Bengal. Com* 
municated by the Anthropological Secretary. 

11. 2%« Saorias of the Bajmahal Hills. — By R, Bainbridgb. 
Communicated by the AnthropvHgical Secretary. 

This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 

12. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, JVo. XL The Oc- 
currence of the Medusa, Irene cejlonensis, in Brackish Pools, together 
with its Hydroid stage. — By N. Aknandalb. 

13. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, No. XII. A 
Preliminary note on the Polyzoa occurring in Indian Fresh and 
Brackish Pools, with the description of a new Lophopus. — By N. 

"Ixiv Proceedings of the Asiatic Society iff Bengal, [December, 1906. 

14. Notices of Orissa in the Early Becords of Tibet --By Rai 
Sarat Ghandka Das, Bahadur. 

These papers will be published in a subsequent number of the 

The Second Meeting of the Medical Section of the Society 
waa held on Wednesday, the 14th November, 1906, at 9-15 p.m. 

Major W. J. Bochanan, I.M.S., in the chair. 

The following members were present : — 

Major E. H. Brown, I.M.S., Dr. A. Caddy, Captain F. P. 
Connor, I.M.S., Lt.-Col. P. J. Drury, LM.S., Dr. W. C. HoRsack, 
Dr. W. W. Kennedy, Captain D. McCay, I.M.S., Captain J. W. D. 
Megaw, LM.S., Major D. M. Moir, I.M.S., Major J. Mulvany, I.M.S., 
Captain J. G. P. Murray, I.M.S., Captain J. J. Urwin, I. M.S., and 
Major F. P. Maynard, I.M.S., Honorary Secretary. 

Visitors: — Capt.. J. A. Black, Dr. Adrian Caddy, Capt. 
Harvey, R.A.M.C., Capt. J. C. H. Leicester, Major F. O'Kinealy, 
LM.S., and Dr. J. B. Phillippe. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Major D. M. Moir pbowed some clinical cases. 

Captain J. W. D. Megaw read a paper on ** A Year's Experi- 
ence of Malaria at the Medical College Out-patient Dispensary.*' 

Major L. Rogers showed some lantern slides illustrating the 
short fevers of Calcutta. 

The discussion on the last paper to be continued at the next 

With a vote of tbanks to the chair the meeting terminated. 








President : 

His Honour Sir A. H. L. Eraser, M.A., LL.D., 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon^ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 

M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 
T. H. Holland, Esq., F.G.S., P.R.S. 
C. W. McMinn, Esq., I.C.S. (retired.) 

Secretary and Treasurer. 

Honorary General Secretary : J. Macfarlane, Esq. 
The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, 
M.A., D.L., F.R.S.E. 

Additional S'^cretaries. 

Philological Secretary : E. D. Ross, Esq., Ph.D. 
Natural History Sepretary : Major L. Rogers, M.D., 

B.Sc, I.M.S. 
Anthropological Secretary: N. Annandale, Esq., 

D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 
Joint Philological Secretary : MahamShopadhyaya 

Haraprasad Shastri, M.A. 

Other Members of Council. 

The Hon'ble Mr. Justice F. E. Pargiter, B.A., LC.S. 

Kumar Ramessur Maliah. 

I. H. Burkill, Esq., M.A. 

H. E. Kempthorne, Esq. 

W. K. Dods, Esq. 

A. Earle, Esq., I.C.S. 

Lieut.-Col. J. H. Tull Walsh, LM.S. 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

E. Thornton, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 

Mahamahopftdhyfiya, Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, 

H. E. Stapleton, Esq., B.A., B.Sc. 


B. » Resident. 

N.R. - Non- Resident. 
L.M.«Life Member. 

A. -s Absent. N.S. * Non'Subsoribiiig* 
F«ft[. • Foreign Member. 

N.B, — Members who have changed their residence since the list was drawn 
np are requested to g^ve intimation of saoh a change to the Ilonorary General 
Secretary, in order that the necessary alteration may be made in the subse- 
quent edition. Errors or omissions in the following list shoald also be oom- 
monioated to the Honorary Geueral Seoretary* 

Members who are about to leave India and do not intend to return are 
particularly requested to notify to the Honorary General Secretary whether 
it is their desire to continue Members of the Society ; otherwise, in accord- 
ance with Rule 40 of the rules, their names will be removed from the list at 
the expiration of three years from the time of their leaving India. 

Date of Election. 

1903 F^b. 4. 

1894 Sept. 27. 

1895 May 1. 

1903 April 1. 

1901 Aug. 7. 

1904 Sept. 28. 
1888 April 4. 

1888 Feb. 1. 

1885 Mar. 4. 

1899 Jan. 4. 

1903 Oct. 28. 

1900 Aug. 1. 

1874 June 3. 
1893 Aug. 31 

1884 Sept. 3. 

1904 Sept. 28 
1904 Jan. 6. 
1904 July 6. 

1870 Feb, 2. 













Abdul Alim. Calcutta, 

Abdul Wall, Maulavie. Eanchi* 

Abdus Salam, Maulavie, m.a. Cuttiick. 

Abul A^s, Maulavie Sayid, Rais and Zemindar. 

Adams, Mai'gai^et. Baptist Zenana Mission. 

Ahmad Hasain Khan, Munshi. Jhelum. 

Ahmud, Shams-ul-ulama Maulavie. Cal- 

Alcoek, Lieut.-Col. Alfi'ed William, M.B., ll.d., 
CM.E., F.R.s. Calcutta. 

Ali Bilgrami, Sayid, b.a., a.r.s.m., p.g.s. Hy- 

Ali Hussain Khan, Nawab. Lucknmc. 

Allan, Dr. A. S., m.b. Calcutta. 

Allen, The Hon'ble Mr. C. G. H., r.c.s. 

Ameer Ali, m.a., c.i.e., Barrister-at-Law. 

Anderson, Major A. R. S., b.a., m.b., i.m.s. 

Andei'son, J. A. Europe. 

Annandale, Nelson,, c.M.z.s. Calcutta. 

Ash ton, R. P. Calcutta. 

Aulad Hasan, Sayid. Dacca. 


Baden Henry, m.a., c.i.e. 



1901 Jan. 2. 
1898 Nov. 2. 

1891 Mar. 4. 
1898 Aug. 3. 

1900 Aug. 29. 

1905 Mar. 1. 

1896 Mar. 4. 
1869 Dec. 1. 
1885 Nov. 4. 
1877 Jan. 17. 

1898 Mar. 2. 

1902 May 7. 

1894 Sept. 27. 

1895 July 8. 

1876 Nov. 15. 

1897 Feb. 3. 
1893 Feb. 1. 
1885 Mar. 4. 

1895 July 3. 
1890 July 2. 

1897 June 2. 
1895 Mar. 6. 

1880 Nov. 3. 
1905 Mar. 1. 

1895 April 3. 

1860 Mar. 7. 

1905 Mar. 1. 

1901 Sept. 25 
1887 May 4. 
1901 June 5. 

1896 Jan. 8. 
1900 May 2. 
1904 Aug. 3. 

1898 Sept. 30. 
1901 Jan. 2. 
1901 Mar. 6. 
1895 July 3. 

1905 May 3. 



























Badshah, K. J., b.a., i.c.s. Europe. 

Bailey, The Revd. Thomas Grahame, M.A., b.d. 

Baillie, D. C, i.c.s. Ohazipur. 
Bain, Lieut.-Col. D. S. E., i.m.s. Mercara. 
Baker, The Hon. Mr. B. N., c.s.i., i.c.s. 

Baneigee, Muralidhar. Calcutta, 
Banerji, Satish Chandra, m.a. Allahabad. 
Barker, R. A., m.d. Europe. 
Barman, Damudar Da«. Calcutta. 
Barman, H.H. The Maharaja Radha Kishor 

Dev. Ttpperah. 
Barnes, Herbert Charles, i.c.s. Shtllong. 
Bartlett, E. W. J. Calcutta. 
Basu, Nagendra Natha. Calcutta. 
Beatson-Bell, Nicholas Dodd, B.A., i.c.s 

Beveridge, Henry, i.c.s. (retired). Europe. 
Bloch, Theodor, ph.d. Calcutta. 
Bodding, The Revd. P. 0. Ramp(yre Haut. 
Bolton, Charles Walter, c.s.i., i.c.s. (retii-ed). 

Bonham-Carter, Norman, i.c.s. Saran. 
Bonnei-jee, Womes Chunder, Barrister-at-Law^ 

Middle Temple. Europe. 
Bose, Annada Prasad, m.a. Hooghly. 
Bose, Jagadis Chandra, m.a.,, c.i.e., 

Bengal Education Service. Calcutta. 
Bose, Pi*amatha Nath,, f.g.s. Maurbhanj. 
Bose, Sasi Bhusan. Qiridu 
Bourdillon, Sir James Austin, K.c.s.i., c.s.i.^ 

I.c.s. (retired). Europe. 
Brandis, Sir Dietrich, k.c.i.e., ph.d., p.l.s., f.r.s. 

Brown, W. B., i.c.s. Comillah. 
Buchanan, Major W. J., i.m.s. Calcutta. 
Bural, Nobin Chand, Solicitor. Calcutta. 
Bui'kill, I. Henry, m.a. Calcutta. 
Bum, Richaixl, i.c.s. Simla. 
Butcher, Flora, m.d. Ludhtana, 
Bythell, Major, W. J., r.e. Calcutta. 

Cable, The Hon'ble Sir Ernest, Kt, Calcutta. 
Campbell, Duncan. Europe. 
Campbell, W. E. M., i.c.s. Allahabad. 
Carlyle, The Hon. Mr. Robert Warrand, c.i.E.,. 

I.c.s. Calctitta. 
Chakravarti, Dwarkanath. Calcutta, 

Date of EleotioxL 
1890 June 4. 

1905 July 5. 

1901 June 5. 

1904 July 6. 

1902 Aug. 27. 
1893 Sept. 28. 

1902 April 2. 

1905 Aug 2. 
1880 Aug. 26. 

1903 Aug. 26. 

1898 June 1. 
1876 Mar. 1. 
1901 June 5. 
1887 Aug. 25. 

1905 July 7. 
1895 July 3. 

1873 Dec. 3. 
1901 Aug. 28. 
1905 Jan. 4. 
1905 July 7. 
1903 Feb. 4. 
1879 April 7. 

1900 July 
1896 Mar. 

1904 July 6. 

1904 Sept. 28 
1903 June 3. 
1895 Sept. 19. 
1902 Mar. 5. 
1895 Dec. 4. 

1899 Aug. 30. 

1900 May 2. 

1905 Aug. 2. 

1901 June 

1902 Feb. 
1898 Jan. 
1902 July 
1886 June 

1902 Jan. 8. 





















Chakravarti, Man Mohan, m.a,, b.l. Deputy 

Magistrate. Howrah. 
Chakravarti, Yanamali. Calcutta. 
Chapman, E. P., i.c.8. Europe, 
Charles, A. P., i.c.s. Europe, 
Chaudhuri, A., Barrister-at-Law, Calcutta. 
Chaudhuri, Banawari Lala,, Edin. Cal- 

Chunder, Raj Chunder, Attomey-at-Law. 

Clemesha, Captain W. W., m.b., i.m.s, Calcutta, 
Clerk, General Malcolm Gr. Europe, 
Copleston, The Right Revd. Dr. Reginald 

Stephen, d.d. Lord Bishop of Calcutta, 
Cordier, Dr. Palmyi^. Europe. 
Crawford, James, b.a., i.c.s. Europe. 
Crawfurd, Major D. G., i.M.s. Chinsurah. 
Criper, William Risdon, f.c.s., f.i.c, a.r.8.m. 

Cunningham, J A. Calcutta, 
Cumming, John Ghest, i.C.s. Patna. 

Dames, Mansel Longworth, i.c.s. Europe. 

Das, Govinda. Beuares. 

Dass, Mucksoodan. Calcutta, 

Das, J. N. Khulna. 

Das, Rai Bahadur Bhawan, m.a. Hoshiarpur, 

Das, Ram Saran, m.a., Secy., Oudh Commer- 
cial Bank, Limited. Fyzabad^ Oudh, 

Das, Syam Sunder, b.a. Benares. 

Das- Gupta, Jogendra Nath, b.a., Barrister-at- 
Law. Calcutta. 

De, Bi^ajendra Nath, m.a., i.c.S. Hooghly, 

DeCourcy, W. B. Cachar. 

De, Hari Nath, b.a. (Cantab). Calcutta. 

De, Kiran Chandra, b.a., i.c.s. Fandpur. 

Deb, Raja Binoy Kiishna, Bahadur. Calcutta, 

Delmerick, Charles Swift. Bareilly, 

Dev, Raj Kumar Satchidsunand, Bahadur. 
Deogarh, Samhalpur. 

Dev, Raja Satindiu, RaiMahesaya. Bansherta, 

Dev, Sri Kripamaya Ananga Bhimkishore Ga- 
japati Maharaj. Oanjam. 

Dey, Nundolal. Bhagulpur, 

Dixon, F. P. I.c.s. Chtttagong, 

Dods, W. K. GalciUta, 

Doxey, F. Calcutta, 

Doyle, Patrick, c.e., p.r.a.8., p.r.s.b., p.g.s. 
I Calcutta, 

Drummond, J. R., i.c.s. Europe* 


IMteof Klection. 

1892 Se^t. 22 
1889 Jan. 2. 

1905 April 5. 
1879 Feb. 5. 
1892 Jan. 6. 
1877 Ang. 30. 
1900 April 4, 

1900 July 4. 
1903 Oct. 28. 

1903 May 6. 

1900 Mar. 7. 

1900 Aug. 29. 
1905 Jan. 4. 

1901 Mar. 6. 

1904 Aug. 8. 
1894 Dec. 5. 

1898 Sept. 30, 

1902 April 2. 

1903 Mar. 4. 

1893 Jan. 11. 

1899 Aug. 30 
1902 June 4. 
1889 Jan. 2. 

1905 July 7. 

1902 Feb. 5. 
1905 May 3. 
1889 Mar. 6. 
1869 Feb. 3. 
1861 Feb, 5. 

1905 July 7. 
1905 Aug. 2. 
1897 July 7. 
1905 May 3. 
1876 Nov. 15 

1900 Dec. 5. 

1901 April 3. 


























Drury, Major Francis James, M.B., i.M.S. Europe, 
Dudgeon, Gerald Cecil, Holta Tea Co., Ld. 

Dunnett, J. M., i.c.s. LyaUpur. 
Duthie, J. F., b.a., p.l.s. Europe. 
Dutt, Geinndra Nath. Hutwa. 
Dutt, Kedar Nath. Calcutta. 
Dyson, Major Herbert Jekyl, p.r.C.s., i.m.s. 


Earle, A., i.c.s. Europe. 

Edelston, T. D. Calcutta. 

Edwards, Walter Noel. Sootea, Assaw-. 

Fanshawe, Sir Ai*thur Upton, c.s i., k.c.i K., 

I.c.s. Calcutta. 
Fanshawe, The Hon. :Mi\ H. C, c.s.t., i.c.s. 

Eraser, His Honour Sir Andrew H. L., m a., 

L.L.D., K c.s.r. Calcutta. 
Fei'gusson, J. C. Europe. 
Fermor, L. Leigh. Calcutta. 
Finn, Fi'ank, b.a., f.z.s. Europe. 
Finninger, The Revd. Walter K. M.A., Cal- 

Fuller, His Honour Sir Joseph ©ampfylde, 

K.c.s.i. Shitloutj. 

Gage, Captain Andrew Thomas, M.A., m.b.,, 

P.L.S., I.M.S. Sihpur. 
Gait, Edward Albert, i.c.s. Chaibassa. 
Garth, Dr. H. C. Calcutta. 
Ghuznavi, A. A. Mymensing. 
Ghoae, Jogendi*a Chandi'a, M.A., b.l. Calcutia. 
Ghosh, Amulya Charan Vidyabhusana. Cal- 
Ghosh, GiHsh Chunder, Calcutta. 
Ghosh, Hemendra Prasad. Jessore, 
Ghosha, Bhupendra Sri, B.A., b.l. Galcnna. 
Ghosha, Pratapa Chandra, b.a. Vindyachn.1. 
Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Colonel H. H., p.R.s., 

P.Z.S., P.R.G.s. Europe. 
Goswami, Hem Chandra. Oauhati, 
Gourlay, Captain C. A., i.m.s. Shillong, 
Grant, Captain J. W., i.m.s. Europe. 
Graves, H. G. Calcutta, 
Grierson, George Abraham, PH.D., O.i.E., i.C.s. 

Grieve, J. W. A. Kalimpong. 
Guha, Abhaya Sankara. Goalpara, 


Uate of Election. 

898 June 1. 

898 April 6. 

.898 Jan. 5. 

.901 Mar. 6. 
892 Jan. 6. 
904 Sept. 28 

899 April 6. 
,884 Mar. 5. 

897 Feb. 3. 

904 June 1. 

904 Dec. 7. 
892 Aug. 3. 

872 Dec. 5. 

891 July 1. 

898 Feb. 2. 
884 Mar. 5. 

901 Dec. 4. 

873 Jan. 2. 

905 July 7. 

890 Dec. 3. 

866 Mar. 7. 

903 Sept. 23. 

905 Nov. 1. 

904 Jan. 6. 

899 April 5. 
882 Mar. 1. 

867 Dec. 4. 

904 May 4. 
896 July 1. 

891 Feb. 4. 

899 Aug. 30. 
.902 Feb. 5. 
904 Jan. 6. 

902 Jan. 8. 
.887 May 4. 

Mar. 6. 

























Gupta, Bepin Behari. Guttack. 

Gupta, Krishna Govinda, i.c.s., Barriflter-at- 

Law. Cal-oiUta. 
Gurdon, Major P. R. T., i.a. Oauhati, 

Habibui' Rahman Khan, Maulavie. Bhikam- 
Haig, Major Wolseley, r.A. Berar. 
Hallward, N. L. ShiVong, 
Hare, Major E. C, i.m.s. Europe. 
Hassan AH Mii*za Sir Wala Qadr Sayid, 

(J.c.i.E. Murshedahad. 
Hayden, H. H., B.A., b.b., p.o.s., Geological 

Survey of India. Calcutta, 
Hewett, J. F., i.c.s. (retii^). Europe, 
Hill, E. G. Allahabad, 
Hill, Samuel Charles, b.a., Na^gpur. 
Hoernle, Augustus Frederick Rudolf, ph.d., 

CLE. Europe. 
Holland, Thomas Henry, a.r.c.s., p.g.s., f.r.s., 

Director, Geological Survey of India. Calcutta. 
Hooper, David, P.c.s. Calcutta. {had. 

Hooper, The Hon. Mr. John, b.a., t.c.s. Allaha- 
Hossack, Dr. W. C. Calcutta. 
Houstoun, G. L., P.o.s., Europe. 
Humphries, Edgar de Montfort, b.a., i.c.s.^ 

Hyde, The Revd. Henry Barry, m.a. Madras. 

Irvine, William, i.c.s. (retired). Europe. 
Ito, C. Europe. 

Jackson, A. M. T., i.c.s. Bombay, 
Jackson, V. H., m.a. Calcutta. 

Kempthome, H. E. Calcutta. 

Kennedy, Pringle, M.A. Mozufferpore, 

King, Sir George, m.b., k.c.i.b., ll.d., p.l.s., 
P.B.S., I.M.S. (retired). Europe, 

Knox, K. N., I.c.s. Banda. 

Kiichler, George William, M.A., Bengal Educa- 
tion Service. Europe, 

Kupper, Raja Lala Bunbehari. Burdwan. 

Lai, Dr. Mannu. Banda. 
Lai, Lala Shyam. Allahabad, 
Lai, Panna, m.a., Europe, 
Lall, Parmeshwara. Europe, 
Lanman, Charles R. Europe, 
La Touche, Thomas Henry Digges, B.A., Geolo* 
gical Survey of India. Calcutta, 


Dtie of EleoUoD. 
1900 S^. 19. 

1902 July 2. 
1889 Nov. 6. 

1903 July 1. 

1900 May. 2. 
1902 Oct. 29. 
1889 Feb. 6. 

1904 Oct. 31. 
1902 July 2. 

1905 Aug. 2. 

1869 July 7. 

1870 Api-il 7. 

1896 Mar. 4. 
1902 July 2. 

1901 Aug. 7. 









1893 Jan. 11. 


1891 Feb. 4. 


1902 April 2. 


1893 Aug. 31. 


1895 Aug. 29. 


1898 Nov. 2. 


1889 Jan. 2. 


1901 June 5. 


1905 Dec. 6. 


1902 May. 7. 


1903 Aug. 5. 


1892 April 6. 


1905 Aug. 2. 


1901 Aug. 28. 


1899 Feb. 1. 


1899 Mar. 1. 


1906 Feb. 1. 


1895 July. 3. 


1886 Mar. 3. 


1900 Jan. 19. 


1884 Nov. 5. 


1884 Sep. 3. 


1904 April 6. 


1898 April 6. 
1874 May. 6. 



Law, The Hon. Sir Edward F. G., k.c.m.o., 

G.S.I. Europe, 
Leake, H. M. Saharanpur, 
Lee, W. A., p.r.m.s. Calcutta, 
Lefroy, Harold Maxwell. Mozufferpur. 
Leistikow, F. R. Europe, 
Lewes, A. H. Calcutta. 
Little, Charles, m.a., Bengal Education Service. 

Longe, CoL F. B., r.b. Calcutta, 
Luke, James. Calcutta, 
Lukis, Lt.-Col. C. P., i.m.s, Calcutta. 
Lyall, Sir Charles James, m.a., k.c.s.i., c.i.e., 

LL.D., i.c.s. (retired). Europe, 
Lyman, B. Smith. Europe. 

MacBlaine, Frederick, i.c.s. Nadia, 
Macdonald, Dr. William Roy. Europe. 
Macfarlane, John, Librarian, Imperial Libi'ary. 

Maclagan, E. D., m.a., i.c.s. Simla, 
Macpherson, Duncan James, m.a., c.i.e., i.c.s. 

Maddox, Captain R. H., i.m.s. Ranchi, 
Mahatha, Purmeshwar Narain. Mozufferpore, 
Mahmud Crilani, Shamas-ul-IJlama Shaikh. 

Maitra, Akshaya Kumar, b.a., b.l. Bajshahi, 
Maliah, Kumar Ramessur. Howrah, 
Mann, Harold H., Calcutta, 
Marsden, Edmund, B.A., p.b.g.S. Calcutta. 
Marshall, J. H. Simla, 
Masoom, Dr. Meerza Mohammad. Calcutta. 
Maynard, Major F. P., i.m.s. Calcutta, 
McCay, Captain D., i.m.s. Calcutta, 
McLeod, Norman. Calcutta, 
McMahon, Major Sir A. H., k.c.i.e., c.s.t., c.i.e., 

i.A. Quetta. 
McMinn, C. W., b.a., i.c.s. (retired). Calcutta, 
Megaw, Captain J. W. D., i.m.s. Calcutta, 
Melitus, Paul Gregory, c.i.e., i.c.s. Oauhati, 
Metha, Rustomjee Dhunjeebhoy, c.i.e. CaU 

Michie, Charles. Calcutta, 
Middlemiss, C. S., b.a. Geological Survey of 

India. Calcutta, 
Miles, William Harry. Calcutta, 
Miller, The Hon. Mr. J. 0., i.c.s., c.s.I. Nagpur, 
Milne, Captain C. J., i.m.s. Lahore, 
Minchin, F. J. V. Europe, 

Date of Electton. 

1897X11. 6. 
1901 Aug. 28. 

1897 Nov. 3. 

1905 Dec. 6. 
1901 Aug. 7. 
1895 July 3. 

1898 May 4. 
1894 June 6. 

1904 Jan. 6. 
1894 Aug. 30. 

1900 May 2. 

1899 Sept. 29. 
1886 Uaj 5. 

1892 Dec. 7. 

1901 April 3. 

1885 June 3. 

1904 Dec. 7. 
1901 Mar. 6. 
1889 Aug. 29. 

1885 Feb. 4. 

1899 Jan. 

1900 Dec. 
1905 Nov. 
1880 Dec. 
1905 May 
1887 July 

1901 Jan. 2. 
1880 Aug. 4. 

1901 Aug. 28. 
1904 Aug. 3. 
1880 Jan. 7. 

1901 June 5. 
1899 Aug. 2. 

1873 Aug. 6. 

1888 June 6. 





















Misra, Tulsi Ram. Awagarh. 

Miti-a, Kumar Nai^ndra Nath. Calcutta, 

Mitra, The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Saroda Charan, 

M.A., 6.L. Calcutta, 
Mohamed Hossain Khan Midhut. Galcutta, 
Molony, E., i.c.s. Gawv^r, 
Monohan, Francis John, i.c.s. ShiUong. 
Mookei-jee, R. N. Calcutta. 
Muhammad Shibli Nomani, Shams- ul-Ulama 

Maulavie. Aligarh. 
Mukerjee, Harendra Krishna, m.a. Calcutta, 
Mukerjee, Sib Narayan. Uttarpara, 
Mukerji, P. B., Calcutta. 
Mukharji, Jotindra Nath, b.a. Calcutta. 
Mukhopadhyaya, The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Asu- 

tosh, M.A., D.L., P.B.A.S., F.E.s.E. Calcutta, 
Mukhopadhyaya, Panchanana. Calcutta. 
MuUick, Pramatha Nath. Calcutta. 

Naemwoollah, Maulavie, Deputy Magistrate. 

Nathan, R., i.c.s. Europe. 
Nevill, H. R,, i.o.s. Naini Tal. 
Nimmo, The Hon'ble Mr. John Duncan. 

Nyayaratna, MahamahopadhySya Mahesa 

Chandra, c.i.e. Benares. 

O'Brien, P. H., i.c.s. Europe, 

O'Connor, Captain, W. P., r.a. Oyantae. 

O'Mally, L. S. S. Darjeeltng. 

Oldham, R. D., a.r.s.m., f.O.S. Europe, 

OUenbach, A. J. Orissa, 

Oung, Moung Hla. Calcutta, 

Pande, Pandit Ramavatar, b.a., i.c.s. Hanloi. 
Pandia, Pandit Mohanlall Vishnulall, p.t.s., 

Panton, E. B. H., i.c.s. Saran, 
Pai-asnis, D.B. Satara. 
Pargiter, The Hon. Mr. Justice Fredenck 

Eden, b.a., i.c.s. Calcutta. 
Pai-sons, W. Calcutta. 
Peake, C. W., m.a., Bengal Education Service. 

Pedler, The Hon. Sii* Alexander, c.i.e., p.b.s., 

Kf,, Director of Public Instruction, Bengal. 

Pennell, Aubray Percival, b.a., Barrister-at- 

Law. Rangoon. 

Date cf Election. 


1877 Aug. 1. 

1889 Nov. 6. 

1904 June 1. 
1904 Mar. 4. 
1889 Mar. 6. 

1889 Mar. 6. 

1880 ApHl 7. 1 
1895 Aug. 29. 

1901 June 5. 
1900 April 4. I 
1898 Aug. 3. ! 
1905 Jan. 4. , 
1904 Mar. 4. 
1890 Mar. 5, 











; N.R. 



1887 May 4. R. 

1905 May 3. N.R. 
1884 Mar. 5. i R. 

1903 Mar. 4. 
1900 April 4. 

1900 Aug. 29. 

1901 Dec. 4. 
1889 June 5. 
1903 July 1. 

1896 Aug. 27. 
1905 Mar. 1. 

1899 June 7. 
1898 Mar. 2. 

1897 Nov. 3. 
1902 Feb. 6. 

1900 Dec. 5. 
1893 Jan. 11. 
1902 Feb. 5. 
1905 Jan 4. 

1901 Aug. 29. 














Percival, Hugh Melvile, m.a., Bengal Education 

Service. Calcutta. 
Peters, Lieut.-Colonel C. T., m.b., i.m.s. 

Phillott, Lieut -Col. D. C, 23rd Cavalry p.f., 

Secretary Board of Examiners. Calcutta. 
Pilgrim, G. EUcock. Calcutta. 
Pim, Arthur W., i.C.s. Jhanst. 
Prain, Lieut.-Col. David, m.a.,m.b., ll.d., i.m.s , 

Superintendent, Royal Botanic Grarden, 

Prasad, Hanuman, and Zemindar. 


Rai, Bipina Chandra, b.l. Mymenstngh. 
Rai Chaudhery, Jatindra Nath, m.a., b.l. 

Rai, Lala Lajpat. Lahore. 
Raleigh, T. Europe. 
Ram, Sita, m.a. Moradahad. 
Rankin, J. T., i.c.s. Dacc^. 
Rapson, E. J. Europe. 

Ray, Prafulla Chandra,, Bengal Educa- 
tion Service. Calcutta. 
Ray, Prasanna Kumar, (Lond. and 

Edin.), Bengal Education Service. Calcutta. 
Richardson, Thomas William, i.c.s. Bankipur, 
Risley, The Hon. Mr. HerbeH Hope, b.a., 

C.I.E., I c.s. Calcutta. 
Rogers, Charles Gilbert, p.l.s., p.c.h., Indian 

Forest DepaHment. Po7't Blair. 
Rogere, Major Leonard, m.d.,, m.r.c p., 

P.R.C.S., I.M.S. Calcutta. 
Rose, H. A., I.c.s. Europe. 
Ross, E. Denison, ph.d. Calcutta. 
Roy, Maharaja Girjanath. Bina^epur. 
Roy, Maharaja Jagadindra Nath, Bahadur. 


Samman, Herbert Frederick, i.c.s. Europe. 

Saniel, S. C. Calcutta, 

Sarkar, Chandra Kumar. Kowkanik. 

Sarkar, Jadu Nath. Bankipore. 

Saunders, C. Calcutta. 

Schulten, Dr. C. Calcutta. 

Schwaiger, Imre George. Delhi. 

Scindia, His Highness the Maharaja. O-walior, 

Sen, A. C, i.c.s. Rajshuyee, 

Sen, Sukumar. Calcutta. 

Sen, Upendranath. Calcutta. 

Date of ElecUon. 

1897 Dec. 1. 
1905 May 3. 
1904 Jan. 6. 

1900 Mar. 7. 

1885 Feb. 4. 

1902 Dec. 3. 

1902 Mar. 5. 

1903 April 1. 

1900 May 2. 
1899 May 3. 

1903 Aug. 26. 

1904 April 6. 
1904 June 1. 

1893 Mar. 1. 

1902 Sep. 24. 
1895 Aug. 29. 
1892 Mar. 2. 
1889 Aug. 29. 

1892 Aug. 3. 

1889 Xov. 6. 

1894 Feb. 7. 

1901 Aug. 7. 
1904 Mar. 4. 
1894 July 4. 

1897 Jan. 
1872 Aug. 

1905 Mar. 1. 
1901 Dec. 4. 
1904 Sept. 28. 

1898 April 6. 
1901 Mar. 6. 
1891 Aug. 27, 
1904 June 1. 

1899 Aug. 30 

1900 Aug. 29. 
1904 July 6 
1904 Jan. 6 

























Sen, Yadu Nath. Calcutta. 

Seth, Mesrovb , J. Calcutta. 

Shah, Kashi Prasad. Mirzapur, 

Sharman, Gulab Shankar Dev, p.t.s. Puch- 

Sastri-Samkhyaratna-Vedatirtha, Pandit Yo- 

gesa Chandra. Calcutta. 
Shastri, Mahamahopadhaya Haraprasad, m.a. 

Shastri, Hamarain. Delhi. 
Shastri, Rajendra Chandra, m.a. Calcutta. 
Shaun, Montague Churchill. Europe. 
Shrager, Adolphe. Calcutta. 
Silberrad, Chas. A., i.c.s. Banda. 
Simpson, J. Hope, i.c.s. Allahabad. 
Simpson, Maurice George, m.i.e.e. Calcutta. 
Simpson, Robert Rowell, Calcutta. 
Singh, Maharaja Kumai^a Sirdar Bharat, 

I.c.s. Ghazipur. 
Singh, Kumar Bii^ndim Chandra. Calcutta. 
Singh, Lachmi Narayan, m.a., b.l. Calcutta. 
Singh, The Hon. Raja Ooday Pratab. Biiiga. 
Singh, H.H. The Maharaja Prabhu Narain, 

Bahadui\ Benares. 
Singh, H.H. The Hon. Maharaja Pratap 

Nai-ain. Ajodhya^ Oudh. 
Singh, H.H. The Hon. Maharaja Ramesh- 

wai*a, Bahadur. Darbhanga. 
Singh, H.H. Raja Vishwa Nath, Bahadur, 

Chief of Chhatarpur. 
Singha, Chandi'a Narayan. Calcutta. 
Singha Kumar Kamlananda. Srtnagar. 
Sinha, Kunwar Kushal Pal, m.a. Narki 

P.O., Agra District. 
Sircar, Amrita Lai, P.c.a. Calcutta. 
Skrefsinid, The Revd. Laurentius Olavi. 

Rampore Hant. 
Sorabjee, Cornelia. Calcutta, 
Spooner, D. Brainerd. Europe. 
Stapleton, H. E., b.a., Calcutta. 
Stark, Herbert A., b.a. Cuttack. 
Stebbing, E. P. Dehra Dun. 
Stein, M. A., ph.d. Peshatvar. 
Stephen, The Hon'ble Mr. Justice, H. L. Cal- 
Stephen, St. John, b.a., ll.b. Barrister-at- 

Law. Calcutta. 
Stephenson, Captain John, i.m.s. Europe. 
Streatfeild, C. A. C, i.c.s. Bahraick. 
Stuart, Louis, i.c.s. Orai. 

iHite of Election. 

1868 Jnne 3. 
1898 April 6. 

1904 July 6. 

1905 July 5. 
1893 Aug. 31. 
1878 June 5. 

1904 May 4. 
1875 June 2. 

1898 Nov. 2. 
1847 June 2. 

1891 Aug. 27. 

1904 June 1. 
1861 June 5. 

1905 Jan. 4. 
1905 Aug. 2. 

1905 July 7. 

1893 May 3. 

1898 Feb. 2. 

1900 Aug. 29. 
1890 Feb. 5. 

1902 May 7. 

1905 July 5. 
1902 June 4. 

1901 Mar. 6. 

1894 Sept. 27. 

1902 Oct. 29. 

1901 Aug. 7. 

1900 Jan. 19. 

1901 June 5. 
1889 Nov. 6. 

1900 April 4. 

1865 May 3. 
1905 Dec. 6. 
1874 July 1. 
























Tagore, Maharaja Sir Jotendra Mohun, Baha- 
dur, K.c.s.i. Calcutta, 

Tagore, Maharaja Coomar Sir Prodyat Coo- 
mar, Kt. Calcutta, 

Talbot, Walter Stanley, i.c.s, Srinagary 

Tarkabhu^ana, Pramatha Nath. Calcutta. 

Tate, G. P. Quetta, 

Temple, Colonel Sir Richard Camac, Bart.^ 
C.I.E., i.A. Port Blair, 

Thanawala, Framjee Jamas jee. Bombay, 

Thibaut, Dr. G., Muir Central College. 

Thornton, Edward, p.r.i.b.a. Calcutta. 

Thuillier, Lieut.-Genl. Sir Henry Edward 
Landor, Kt,^ c.s.i., p.r.s., r.a. Europe. 

Thui-ston, Edgar. Madras, 

Tipper, George Howlett, p.o.s. Calcutta. 

Tremlett, James Dyer, M.A., i.c.s. (retired). 

Turner, Frank. Dacca, 

Urwin, Captain J. J., m.b., i.m.s. Calcutta, 

Vaidya, Jain. Jaipur, 

Vanja, Raja Ram Chandra. Mayurhhanga, 

District Balasore. 
Vasu, Amrita Lai. Calcutta. 
Vaughan, Major J. C, i.m.s., Europe. 
Venis, Arthur, M.A., Principal, Sanskrit 

College. Benares. 
Vidyabhusana, Jogendra Nath Sen. 

Vidyabhusana, Rajendranath. Calcutta, 
Vidyabhusana, Mahamahopadhyay Satis 

Chandra, m.a. Calcutta. 
Vogel, J. Ph., PH.D. Lahore, 
Vost, Major William, i.m.s. Europe. 
Vredenbui*g, E. Calcutta, 

Walker, Dr. T. L. Europe, 

Wallace, David Robb. Calcutta, 

Walsh, E. H., I.c.s. Chinsura. 

Walsh, Lieut-Col. John Henry Tull, i.m.s. 

Walton, Captain Herbert James, m.b., f.b.c.s., 

I.M.S. Bombay. 
Waterhouse, Major- General James. Europe, 
Watson, Edwin Roy, b.a. Calcutta. 
Watt, Sir George, Kt., c.i.b. Europe. 

Date of Bleotion 

1905 Dec. 6. 

1904 Mar. 4. 

1900 Dec. 5. 
1894 Aug. 30. 
1898 July 6. 

1905 Mar. 1. 






Wheeler, H., i.c.s. Europe. 

Wilson, James, c.s.i., i.c.s. Oahutta. 

Wood, William Henry Arden, m.a., p.c.s., 

p.R.G.s. Calcutta, 
Woodman, H. C, i.c.s. Calcutta. 
Wright, Henry Nelson, b.a., i.c.s. Unao. 
Wyness, James, c.e. Calcutta, 
Young, Rev. A. Willifer. Calcutta. 



1884 Jan. 15. 
1884 Jan. 15. 
1884 Jan. 15. 
1884 Jan. 15. 

Dr. Ernst Haeckel, Pi-ofessor in the University of 

Charles Meldrum, Esq., c.m.g., m.a., ll.d., p.r.a.s., 

P.B.3. Mauritius. 
Professor A. H. Sayce, Professor of Comp. Philology. 

Professor Emile Senart, Member of the Institute of 

France. Paris. 


Date of Eleotioii. 
1848 fS). 2. 

1879 June 4. 

1879 June 4. 
1879 June 4. 
1881 Dec. 7. 

1883 Feb. 7. 

1894 Mar. 7. 

1894 Mar. 7. 

1895 June 5. 

1895 June 5. 

1895 June 5. 

1896 Feb. 5. 

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, o.c.s.i., c.b., m.d., d.c.l., 

LL.D., P.L.S., F.G.S., P.R.O.8., P.R.s. Berkshire, 
Dr.Albert Giinther, m.a., m.d., ph.d., f.z.s., p.r.s. 

Dr. Jules Janssen. Paris. 
Professor P. Regnaud. Lyoits. 
Lord Kelvin, g.c.v.o., d.c.l., ll.d., p.r.s.e., p.r.s. Olas' 

Alfred Russell Wallace, Esq., ll.d., d.c.l., p.l.s., 

P.Z.S., P.R.S. Dorset. 
Mahamahapadhyaya Chandi*a Kanta Tarkalankara. 

Professor Theodor Noeldeke. Strasshurg. 
Lord Rayleigh, m.a., d.c.l.,, ll.d., ph.d., p.r.a.s., 

P.R.S. Witham, Essex. 
Lt.-Genl. Sir Richard Strachey, r.e., o.c.s.i., ll.d., 

P.R.Q.S., p.G.s., P.L.S., P.R.S. Londofi. 
Charles H. Tawney, Esq., m.a., c.i.e. London, 
Lord Lister, p.r.c.s., d.c.l., m.d., ll.d.,, p.r.s. 


"^Dtte of Bleotton. 
1896 F^b. 5. 

1896 Feb. 5. 
1896 Feb. 5. 

1899 Feb. 1. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1899 Dec. 6. 

1901 Mar. 6. 

1902 Nov. 5. 
1904 Mar. 2. 
1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 Mar. 2. 

1904 July 2. 


Sir Micbael Foster, k.c.b., m.a., m.d., d.c.l., ll.d.,, F.L.S., F.E.s. Cambridge. 
Professor F. Kielhom, ph.d., c.i.e. Gfotttngen. 
Professor Charles Rockwell Lanman. Massachusetts, 

Dr. Augustus Frederick Rudolf Hoemle, ph.d., c.i.e. 

Professor Edwin Ray Lankester, m.a., ll.d., f.r.s. 

Sir George King, k.c.i.e., m.b., ll.d., f.l.s., f.r.s. 

Professor Edward Burnett Tylor, d.c.l., ll.d., f.r.s. 

Pix)fessor Edward Suess, p.h.d., For. Mem. R.s. 

Professor J. W. Judd, C.B., ll.d., f.r.s. Lrmdou. 
Monsieur R. Zeiller. PariA. 
Professor Heiniich Kern. Leiden. 
Professor Ranikrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, c.i.e. 

Pi-ofessor M. J. DeGoeje. Leiden. 
Pix)fessor Ignaz Goldziher, Budapest. 
Sir Charles Lyall, m.a., k.c.s.i. Ijondwi. 
Sir William Ramsay, ph.d., (Tiib.) ll. d., sc.d. (Dubl.) 

F.C.S., f.i.c. 
Dr. Geoi'ge Abraliam Gnerson, ph.d., c.i.e., i.c.s. 



Date of Election. 

1875 Dec. 1. 
1875 Dec. 1. 
1882 June 7. 

1884 Aug. 6. 

1885 Dec. 2. 

1886 Dec. 1. 
1892 April 6. 
1892 Dec. 7. 
1899 April 5. 
1899 April 5. 
1899 Nov. 1. 
1902 June 4. 

The Revd. E. Lafont, c.i.K., s.j. Calcutta. 

The Revd. J. D. Bate, m.r.a.s. Kent. 

Maulavie Abdul Hai. Calcutta. 

Herbei-t, Giles, Esq. Europe. 

V. Moore, Esq., f.l.s. Surrey. 

Dr. A. Fuhrer, Europe. 

Rai Bahadur Sai'at Chandi'a Das, C.i.e. Calcutta. 

Pandit Satya Vrata Samasrami. Calcutta. 

Professor P. J. Briihl. Sibpur. 

Rai Bahadur Ram Bi*ahma Sanyal. Calcutta. 

Pandit Visnu Pra.sad Raj Bhandari. Nepal. 

The Revd. E. Francotte, s.j. Calcutta. 

The Revd. A. H. Francke. Leh. 


* Bale 40. — After the lapse of three years from the date of a 
member leaving India, if no intimation of his wishes shall in the 
interval have been received by the Society, his name shall be re- 
moved from the List of Members. 

The following members will be removed from the next Mem- 
ber List of the Society under the operation of the above Rule: — 

Womes Chunder Bonnerjee, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 

Frank Finn, Esq., b.a., p.z.s. 

Dr. T. L. Walker. . 

Major- General James Waterhouse. 


By Rktire3ient. 

Edward Charles Stewart Baker, Esq. 

J. Bathgate, Esq. 

Major A. H. Bingley, i.a. 

Major E. Harold Brown, m.d., i.m.s. 

Dr. Arnold Caddy. 

Francis Joseph Ede, Esq., O.K., a.m.i.c.e., f.g.s. 

Captain Stuart Godfrey, i.a. 

R. O. Lees, Esq. 

Chai'les Richardson Marriott, Esq., i.c.s. 

William Stevenson Meyer, Esq., i c.s. 

Rai Lukshmi Sanker Misra, Bahadur. 

L. F. Morshead, Esq., i.c.S. 

John Nicoll, Esq. 

Dr. Frederic H. Norvill. 

Birendra Chandra Sen, Esq., i.c.s. 

A. Tocher, Esq. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice John George Woodroffe. 

Lieut.-Col. H. F. S. Ramsden, I.A. 

By Death. 

Ordinary Mevibers. 

Dr. William Thomas Blanford, ll.d., p.r.s. (Life Member.) 
Raja Jaykrishna Das, Bahadur. 
H. W. Peal, Esq., p.e.s. 

Honorary Member. 
Dr. William Thomas Blanford, ll.d., p.r.s. 

Bt Removal. 
Under Bute 9. 

J. deGrey Downing, Esq. 
Pandit Navakanta Kavibhosana. 

Tinder Bule 38. 

Robert Greenhill Black, Esq. 
Babn Jaladhi Chandra Mukerjee. 
Babn Ramani Mohon Mullick. 

Under Rule 40. 

Edwin Max Konstam, Esq. 

Michael Francis O^Dwjer, Esq., b.a., i.g.s. 

Alfred Fredrick Steinberg, Esq., i.c.s. 





or THB 

Asiatic JSocibty of Bengal 


THE YEAR 1906. 


Asiatic Society 



Salaries ... 



Stationery •*. 


Postage ... 

Freigbt ... 

Meeting ... 

Auditor's fee 

Electric Fans and Lights 

Insurance fee 

Petty repairs 

Building ... 


Bs. As. P. 

8,810 12 6 
456 12 6 


67 8 
884 4 
588 18 
122 14 
228 6 
312 8 
26 6 
528 12 

Catalogue , 

Picture Frame, including other ezpendltare 
Furniture ... 


2,232 9 4 

1,207 10 


3,818 2 6 

319 11 6 

.To Publications. 

Journal, Part I. 
Do. „ II. 

Do. „ in. 


Journal, Proceedings, and Memoirs 

1,791 13 

1,649 1 6 

590 10 8 

422 10 

1,377 14 6 

To printing charges of Circulars, Beceipt 
Forms, &o. 

„ Personal Account (Writes off and miscella- 


Boyal Society's Scientific Catalogue 

Total Bs. 

Bs. As. P. 

4,471 9 

4,284 3 8 

7,250 1 4 

5,782 1 3 

286 11 9 

•.. 766 8 9 

1,597 15 
1,93,148 1 9 

2,17,481 4 1 


No. 1. 
of Bengal. 



By Balamoe from last report 

Bs. As. P. Ks. As. P. 
1,92,989 7 6 

Bt Cash Bbcbipts. 

Publications sold for cash ... ... 933 4 11 

Interest on InyestmeDts ... ... 6,891 8 

Bent <rf room on the Society's ground floor ... 650 
Allowance from Government of Bengal for the 
Publication of Anthropological and Cognate 

subjects... ... ... ... 2,000 

Allowance from Government of Eastern Ben- 
gal and Assam ... ... ... 1,000 

MiBoellaDeous ... ... ... 422 4 

11,797 10 

Bt Extbaobdinabt Bbceifts. 

Subscriptions to Boyal Society's Scientific 

1,481 5 1 

Admission fees 
Bales on credit 

By Pbbsonal Account. 


. 9,240 

809 12 

13 10 


11,263 6 9 

Total Bs. 

2,17,481 4 1 


Honorary Treasurer ^ 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

1905. Oriental Publication Fund, in Acct. 


To Gash Ezfbnditubb. 

Bs. As. P. 

Ba. A«. P. 

Salaries ... 

Commission on colleotions 
Editing oharges 
Postage ... 

Printing charges 

••• ••• 

••• ••• 

es off and Miscella- 

Total Bs. 

1,664 6 3 

62 10 9 

6,149 8 

318 13 

82 6 

7,081 2 

28 6 

419 8 9 

16,786 3 

44 14 
8,174 9 9 

To Personal Acconnt (Writ 
neons) ... 


18,955 8 a 

1905. Sanskrit Manuscript Fund in Acct. 

Salaries ... 
Travelling charges 
Printing ... 
Postage ... 
Purchase of Manusc 



To Cash Expenditub 

••• ... 


Total Bs. 


Bs. As. P. 

320 15 

2,045 12 

103 11 

12 8 


Bs. As. 

8,666 14 
3,120 2 






No. 2. 

with the Asiatic ^Society of Bengal. 1905. 


Bs. As. P. Bb. Ab. p. 
Bj Balance from last Beporl ••• ... ... 6,097 1 8 

By Gabh Becbiptb. 

Oovernment Allowanoe ... ... 9,000 

Pablioations sold for cash ... 822 9 9 

Advanoes reoovered ... ... 90 14 

Loan from ABiatio Society of Bengal ... 2,000 

11,918 7 9 

Bt Pkbbonal Account. 
Sales on credit ... ... ••• ••• 1,944 16 ^ 

Total Bb. ... 18,966 8 


flbnorary TrtaiUTer, 

Aiiatio Society of BengaL 

No. 3. 

with the Asiatic Society of BengaL 1905* 


Bb. Afi. P. Bb. Ab. P. 
By Balance from last Beport ... ••• ... 8,678 6 

By Gash Becbiptb. 

Ooremment Allowanoe ... ... 8,200 

Do. Do. Bpeeial ... ... 6,000 

Pnblioations sold for cash ... ... 6 


By Pbbbonai; Account. 
Sales on credit ... ... ... .,. 4 

Total Bb. ... 11,787 6 

Abutobh Mukbopadhtat, 

Hc/ncrary 7r«a«urer, 

A%ia^e Society of BengaL 



1905, Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund in 


To Cash Bxpenditubk. 

Bb. Am, p. Bs. Ab. P, 

SalarieB ... 

Porchaae of KanoBoriptB 



Postage ... 

Travelling charges 


ToTAI^ Bb. 

1,885 i 

6,258 4 

17 14 6 

64 15 9 

13 12 6 

666 9 

8,906 8 9 



18,865 8 9 

1905. Bardic Chronicles MSS. Fund in 


Rb. A8. p. R8. Aa. P. 
ToBalaiioe. ... ... ... ... 2,400 

ToTiLBs. ... 2,400 

No. 4, 

AocL with the Asiatic Soc> of Bengal. 1906. 


B8. As. P. Kb. As. P. 
By Balft&oe from last Report ... ... ^. 6,805 8 9 

Bt Cash Bxcripts. 

Oovernmottt Allowftuce . ... ..; ; 7,000 

Total Bs. ... 18,866 8 6 

asutobh mukhopadbtay, 

Sonoraty Treasurer, 

Asiatic. Society of Bengal, 

No. 8. 
Acct> with the Asiatic Soo. of Bengal. 1905. 


By Cash Beckipts. 

Bb. As. P. Bs. As. P. 
GoYernment Allowance ... ... ... 2,400 O 

Total Bs. ... 2,400 O 


Honorary Trwuurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 


1905. Personal 


Be. Aa. P. Rs. As. P. 
To Balftnoe from last Report ... ... ... 4,908 10 

To Cash Bxfbnditube. 

AdTanoes for porohase of SCannscriptSy fto. ... ... 5,661 8 9 

To Asiatio Society ••• ... ... 11,268 6 9 

„ Orie&tal Publication Fund ... ... 1,944 16 

„ Sanskrit Manuscript Fund ... ... 4 

18^12 5 9 

Total Bs. ^ 28,726 16 4 

No. 6 


By Gash Receipts 
„ Afliatio Society 
,, Oriental Pablioation Fand 


Kb. As. P. Rs. As. P. 
18,783 14 9 

766 8 9 
44 14 

810 6 9 

By Balance. 

Dae to the 

Due by the 














Sabeoribers ... 









Oriental Pabli- 

oation Fond 
















9,132 9 10 

Total Bs. 

23,726 16 4 


Honorary Trea$urer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 





To Balance from last Beport 
,, Gaah ... 

Valae. Cost. 

Bs. As. P. Bs. As. P. 
i, 98,800 1,07,958 8 % 
6 8 6 

Total Bs. 

1,98,800 1,97,964 6 a 








Total Coat. 

Asiatic Society 
Trust Fand 


A P. 

A. P. 
6 8 





A. P. 
6 5 









n 8 









To Pension 



Total Bs. 

Bs. As. P. 


1,466 11 la 

1,604 11 10- 


No. 7. 

merit. 1905, 

* ■ - ■« 


Value. Cost. 

Bs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

ByOMh ... ... ... ... 2,000 1,988 3 7 

„ Balance ... ... ,.. 1,06,800 1,95,976 8 1 

Total Rs. ... 1,98,800 1,97,964 6 a 


Hfmorary Treaaurer^ 

Aaiatie Society of Bengal. 

No. 8. 


By Bklanee from last Beport 
„ Interest OB inTeetment 

... ••• ... 

Total Bs. 

Rs. As. P.* 

1,466 11 10 
49 a 

l/>04 11 10 


. Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, 


1905. Cash 


Bb. As. p. 
To Balance from last Beport .,. ... ... 6.614 9 8 


Be. As. P. 

To Asiatic Society ... ... ... 18^78 5 11 

„ Oriential Pabfication Fnnd ... ... 11,918 7 9 

„ Sanskrit Manascript Fmid ... ... 8,205 

y, Arabic and Persian llannsoript Fnnd ... 7,000 

„ Bardic Chronicles Manuscript Fnnd ... 2,400 

,1 Personal Account ... ... ... 18,788 14 9 

„ Investment ... ... ... 1,988 8 7 

„ Trust Fund ... ... ... 49 


Total Bs 65,182 9 8 

1905. Balance 


Bs. As. P. Bs. As. P. 

To Cash ... ... ... ... 2,644 12 10 

,, Personal Account .. ... ... 9,182 9 10 

„ Inveetment ... ... ... 1,95,976 8 1 

2,07,753 9 9 

Government Pro. Note at Bank of Bengal's 
Safe Custody Account Cashier's Security 
Deposit Bs. 500 

Total Bs. ... 2,07,758 9 9 

We have examined the above Balance Sheet and the appended detailed 
Accounts with the Books and vouchers presented to us, snd certify that it is 
in accordance therewith, correctly setting forth the position of the Society as 
at the 31st December, 1905. 

Calcutta, Hbuginb, Kino and Simson, 

15th Fehru<iryt 1906. Chartered AecountanU, 


No 9. 

Account 1905. 

By Asiatio Sooietj 
„ Orieatal Pablioation Fand 
„ Sanskrit tiianasoript Fund 
„ Arabio and Persian ICanoBoript Fond 
„ Personal Acooant ••• 
„ InTestment ••• 

,, Trust Fund 



Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 

!•• ••• 

28,572 9 7 

••• ••• 

16,736 3 

• ■• ••• 

8,666 14 

ipt Fond 

8,906 8 9 
6,651 8 9 

••• ••• 

6 3 6 

62,487 12 10 

Balance 2,644 12 10 

Total Bs. ... 66,182 9 8 


Honorary TreamrBv^ 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

No. 10. 

S?ieet. 1905. 


Bs. Ab. p. B», As. p. 

By Asiatic Society ... ••• ••• 

„ Oriental Publication Fund ... 

„ Sanskrit Hiinnscript Fund ••• 

„ Arabic and Persian Manuscript Fund ,•• 

„ Bardic Chronicles Manuscript Fund 

„ Trust Fund ••• ••• ••• 

1,93.143 1 9 
8,174 9 9 
3,120 2 6 
1,466 11 10 

Total Rs. 

2,07,768 9 9 


Honorary Treasurer, 

Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



The following new books have been added to the Library 
during January 1906 : — 

Abdel Aziz Nazmi. La Medecine au temps des Pharaons. 
These, etc., Montpellier, 1903. 8°. 

Assam Djstrict Gazettkeks. Calcutta, 1905, etc. 8^ 

Presd. by the Govt, of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

Baldaens, Philip. A Description of y^ East India Coasts of 
Malabar and Coromandel, with their adjacent kingdoms and 
provinces ; and of the Empire of Ceylon and of the Idolatry of 
the Pagans in the East Indies. [With plates.] 
Lo7idon, 1703. fol. 

Balfour, Edward. The Cyclopasdia of India and of Eastern 
and Southern Asia... Third edition. 3 vols. 
London, 1885. 8^. 

Calcutta,— Calcutta Madrasah. Catalogue of the Arabic and 
Peraian Manuscripts... by Kamallu'd- Din Ahmad and 'Abdu 
'1-Muqtadir, with an introduction by E. Denison Boss. 
Calcutta, 1905. 8*. 

Presd. by the Govt, of Bengal, 

Oarnahan, David Hobart. The Prologue in the old French and 
Provenyal Mystery.... A thesis, etc. Neto Haven, 1905. 8*. 

Presd. by Yale University, 

Oirkel, Fritz. Asbestos: its occurrence, exploitation and uses. 
Ottatca, 1905. 8^. 

-Mica: its occurrence, exploitation and uses. 

Ottatva, 1905. 8° 

Presd, by the Dept. of the Interior, Mines Branch, Canada, 

Dutt, Romebh. India in the Victorian age: an economic history 
of the people. Lmidon, 1904. 8®. 

Francke, liev. A. H. First Collection of Tibetan Historical In- 
scriptions on rock and stone from West Tibet. [In Tibetan.] 
1906. b°. 

t^rancke, Rev. A. H. Log-dag-kaye-Ag-bar. Tibetan Paper. Vol. 
III. [In Tibetnn.] [1906.] 4°. 

Presd, by the Author. 

Frey, H. Les figyptiens pr6historiqu^ identifies 
Annamites d'apr^B les inscriptions hieroglyphiqnes. 

avec esl 
Paris, 1905. 8°. 

Ohamat, K. £. The Present State of India. An appeal to 
Anglo-Indians. Bamhay, 1905. 8®. 

Freed, by the Author. 

Oiridharajee Maharaj, Ooswdmt Sri. Suddhadvaitamartanda 
...With a commentary called Prakasa. By Sri Rama Krishna 
Bhabta. And Prameyaratiinrnava. By Sri Balakrishna 
Bhatta. Edited by Ratna Gk^pal Bhatta. Benaresy 1905. 8°. 

Ohowkhamba Sanskrit Series, No. 97. 

Gonnaud, Pierre. La Colonisation hollandaise a Java, ses ante- 
cedents, ses caracteres distinctifs. Paris, 1905. 8°. 

Herzog, Maximilian. Further observations on Fibrin Thrombosis 
in the glomerular and other renal vessels in Bubonic Plague. 
Manila, 1905. 8^. 

Bureau of Oovt. Laboratories, Manila, No. 33. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Hill, S. C. Bengal in 1756-1757. A Selection of public and 
private papers dealing with the affairs of the British in Bengal 
during the reign of Siraj-uddaula. Edited. S. C. Hill. 
3 vols. London, 1905. 8°. 

Part of the Indian Records Series. 

Presd. by the Oovt, of India, Home Dept, 

Historical view of plans for the Government of British India, 
and regulations of trade to the East Indies and outlines of a 
plan of Foreign Government, of commercial economy, and of 
domestic administration, for the Asiatic interests of Great 
Britain. [By J. Bruce.] London, 1793. 4^ 

Irvine, VVilliam. The Army of the Indian Moghuls ; its organi- 
zation and administration. London, 1903. 8^. 

kuniky ( ). Analyse d^nn onvrage manusciit intitule 

die Ssabier und der Ssabismas oder die syrischen Heiden und 
das syiische Heidenthnm in Harran und andem Gegenden 
Mesopotamiens zur zeit des chalifats. Ein Beitrag zur Ges- 
chichte des Heidenthams in Yorderasien, gross ten theils nach 
handschriftlichen Quelen ausgearbeitet von Dr. Joseph 
Cliwolsohn. Sf, Pctershunj, 1852. 8°. 

Melanyed Astatlque^ tirh du liulletin Histitrico-Philologiqtire 

de V Academii' Ivipt'iiale des Scienceti de 3t. Petersboury. 

Tome L 

Macanlay, Lord. The Works of Lord Macaulay. (History of 
England. Essays and Biogi^aphies. Speeches, poems and mis- 
cellaneous writings.) 12 vols. London, 1898, 8°. 

MacCulloch. J. R. A Dictionary, pnictical, theoretical, and 
historical of Commerce jvnd Commercial Navigation.... New 
edition.... Edited by H. G. Reid. Lmdon, 1871. 8°. 

Marshman, John Clark. History of India, from the earliest 
period to the close of Lord Dalhousie's administration. 3 vols. 
London, 1867. 8°. 

Merrill, Elmer D. I. New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants, III ; 
II. The Source of Manila Elemi. Manila, 1905. 8°. 
Bureau of Govt. Laborntories, Manila, No. 29, 

Prttid, by the Bureau. 

Milbum, William. Oriental Commerce ; containing a geographi- 
cal description of the principal places in the East Indies, 
China Hnd Japan, with their produce, manufactures and trade, 
etc., 2 vols. London, 1813. 8^ 

Moquette, J. P. Voorloopig verslag over het vinden van rijst- 
korrels op ketan, en proeven daarover genomen. 
Batavia, 1905. 8°. 

Presd, by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzory, 

Morgan, J. de. Histoire et travaux de la delegation en Perse 
du minist^re de I'lnstruction publique, 1897-1905. 
Paris, 1905. 8°. 

Mnlhall, Michael G. Dictionary of Statistics.... Fourth edition 
revised to November 1898. Lotulon, 1903. 8°. 

Munk^ S. Melanges de philosophie juive et arabe. 
Paris, 1857-59. 8°. 

Naoroji, Dadabliai. Poverty and Un- British Rule in Indi.i. 
London, 1901. 8." 


Nevill, H. R. Fyzabad. AUahabad, I90b. 8^ 

District Oazetteere of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 
Vol. XLIII. 

Presd, by the Govt, of India^ Home Dept. 

Philipps, S. Chas. The Use of Wood pulp for Paper-making. 
Calcutta, 1905. 8°. 

Extracted from the Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. LIIL 

Presd. by the Oovt. of India, Rev. and Agri. Dnpt. 

Pirioili Ernest. L'Inde contemporaine et le mouvement national. 
Paris, I90b. 8^ 

Prainy D. A Sketch of the Life of Francis Hamilton (once 
Buchanan), some time Superintendent of the Honourable 
Company's Botanic Garden, Calcutta. Calcutta, 1906. 4®. 

Presd. by the Author. 

PrinsePi O. A. Remarks on the external commerce and ex- 
changes of Bengal, etc. London, 1823. 8®. 

Bapin de Thoyras. History of England.... Translated. N. 
Tindal. The second edition. [With engravings.] 2 vols. 
London, 1737. fol. 

Presd. by Mr. G. W. McMinn. 

Baynaly Abbe, a Philosophical and political history of the settle- 
ment and trade of the Europeans in the East and West 
Indies. Translated... by J. Justamond. The second edition, 
revised, etc. 6 vols. London, 1776. 8°. 

Bahai, Shio Nandan. Life of Harischandra. [With photo- 
graphs.] [In Hindi.] Bankipur, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Schmidt, P. W. Gmndziige einer Lautlehre der mon — khmer — 
Sprachen. Wien, 1905. 4.® 

Benkschriften der K. Akad. der Wissenschaften in Wien, 
Philosophisch'Hxstorisclie Masse, Band LI, 

Smith, J. J. Die Orchideen von Ambon. Batavia, 1905. 8^. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Huitenzorg. 

Smith, B. Bosworth. Life of Lord Lawrence.... With portraits 
and maps. London, 1883. 8^ 

Strongf Bicliard P. L Intestinal hemorrhage as a fatal com- 
plication in amaebic dysentery and its associations with liver 
abscess. II. The action of various chemical substances upon 
caltui*es of Amoeboe. By J. B. Thomas. III. The patho- 
ology of intestinal amaebiasis. By P. R. WooUey and W. E. 
Musgi'ave. Manila, 1905. 8*^. 

Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila, No, 32. 

Freed, by th6 Bureau- 

SuDKAKA. The Little Clay Cart— Mrcchakatika— a Hindu Drama 
... translated... by A. W. Ryder. Cambridge, Mass, 190b. 8°. 
Harvard Oriental Series, Vol. IX. 

Presd. hy Prof. 0. B. Larnnan. 

SusRDTA Samhita. ^^H^r^Vli ( ^TiRWW^ ) ^^^TT^ I [Su^ruta 
Samhita, Part I. Sutrasthana with commentary by Haran 
Chandra Cakravarti. Edited by Mahamahopadhyaya Chandra- 
kanta Tarkalankam. Galcutfa, 1905.] [In Sanskrit.] 8''. 

Presd. by Babu Haran Chandra Chakravarti. 

Terry, Edward. A Voyage to East India, etc. 
London, 1655. 8°. 

Tripathii Kanhaiya Lai. Shiksha-Darpana — a manual of educa- 
tion. [In Sanskrit,] Bankipore, 1900. 8°. 

Presd by the Author. 

Whorry, Wm. B., and MoDilly John R. I. Notes on a cnse 
of haematochyluria, etc. II. A search into the nitrate and 
nitrite content of Wittes' " Peptone."... By W. B. Wherry. 
ifam7a, 1905. 8°. 

Bureau of Govt. Laboratories, Manila, No. 31. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Wright} Henry Burt. The Campaign of Plataen, — September, 
479 B.C.... A thesis, etc., Now Haven, 1904 8°. 

Presd. by Yale Universitij. 

Wytflman* P. Genera Avium. Rdited by P. Wy tsman. Part I, 
etc. Brussels, 1905, etc, 4°. 



The following new books have been added to the Libraiy 
-during February, 1906. 

AoRicuLTURB. — Imperial Department of Agriculture. Annual Re- 
port. 1904-05, e^c. Calcutta, 190^, etc. 8^ 

Presd. hy the Inspector 'General of Agriculture in India. 

The Babar-Nama. The Babar-Nama, being the autography of 
the Emperor Babar... written in Chaghatay Turkish; now 
reproduced in facsimile from a manuscript belonging to 
the late Sir Salar Jang of Hyderabad, and edited... by 
S. Beveridge. London, 1905. 8°. 

F. J. W. Gihh Mernorial, Vol. I. 

Presd. hy the Trustees. 

BrOCkbanky Edward Mansfield. Sketches of the lives and work 
of the Honorary Medical StafE of the Manchester Infirmary. 
From its foundation in 1752 to 1830, when it became the 
Royal Infirmary. Manchester, 1904. 8°. 

Publications of the University of Manchester. Medical 
Series, No. 1. 

Presd. by the University. 

CoBNBLL University. Libranan's Report. 1904-1905, etc. 
[Ithaca, 1905, etc.^ &". 

Presd. by the University. 

Deasseil} PauL The Philosophy of the Upanishads... Authorised 
English translation by Rev. A. S. Geden« 
Edinburgh, 1906. 8°. 

Dob BftntOB, Joaquim Jose Judice. Collection Joaquim Jose 
Judice Dos Santos : Premiere partie : Monnaies et medailles 
de Portugal. Monnaies coloniales, du Bresil, des Indes 
Portugaises et de TAfrique. Monnaies et Medailles de 
I'empire du Bresil. [Amsterdam, 1906.] S\ 

Presd. hy fferr J. Schtdman. 

Xefiroy, H. Maxwell. The Insect pests of Cotton in India. 
Calcutta, 1906. 8^ 
Fr(ytn the Agrictdtural Journal of India, Vol. J., Part L 

Presd. hy the Author. 

Madras. — Adyar Library. Report. 1905, etc. [Madras, 1906, etc,'] 8°. 

Presd. by the Library, 

Merrilly Elmer D. and others. I. New or Noteworthy Philip- 
pine plants, IV. By B. D. Merrill ; II. Notes on Cuming's 
Philippine plants in the Herbarium of the Bureau of Govern- 
ment Laboratories. By E. D. Merrill ; III. Notes on 
Philippine GraminesB. By E. Hackel ; IV. Scitiminece 
Philippinenses. By H. N. Ridley ; V. Philippine Acanthaceae. 
By C. B. Clarke. ifamZa, 1905. 8°. 

Bureau of OovL Laboratones, Manila, No. 33. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

McOregOFy Richard C. I. Birds from Mindoit) and small ad- 
jacent Islands. II. Notes on three rare Luzon birds. 
Manila, 1905. 8°. 

Bureau of Oovt. Laboratories, Manila, No. 34. 

Presd. by the Bureau. 

Peake^ A. S. Inaugural Lectures delivered by Members of 
the Faculty of Theology during its first session, 1904-05. 
Edited by A. S. Peake. Manchester, 1905. 8^ 

Publications of the University of Manchester. Theological 
Series, No. 1. 

Presd. by the University. 

Pop6> T. A. The Reproduction of maps and drawings. A Hand- 
book of instructions for the use of Government officials and 
others who prepare maps, plans and other subjects for re- 
production in the Photographic and Lithographic Office of 
the Survey of India. ICalcutta, 1905.] 4°. 

Presd, by the Surveyor-General of India, 

Walsh, B. H. C. A Vocabulary of the Tromowa dialect of 
Tibetan spoken in the Chumbi Valley... Together with a 
corresponding vocabulary of Sikhimese and of Central 
(standard) Tibetan... Compiled by E. H. C. Walsh. 
Calcutta, 1905. 4**. 

Presd. by the Author. 

WilUainS} Bev. J. G. Joanis rebiaba Hamba Gyrau Zyma. 
The Gospel according to Saint John in the Cachari language. 
Translated by Rev. J. G. Williams. ShUlotig, 1905. 8^ 

Presd, by the Oovt. of Eastern Bengal and Assam, 



The following new books have been added to the Library 
during March, 1906 :— 

Bucklandi C.E. Dictionary of Indian Biography. 
London, 1906. 8^ 

Calcutta Dibkotort and Guide, 1906. Compiled by B. T. 
McClnskie. Calcutta, 1906. 8^ 

Pread. by Mr. E. T. McOluakte. 

Dangerfleld, Dr. H. Vivian. LeB&ib^r^. Definition, ^tpiologie, 
historiqne, bact^riolog^e, symptomatolog^e, pathog^me, pa&o- 
logie ezp^rimentale, traitement. Deux planches en conlenrs, 
etc. Paris, 1905. 8**. 

DiCTiONNAiBB des sciences anthropologiqnes....ATec... figures dans 
le texte. Parts, [1889.] 4^. 

Dvivedin, Acala. iM^^Nv: [Nimaya dipaka...With commentary 
in Kp«9a Sastri. Edited by Sada Sankara 
Hirftsankara.] [Nadiar, 1897.] 8^ 

Farnell, L. B. The Eyolation of religion An anthropological 
study. London, New York, 1905. 8^ 

Orier, Sydney C, pseud. [i.e., MissKildjl Obeqo]. The Letters of 
Warren Hastings to his wife. Transcribed in full from the 
originals in the British Museum. Introduced and annotated 
by S. C. Grier. London, 1905. &". 

Haeckel, Emst. Wanderbilder. Serie I and 11, Die Natur- 
wunder der Tropenwelt.— Tnsulinde und Ceylon* 
Gera.'Untermhaus, [1905]. 4^ 

Presd. by the Author. 

Hallkier, Dr. August. Texte zur arabischen Lexikographie 
Nach handschriften herausgegeben yon Dr. A. Hidmer. 
Leipzig, 1905. 8*. 

HiJi BiBi, (/HAtfl ^ ^^ 4U^y [Persian Translation of Morier's 

Hftjibaba of Ispahan by Akft Mirsft Asdulla Khftn of Lrftn.l 
[ Bom6ay, 1905.] 8^. 


Henry, Victor. Le PareiBme. Paris, 1905. S\ 

MenhBChtT, Dr. Gottfried. The Central Tian-Shan MoantainB, 
1902-1903. Lomfon, 1905. 8^. 

MirOllOWf Nioolans. Die Dharmaparikfa des Amitagati. Ein 
beitrag snr literatnr-und religionsgeschichte des Indischeii 
mittelalters. Inangnral-Dissertotion, etc, Leipeigy 1903. 8*. 

Hewcombe, A. G. Village, Town, and Jangle life in India. •• 
With illnstrationB. London, 1905. 8^ 

Oldenborg, Hermann. Vedaforechnng. 
Stuttgart, Berlin, [1905.] 8^. 

Bawling, G. G. The Great Platean, being an account of explora- 
tion in Central Tibet, 1903, and of the Gantok expedition. 
1904-1905... With illnstrations aud maps. London, 1905. 8^ 

BoTAL SoGiBTT — London. Reports of the Commission,. .for the 
investigation of Mediterranean fever, etc. Ft. 4, etc, 
London, 1906. 8*. 

Presd, by the Society, 

Schuster, Felix. The Bank of England and the State. A 
lecture, etc Manchester, 1906. 8^ 

Manchester Uinversity Lectures, No. 2, 

Presd. by the University, 

Wallace^ Alfred Bussel. My life. A record of events and 
opinions... With facsimile letters, illustrations and portraits, 
2 vols. London, 190b. 8°. 



Annandalb, N. — Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. 
y. — Some animals found associated with Sfiongilla carteri in 
Calcutta. Calcutta Jonrn. and Proc., As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, 
No. 5, 1906, pp. 187-196. 

Ghastogaster spofigillse, sp. noy., diagnosis of. N. Annandale, 
Calcutta, tfourn. and Proc., As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 
1906, pp. 188-190. * 

Ghirotiomua sp. (larva), habits of. N. Annandale, Calcutta 
Joum. and Proc., As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 1906, pp. 190- 

TanypuSf sp. (larva), habits of. N. Annandale, Calcutta Joum. 
and Proc., As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 1906, pp. 193-194. 

Sisyra, sp* (larva), habits of. N. Annandale, Calcutta Joum. 
and Proc., As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 1906, pp. 194-196. 

Annandalb, N., and Paiva, C. A.— Notes on the Freshwater 
Fauna of India. No. VI. — ^The life-history of an Aquatic 
Weevil. C^ilcutta Joum. and Pit)c., As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, 
No. 6, 1906, pp. 197-200. 

Aquatic Weevil, description and habit of. N. Annandale, 
Calcutta Joum. and Pi-oc., As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 
1906, pp. 197-200. 

Annandalb, N.— Notes on the Freshwater Fimna of India, No. 
VII. — A new Goby from Fresh and Brackish water in Lower 
Bengal. Calcutta Joum. and Proc., As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, 
No. 5, 1906, pp. 201-202. 

QohitL8 cdcockn, sp. no v., diagnosis of, N. Annandale, Calcutta 
Joum. and Proc., As. Soc. Beng., Vol. II, No. 5, 1906, p. 201. 

Hossaok, W. C — Preliminary Notes on the Rats of Calcutta. 
Calcutta Joum. and Pi-oc., As. Soc. Heng., Vol. II, No. 5, 
1906, pp. 183-186. 

Key to Rats of Cnlcutta. 

A. Long-tailed Rats. . 

(1) Mh8 rattiM alexnndrinuH. 

B. Short or Medium-tailed. 

( 2 ) Mu8 decumanus. 

(3) Nesokia hengalensis. 

(4) Nesokia nemorivaga. 


Tbe following new books have been added to the Library 
during April, 1906 :— 

Co-operative Credit Societies, U.P. Annual Report on the 
working of the Co-operative Credit Societies Act — X of 1904 
—for the year 1904-05. Allahabad, 1906. Fcp. 

Presd, hy the Govt, of United Provinces. 

Benares. — Nagaripracharini Sahha. Proceedings of a public meet- 
ing, held on the 29th December, 1905. discuss the question 
of a common character for Indian vernaculars. 
Benares, 1906. 8^. 

Freed, hy the Sahha. 

Bombay. — Plague Research Laboratory. Report of the Plague 
Research Laboratory for the official year ending 31st March, 
1905. By Lieut.-CoL W. B. Bannerman. 
Bombay, 1906. Fcp. 

Presd. hy Lt.-Gol. W. B. Bannerman. 

CHlftUdhuri, B. L. Elie Metchnikoff and his studies on human 
nature. [Oalcutta, 1905.] 8^. 

Beprinted from the Calcutta Journal of Medicine, 1905. 

Presd. by the Author. 

Oait, E. A. A History of Assam. Calcutta, 1906. 8^ 

Presd. by the Author. 

Haeckely Emst. Last Words on Evolution. A popular re- 
trospect and summary... Translated from the second edition 
by J. McCabe. With portrait and... plates. 
Londoti, 1906. 8^. 

Presd, hy the Author. 

Jervis, Major T. B. Geographical and Statistical Memoir of th« 
Konkun. The revenue and land tenures of the Western pari 
of India, etc. Calcutta, 1840. 8^ 

Beprinted from the Journal of the Bombay Geographical 
Society, 1840. 


•JerviSf W. P. Thomaa Best JerviB...A8 Ghristiaii soldier, 
geographer and friend of India, 1796-1857. A oentenarj 
tribnte, etc. London, 1898. 8*^.. 

>J01lg» A. W. E. de. Het Alkaloidgehalte van Gocablad. 
[Batavia, 1906.] 8^ 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Butenzorg. 

KoDAiKAWAL Obsbbvatort. — Madras. Bulletin. No. IV. 
[Madras, 1906.] 4^ 

Presd. hy the Govt, of Madras, 

McOregor» Richard C, and Worce8ter» Dean G. A Hand-List 
of ^e birds of the Philippine Islands. Manila, 1906. 8^. 

PuUications of the Bureau of Govt, Laboratories, No. 86. 

Presd, by the Bureau of Oovt, Laboratories, ManUa. 

Yovng, Alfred H. Stadies in Anatomy from the Anatomica 
Department of the University of Manchester. Vol. III. 
Edited by A. H. Yonng. Manchester, 1906. 8^ 

PtMications of the University of Manchester, AncUomical 
Series, ifo. I. 

Presd. by the University of Manchester. 


The following new books have been added to the Library 
during May 1906 :— 

Ahem, George P. A Compilation of notes on India-Rubber and 
Gutta-Percha. Manila, 1906. 8®. 

Department of the Interior, Bureau of Forestry^ Bulletin, No. 5. 

Presd. by the Bureau, 

AnnandalOi N. Preliminary Report on the Indian Stalked 
Barnacles. [London, 1906.] 8°. 

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 1903, 

Presd, by the Author, 

Australian Mdseum. — Sydney. Nests and Eggs of Birds found 
breeding in Australia and Tasmania. By A. J. North. 
Vol. I, etc. Sydney, 1904, etc. 4®. 

Pre^d. by the Museum. 

British Museum. — Natural History. Catalogue of the Fossil 
Plants of the Glossopteris Flora in the Department of 
Geology. ..By E. A. N. Arber. London, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Museum. 

CabatOn Antoine. Les Chams de Tlndo-Chine. Paris, 1906. 8° 

Ext rait de la Mevue Goloniale. 

DiNKARD. The Pahlavi Dinkard. Book VII. Lithographed by 
Manockji Rustamji Unvala. Bombay, 1904. 4°. 

Presd. by the Trustees of the Parsee Punchayet Funds and 

Properties, Bombay, 

FergUBOIl) John. Bibliotheca Chemica : a catalogue of the 
alchemical, chemical and pharmaceutical books in the collec- 
tion of the late James Young of Kelly and Durris. 2 vols. 
Glasgow, 1906. 8° 

Presd. by the Trustees to the Family of the LaJte James Young. 

Poster, William. The Journal of John Jourdain, 1608-1617, 
describing his experiences in Arabia, India and the Malay 
Archipelago. Cambridge, 1905. 8°. 

Hakluyt Society* s Publications, Second Series, No. XV L 

Presd, by the Oovt. of India, Hojne Dept. 

Fraser, J. G. Lectures on the Early History of the Eingshipi 
London, 1905. 8^ 

HaaSy W. B. Tromp de. Uitkomsten van de in 1905 verrichte 
aftappingsprooyen met Hevea Brasiliensis in den Gnltnnrtain 
te Tjikemenh verkregen. [Batavta, 1906.] 8^. 

Jons^i Dr. A. W. K. de. De Yerandering van bet alkaloid der 
Cocabladeren met den onderdom van het Blad. 
[Batavia, 1906.] 8° 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzorg, 

Kern, H. G^enkteekenen der onde indische Bescbaving in 
Kambodja. [Batavia, 1904.] 8^. 

Overdruk uit Onze Eeuw, 1904, 

Presdi by the Author * 

Macdonaldy George. Coin Types. Tbeir origin and develops 
ment. Being tbe Rbind lectures for 1904... With ••• plates. 
Glasgow, 1905. 8^. 

MargOliOUth, D. S. Mobammed and tbe Rise of Islam. 
New York, London, 1905. 8®. 

Haule, William M. Tbe Cbarcoal Industry in tbe Philippine 
Islands. 2. La Industria del carbdn vegetal en las islas Fili- 
pinas. Manila, 1906. 8^. 

Department qf the Interior, Bureau of Forestry, Bulletin No, 2, 

Freed, by the Bureau, 

Mehmed Tschelebi. Ein nrsprdnglicb Ttirkiscb verfaszter 
scbwank in neupersiscber (ibersetzung. Nacb einer bandscbrift 
berausgegeben und ins deutsche iibertragen von L. Pekotscb... 
Naob der Tiirkisuben vorlage und einer Arabiscben version 
untersncbt und mit Textkritiscben Anmerkungen verseben 
von Dr. M. Bittner. Wien, 1905. 8^ 

Mills, Dr, Lawrence Hey wortb. Zoroaster, Pbilo and Israel, being 
a treatise upon tbe Antiquity of tbe Avesta, 
Leipzig, 1903-04. 8°. 

Presd, by the Trustees of the Parsee Panchayet Ftmds and 

Properties, Bombay, 

MI88I05S SoiBNTiFiQCJES AU Spitzbbbg. Missioos Soientifiquos pour 
la Mesure d*nn Arc de Meridien an Spitzberg. Entreprises 
en 1899-1902. Sons les auspices des Gouvemements Su^dois 
et Russe. Tome I, II Sect., B ; Tome I, V Sect. ; Tome II, 
VII Sect., A; Tome II, VIII Sect., A, B, B«-^ C ; Tome II, 
X Sec. Stockholm, 1904. 4^ 

Presd, by Mesure d^un Arc de Meridien au Spitzberg. 

Modi, Jivanji Jamshedji. Asiatic Papers : papers read before tbe 
Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 
Bombay, 1905. 8°. 

Presd. by the Trustees of the Parsee Panchayet Funds and 

Properties, Bombay. 

Hurray, John. Handbook for Travellers in Asia Minor, Trans- 
caucasia, Persia, etc. Edited by Major-General Sir Charles 
Wilson. With maps and plans. London, 1905. 8^, 

Pabts. — Bibliotheque Nationale. Catalogue des manuscrits PersAns. 
Par E. Blochet. Tome I, etc. Paris, 1905, etc. 8®. 

S&rasin, Paul and Fritz. Reisen in Celebes. Ausgefiihrt in den 
Jahren 1893-1896 nnd 1902-1903. 2 vols. 
Wiesbaden, 1905. 8°. 

Schrooder, Albert. Annam. Etudes Numismatiques. Text, 
and plates. Paris, 1905. 8^. 

Sriniyasa Dasa. ^■^mtftftniT {HS\m) [Yatindramatadipika... 
With commentary called Proka^a by V&sudeva ffastri.] 
[Poona, 1906.] 8°. 

Anandairama Sansh-it Series, No. 50. 

Tchangy Mathias, S.J. Synchronismes Chinois. Ghronologie 
complete et concordance avec Tere chretienne de toutes Tea 
dates concemant THistoire de TExtr^me- Orient, etc. 
Ohang-Hai, 1905. 8^ 

Varietes Sinologiques, No. 24. 

Tisdale, Rev. W. St. Clair. The Original Sources of the Qur'An 
London, 1905. 8^ 

Turner, Samuel. Siberia : a record of travel, climbing and ex- 
ploration... With an introduction by Baron Hey king, lllus* 
trated, etc. London, 1905. 8°. 

Vtrbeek; B. D. M. Deficription O^ogiqne de L'lle I/Aiikboiu 
Text and AtlM. BotoriVi, 190& 8^. 

Presd, htf Hi* Excellency the Goremar-Crf^HerQl^ 

Netherlands^ /khIici. 

mibrinky 6. Tweede Veralag van de Selectie — Proeven met de 
Natal— Indigoplant. Drukkerij\ 1906. 8^. 

Presd. by the Botanic Institute of Buitenzorg, 

Wright, WiUiam. Elementaiy Arabic : a Grammar bj Frederio 
dn Pre Thornton, being an abridgement of Wngbt's Arabic 
Grammar.. ^Edited by R. A. Nicholson. Gawibridge^ 1905. 8^. 


The following new books have been added to the Library 
during June, 1906 : — 

Abhidhamha Pijaka. The Yibhanga, being the second book of 
the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Edited by Mrs. Bhys Davids. 
London, 1904. 8°. 

One of the PublicaUons of ths Pali Text Society. 

Assam District Gazettbers. Vols. I, Gachar; II, Sylhet; III, 
Goalpara ; V, Darrang ; VI, Nowgong ; VII, Sibsagar. 
Allahabad, IWhJQQ. 8^. 

Freed, by the Oovemment of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

Aston, W. G. Shinto— the way of the gods. 
London, New York, and Boinbay, 1905. 8**. 

Barth61emy, Marquis de. An Pays MoL Onvrage acoompagne 
de...gravnres hors texte et de... cartes. Avec le portrait de 
ranteur. Paris, 1904. ff*. 

BiBLiOTHBCA Gbographortjm Arabicobum. Pars Tertia. Descriptio 
Imperii Moslemici antore Shams ad-din Abu Abdallah 
Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn abi Bekr al-Banna al-Basshftri 
AIMoqaddasi. Edidit M. J. de Goeje. Editio Secnnda. 
Lugduni Batavorttm, 1906. 8®. 

Presd.)nf Mens. M. J. de Ooefe, 

Oaland, W. and Henry, V. L'Agni^toma. Description complete 
de la forme normale da sacrifice de soma dans le cnlte 
vediqne. Tome I, etc. Paris, 1906, etc. 8**. 

CAiiBRiDaB Antiquarian Sooibtt. Octavo Publications, No. 42. 
The Place-names of Bedfordshire. By Rev, W. W. Skeat. 
Oambridge, 1906. 8®. 

Presd. by the Society. 

Crooke, William. Things Indian: being discursive notes on 
various subjects connected with India. London, 1906. 8^. 

€uinet, Vital. La Turquie ]!)'Asie. Geocpraphie administrative, 
statistique descriptive et raisonn^ de chaque province de 
TAsie-Minenre. 4 vols, and an alphabetical table. 
Pam, 1892, 8^. 

iHirt, Herman. Die Indogermaaen. Ihre VerbreitanK, ihre 
XTrheimat nnd ihre,abbildangen, etc. Band I, 
etc. Strasshurg, 1905, etc. 8°. 

Hodson, T. C. Thado Grammar. Shtllong, 1906. 8^. 

Presd. hy the Oavei-nment of Eastern Bengal and Assam, 

Jagadis Ohander Bose. Plant Response as a means of Physio- 
logical investigation... With illostrations. 
London, 1906. 8°. 

Lacdte, Felix. Une version nonvelle de la Brhatkatha do 
Gu^adhja. Paw, 1906. 8®. 

Extrait du Journal Astattquey 1908. 

Presd. hy the Author. 

MacDonald, J. B. Geography of New Zealand for Senior Pupils 
in the Public Schools, Scholarship Candidates, and Pupil 
Teachers . . . With . . . maps and . . . illustrations. 
Wdltngton, 1903. 8^. 

Presd. hy the New Zealand Chvemment. 

liANCHBSTEB — University of Manchester. Economic Series, No. 2. 
Cotton spinning and manufacturing in the United States of 
America. A report ..By T. W. Uttley. 

Manchester, 1905. &". 

-m Lectures, No. 3. Bearing and Importance of Com- 
mercial Treaties in the Twentieth Century. A lecture. ..By 
Sir T. Barclay. Manchester, 1906. 8*». 

■«— . Medical Series, No. 4. Course of Instruction in Opera- 
tive Surgery.. .By W. Thorbum. Manchester, 1906. 8^ 

Presd. hy the University. 

Morgan, J. de. Les Becherches Aroheologiques leur but et leors 
proc^d^s. Paris, 1906. 8**. 

Ukited Pbovincbs of Agra and Gudh District Gazbttibb8« 
VoLVin,Agra. Allahahad, 1906. 8\ 

Presd. hy the Govt of India, Home Dept. 



The following new books have been added to the Libraiy 
during July 1906 :— 

Bengal District Gazetteer. Statistical Tables for Angul, Bala- 
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Champaran, Chota Nagpur Tributary, Cooch Behar State, 
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Tippera State, Hooghly, Howrah, Jessore, Khulna, Man- 
bhum, Midnapore, Monghyr, Murshidabad, Muzaffarpar, 
Nadia, Orissa Tributary States, Palamau, Patna, Pun, 
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Sonthal Parganas, and 24-Pargana8. OalciUta, 1905. 8^ 

Pre<d, by the Oovt. of hidia. Home Dept. 

Bernard, Dr. Ch. Eene ziekte van de Gocospalm veroorzaakt 
door pestalozzia palmarum. IBatavia, 1906.] 8°. 

-Eene ziekte van Hevea, veroorzaakt door de Djamoer 

oepas. [Batama, 1906.] 8"^ 

Pre<d, hy the Botanic Inatituie of Buitenzorg 

Brailsford, H. N. Macedonia : its races and their future... With 
photographs and... maps. London, [1906.] 8°. 

Breasted, James Henry. A History of Egypt from the earliest, 
times to the Persian Conquest... With... illustrations andma)>s 
London, 1906. 8°. 

Crawley, Ernest. The Tree of life : a study of religion. 
London, 1905. 8°. 

Thk English Catalogue op Books. 1881-1900, 1902, etc. 
London, 1891, etc, 8^ 

Gangtlli, G. D. The Art Industries of the United Provinces. 
lAUahahad, 1906.] 8^ 

Presd, hy the Author, 

Hutchinson, Jonathan. On Leprosy and Rsh-eating, etc. 
London, 1906. 8°. 

The JagadIs!, a commentary on Anumana, Ghini&mani-Didhiti 
by Siromani. Edited by Bhattan&tha SwAmy. 
Benares, 1906. 8°. 

Chowkhamha Sanskrit Series; No. 101. 

Jong, Br, A. W. K. de. Extractie van Cocoblad. 
\Batama, 1906.] 8^. 

Pret'd. hy the Botanic Inditute of Buttenzorg. 

LippinCOttj J. B. A complete pronouncing Gazetteer or Geo- 
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and L. Heilprin, London, 1906. 8®. 

Mann, Harold H. The Ferment of the Tea leaf, and its relation 
to quality in tea. Parts l-III. Oalctdta, 1901-1904. 8^. 

huUan Tea Association, 

-The Fermentation of Tea. Part I. 

Calcutta, 1906. 8^ 

Indian Tea Association. 

— The " Mosquito-Blight " of Tea, etc. Parts I-III. 
Calcutta, 1902-1905. 8^. 

Indian Tea Association. 

— Red Rust : a serious blight of the tea plant. 
Calcutta, 1901. 8''. 

Indian Tea Association. 

-Tea Soils of Assam, and tea manuring. 

Calcutta, 1901. 8^ 

Indian Tea Association. 

Mann, Harold H.| and Hunter, James. Sisal-Hemp culture in 
the Indian tea districts. Calcutta, 1904. 8^ 

Indian Tea Association. 

Mann, Hai'old H., and HutchinSOn, C. M. Red Rust : a serious 
blight of the tea plant. Second edition. Calcutta, 1904. 8^ 

Indian Tea Association. 

Presd. by the Author, 

Mitra Misra, Pandit. Viramitroday a.... Edited by Parratlya 
Nityteanda Sarmk. Benares, 1906. 8^ 

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Kdinach, Solomon. Cultes, Mythes efc religions. 2 vols. 
Parif^^ 1905-1906. 8°. 

Royal Geographical Socibty — Lowlnn. Supplementary Papers, 
Vol. i. etc. London, 1882, etc, 8°. 

Stow, George W. The rTative Races of South Africa.... With 
numerous illustrations.... Edited by G. M. Theal. 
Lori'lon, 1905. 8''. 

SuRVRY OP India. Rainfall from 1868 to 1903, measured at the 
Trigonometrical Branch Office, Dehra-Dun. 
[Dehra-Dun, 1906.] Obi. 

Presd. hy the Survenor-Oeneral of India, 

Thurston, Edgar. Ethnographic notes in Southern India. 
With... plates. Madras, 1906. 8°. 

Presd. hy Qovt. of Madras. 

V06ltzk0W, Dr. Alfred. Bericht uber eine reise nach Ost- 
Afrika zur untersuchung der bildung und des aufbaues der 
rifPb und inseln des westlichen indischen ozeans. 
[Berlin, 1906] 8°. 

Presd. by the Author. 

2ichy, Qrafen Eugen. Dritte Asiatische Porschungareise. Bands 

I. Herkunft der Magyarischen fischerei von Dr. J. Janko. 

II. Zoologische Ergebnisse...von Dr. G. Horvath. III-IV. 
ArchaDologische Studien auf Russischem Boden von B. Po^ta. 

V. Sammlung ostjakischer volk8dichtungen...von J. Papay, 

VI. Forschungen im osten...von E. Zichy. 
Budapest, 1900-1905. 4^ 

Vol. II, No. 1.] Uomaka, or the Gity of Rome. 1 


1. Bomnkay or the Oity of Romey as mentioned in the Ancient Pali 
and Sanskrit works, — By MAHiMAHOPiDHTAYA Satis Ohandba 


The intercourse between Rome and India, from the 1st cen- 
tury B.C. to the 5th century A.D., has been a favourite subject of 
investigation to several scholai*s of eminence during the last few 
years. Mr. Robert Sewell,^ on an examination of a large number 
of '* Roman coins found in India/' has concluded that the trade 
between Rome and India began in the reign of Augustus about 
29 B.C., and remained in full force up to the time of Nero, A.D. 68. 
Then it slightly declined, but revived under the Byzantine em- 
perors, and did not finally disappear until the G-oths and Vandals 
attacked Rome about A.D. 450. 

There seems to have been very little trade between Rome and 
India in the years preceding the reign of Augustus. Although 
several Roman coins of the Consulate period have been discovered 
in the Manikyala stupas and in the Hazara district of the Punjab, 
but these old coins were very probably brought to India by 
traders several years after they had been prepared in Rome, for 
it is almost certain that Rome did not attempt to spread eastwards 
till the later years of the Consulate It was in the reign of 
Augustus that the conquest of Asia by Rome began. The Im- 
perial supremacy of Rome aroused on the part of her wealthy 
citizens an unrestrained indulgence in eastern luxuries, such as 
in perfumes, ivory, precious stones, silks, fine muslins, pepper, 
spices, etc. 

These were largely supplied by the western and south-western 
parts of India, the chief centre of trade having been Barygaza or 
Bharoach, near Guzerat. About A.D. 47 the reRularity of mon- 
soons in the Indian Ocean was discovered, and the Roman ships 
began to sail direct to the Malabar coast, and thereby a great 
impetus was given to Indian commerce. Numerous coins of the 
time of Augustus and his successors were brought to India from 
Rome by traders. These coins have been recovered from va.rious 
places, especially from the western districts of the Deccan. In 
the districts of Madura and Coimbatore alone, 55 separate dis- 
coveries have been made, and 612 gold coins and 1,187 silver coins, 
besides heaps consisting of five cooly-loads of gold coins and 
several thousands of silver coins, have been found out. Even in 
Bengal, at a place called Bamauaghati in the district of Singbhum, 
there have been found coins of the times of Gordian and Con- 
stantino. Near Jelalabad there have been found Roman coins of 
as late a period as the time of Theodosius about A.D. 450. It was 
about this time that the Goths and Vandals attacked Rome, whose 
trade with India consequently ceased altogether. 

From the numismatic evidences given above, as well as from 

1 Robert Seweirs article on " Roman Coins found in India," publiahed 
in the Joarnnl of the Royal Asiatic Society of Qreat Britain and Irelandi 
October 190%. 

2 Jnttnutl nf fhf Aalntif Sori&ljf of Bonijnl . ^Tanuarv, 1900. 

the artistic and other evidences, and also from the writings of 
Strabo, Pliny and others, it is clear that there were intimate 
relations between Home and India for nearly five hundred years, 
i.e., between 29 B.C. and A.U. 450. The art, religion, mythology, 
philosophy, science, etc., of India during this period were more or 
less influenced by the culture of Uome.* The elements in the art 
of the Gandhara or Peshwar School have been examined in detail, 
and the general aspect of the figure sculptui*es and architectural 
decorations of that school has been perceived to be distinctly 
Roman. The designs of the sculptures at Amaravati in Southern 
India have also been considered of Roman origin. It has even been 
affirmed that the Kusana copper coins and the Indian coins of the 
Gupta period were direct imitations of the Roman coins called 
Aurei. The Roman word denarins in its Sanskrit form dtnnra, 
signifying a coin, occurs not only in the Indian inscriptions of 
the early Gupta kings, but also in such classical Sanskrit works 
as the Rajatarangini of Kalhana and Dasa-Kumara-Carita of 
Dagdi, and even in the earliest known Sanskrit lexicon called 
Amarako^,^ compiled by Amarasiiiiha, who was one of the nine 
gems of the court of Vikramaditya at TJjjaini. 

Evidences might be multiplied to illustrate the manifold 
influence exercised by Rome on the ancient civilization of India. 
Seeing that the Roman influence was once so keenly felt by India, 
it is no matter of surprise that the name Rome should have been 
known to the Hindus in the ancient days. In fact, it occurs in 
several of the very important Sanskrit and Pali works. The 
name by which Rome has been designated in ancient Sanskrit and 
Pali works i.s Romaka, which is identical with Roma or Rome, the 
suffix ka having been euphoniously added to it. The latest authori- 
tative mention of Romaka is to be found in the Siddhanta- 
6iromoni of the great Hindu astronomer Bhaskaracaiyya,* who 

1 Vincent A. Smith's article on " Graoco- Roman Tnfliienw* on the Civili- 
zation of India," in the Jonrnal of the Asiatic Socidv of Bengal, Part I., 
No. 3, 1889. 

2 ^ifT^Sfir ^ f'lSoffti'^t I ^Amarakosn, NnnnrMiavarpa.) 

^1^5 Kt^% T[f^[^ cft^ i: ?8 II 

iSiddlinnta-S'iromani, Gol^dhvnvn, pp. 251^^ 2.'!), edited bv Bapndera 
S'astrl, Benares, 18G0.) 

Vol. I], No. 1.] Romaka, or the City of Some. 3 

flourished in Southern India early in the L2th century A.D. 
Another celebrated astronomer named Yarfihamihira, who was a 
brilliant gem in the court of Vikramaditya at Ujjaini in A.D. 505, 
and whose works are specially valuable as they contain a very 
large number of Greek and Latin astronomical terms, mentions 
Romaka in his well-known works ^ on astronomy and astrology 
named respectively Panca-siddhantika and Yrhat-saiphita. Ro- 
maka is also mentioned in the five famous astronomical works * 
named Paitamaha, Ya^^t^a, SQryya, Paulisa and Romaka sid- 
dantas, all of which have been reviewed by Yarahamihira in his 
Panca-siddantika, and some of which were compiled in the 3rd 
or 2nd century A.D. Brahma- (spbuta)-8iddhanta, Eafyapa-saip- 
hita, etc., also refer to Romaka. Thus examining the astronomical 
works we can trace the name Romaka as far back as the 2nd 
century A.D. 

(PftnoaaiddaDtika, p. 45, edited by Dr. Thibaut and Sndbikara 

(Ya^iBtba-siddhintA, edited by Yindhyesvari Prasada Dobe, Benarea.) 

^^% %5imn^ tt^wi^r Trt?tf^ i ^£. i 
5f^t ftrw iiTT?ini> ^r^^i^ Jrwror: i %• i 

(8uryya*Biddbanta, Bbugoladby&ya, pp. 285-66, edited by Hari Sankar, 

(Brahma-Biddhlnta, Chapter I.) 

4 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [January, 1006. 

- Not onlj in the astronomical works, but also in such other 
works as the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata and the Jataka 
section of the Pali Pitakas we meet with a prominent mention of 
Bomaka. It is not exactly known when the Mahabharata and the 
Jfttaka were respectively compiled. The orthodox Hindus look 
upon the Mahabhfirata as a very ancient work, though some 
scholars have brought down the date of composition of some por- 
tions of it to the Ist century A.D. when Bomaka or Romans were 
well known in India. The Pali Jataka is stated to have existed 
at the time of Aioka, and the Pifakas of which it forms a part 
are said to have been rehearsed in the 1st Buddhist Council in 
India in 543 B.C. According to this statement, it would appear 
that Bomaka or Bome was known in India in the 6th century 
B.C. But this conclusion would appear to some as improbable as 
there is no other strong evidence to show that Bome was known 
to the people of India at so early a date. So we may suppose 
that the Bomaka Jataka in which the name Bomaka occurs might 
have been compiled at a considerably late date. In the Maha- 
vaipsa, Cliapter XXXIII., we find that the Pali Pitakas which had 
been learnt by Prince Mahinda, son of Emperor Asoka, for three 
years, were carried to Ceylon where they were orally perpetuated 
by priests, and were not reduced to writing until in tlie reign of 
Yattagamani about 88 B.C. It is probable that the Bomaka 
Jataka was interpolated in the Pali Pitakas in Ceylon nearly one 
hundred years after the the time of Vatta.gamani, i.e., in the 1st 
century A.D. This supposition would be supported by the ac- 
count of Pliny, according to whom the communication of Bome 
with Ceylon (Taprobane) began in the reign of Emperor Claudius 
about A.D. 41. Hence we can fairly presume that the name 
Bomaka was introduced in the Pali Pitakas and the Sanskrit 
Mahabharata in the Ist century A.D., though it is not altogether 
improbable that the name had been introduced even much earlier. 

I shall now briefly refer to the connection in which the name 
Bomaka occurs in the Sanskrit and Pali works mentioned above. 
In the Pali Pitaka, Bomaka is mentioned, as I have already said, in 
the Bomaka Jataka ^ which describes a sham ascetic who, while 
living in a hut near a frontier village, was taken with the flavour 
of pigeon's flesh, and tried, contrary to the practice of the Bud- 
dhist ascetic whose place he occupied, to kill a certain pigeon for 
the purpose of eating it. This story was evidently intended to 
indicate the contrast of a Buddhist ascetic from a Boman ascetic, 
inasmuch as the former would under no circumstances kill any 
living creature. 

The Mahabharata^ mentions the Bomaka or Bomans in 

i Bomaka Jataka, Jataka Volame IT., No. 277, edited by Y. Fausboll. 

* ^fs\ H47tji^ ^nT^r^n^ TTTif^TW* '^^RriRfr^ i 

Vol. II, No. i.l Rouiaica, or the City of Borne. fe 


connection with the Rajasuja Yajna or coronation ceremony of 
Maharaja Yudhi^thira at Indraprastha or Delhi. The Romans 
are described there as having come with precious presents to offer 
to Yudhi^thira, and as waiting at the gate of his palace before 
getting admittance into the same. 

I have already stated that Vrhatsaiphita is a very learned 
work on astrology, compiled by the distinguished astronomer 
Varahamihira about A.D. 505. In the 16th chapter of the work ^ 
the eminent author divides the people of India and outside into 
various well-defined groups to each of which he assigns the in- 
fluence of particular planets and stars. In ascertaining the ab- 
solute or relative strength of a certain nation at a certain time, 
one has simply to examine the strength of the planet or star 
presiding over that nation nt that time. It is very curious that 
according to Varahamihira the Romaka or Romans stand under the 
influence of Gandra or moon while the Cina or Chinese live under 
the influence of Bkdskara or the sun, and the Sveta-Hupa or the 
White Huns, Avagana (probably the Afghans) and the Mam- 
Cina or the desert-living Chinese, i.e., the Mongolians, imbibe the 
influence of Ketu or Dragon's Tail, and so on. 

The Romaka-siddhanta * already referred to is a Sanskrit 
work on astronomy based probably on the Roman original of the 
astronomer Hipparchus. This work is said to have been dated 
the second century A.D., as it has been reviewed in most other 
Indian astronomical works, and is stated by Varahamihira to have 
been explained by La^a Deva [perhaps of Gujrata]. In the 
Brahma-siddhanta and other works there is a controversy* as 
to whether the authority of Romaka-siddhanta is to be accepted 
by Hindus. Some declare it to have stood outside the realm of 
Smrtis or the Hindu Socio-religious institutes, while others 
establish its authority on the ground that it came forth, like all 

(Mahiibharata, SabhapRrva, Chapter 51). 

(Vrhatsaiyihita, Chapter XVI., edited by Dr. Kern, Calcutta, 1865.) 

2 Vide Shatikara Bnlkrishna Dikshit's article on Romaka-aiddhinta in the 
" Indian Antiquary," May 1890. 

S Brahma-Btddhinta, chapter I, verse 13. Compare also — 

(Panoasiddhantika, Sadhakara's note, p. 2.) 

o journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [January, 190d. 

other Hindu astronomical works, from the mouth of Sun-god 
himself, while that deity under the curse of Brahma was bom in 
the race of Yavana in the country of Romaka and told it to a 
Bomaka or Roman by whose agency it was spread abroad. The 
anecdote here related points to the Roman origin of the Romaka 

Jn the Ya^i^tha-siddhanta, S&ryya-Siddhanta, and other 
astronomical works already referred to, Romaka is mentioned as a 
Mahdpuriy Pattana or Vtsaya, i.e., a great city, state or dominion. 
Romaka is stated there to be the westernmost point of the horizon, 
while Siddhapura, Yamako(i and Laiika (Ceylon) are respectively 
the northern, eastern and southernmost points. By way of 
further explanation, it is affirmed that while there is sunrise at 
Lanka or Ceylon, there is midday at Yamakofi, sunset at Sid- 
dhapura, and midnight at Romaka or Rome ; or in other words, 
Rome is supposed to be 90 degrees west of the meridian of Ceylon. 
But as a matter of fact Rome is only 69^ degrees west of Ceylon. 
How are we then to justify the statement of ancient Indian 
astronomers with regard to the actual distance of Rome from 
Ceylon P I explain the statement by supposing that Lanka sig- 
nifies not only Ceylon but includes islands situated 8 or 10 degrees 
east of its meridian, while Romaka includes the Roman depen- 
. dencies situated 10 or 12 degrees west of its own meridian. 
Albiruni,^ who flourished at the close of the 10th century A.D., in 
his '' India " notices the Hindu astronomical works, including the 
Romaka-siddhanta, and supports the statement of Hindu astrono- 
mers by supposing that Romaka stands for the Roman Empire 
as far west as the northern part of Africa [extending perhaps 
to Morocco]. On either of the explanations given above Romaka 
or the westernmost part of the Roman Empire would be exactly 
90 degrees west of the meridian of Lanka or the eastern part of 
the Ceylonese islands. 

Some may say that Romaka of ancient Sanskrit and Pali 
wozks does not signify Rome of Italy but denotes RQma, that is, 
Byzantia or Constantinople. But this theory would be utterly 
groundless, for Constantinople is only 52 degrees west of the 
meridian of Ceylon, and under no circumstances can there be sun- 
rise at Ceylon while there is midnight at Constantinople. 

That Romaka is not Constantinople can be easily proved 
from a statement of Yarahamihira > who says, that wliile there is 

i Albirani'B India, p. 808, Volume I., edited by £. C. Sachaa. 

fn^ifnurotiict ^wr^s^f^ ^w ii ^"^ ii 

(Dr. Tbibaat's edition of Pafioasiddhantika, p. 45.) 

T^oL il, No. 1.] Bomaka, or the Giiy of Borne. 7 

sunrise at Laoka there is midnight at Bomaka, and 2 o'clock 
after midnight at Yavanapnra or Alexandria ; or, in other words, 
Yavanapara or Alexandria is 60 degi*ees west of the meridian 
of Lanka and 30 degrees east of the meridian of Bomaka. 
We know that Alexandria and Constantinople are situated almost 
on the. same longitude. So the statement of Yarahamihira 
would be utterly incorrect if we suppose Bomaka to be Constanti- 
nople, but it would be fairly correct if Bomaka is identified with 

Further, the name BOma as signifying Byzcmtia or Constanti- 
nople, did not come into existence before the occupation of the 
place by the Boman emperor Constantino in the 4th century A.D., 
while we have seen that the name Bomaka was used in Pali and 
Sanskrit works at least as early as in the 1st century A.D. In fact, 
the name Buma as signifying Byzantia or Constantinople was 
made known in India by the Arabic writers in and after the 7th 
century A.D. 

The Sanskrit Jyotirvidabhara^a ' which mentions Buma is 
a very modern work which did not exist before the time of 
Timurlane. This B&ma, as signifying Constantinople, is to be 
clearly distinguished from Bomaka as signifying Bome. Dr. 
Kern* who did not distinguish between Buma and Bomaka 
observes that the name Buma mentioned in Jyotirvidabharpa 
stands for the more regular Sanskrit name Bomaka. But this 
observation is, in my humble opinion, an oversight on the part of 
that eminent scholar. Indeed, there is not the slightest doubt that 
Bomaka stands for Bome of Italy, for YarShamihira distinctly 
mentions Bhraukaccha and Samudra along with Romaka ^ as if to 
indicate that the Bomaka or Boman used to come to India over 
the Samudra or sea, and landed at the port of Barukaccha" or 
Bharoach, near Ouzrat. The route incidentally indicated here in 
the Yrhatsaiphita of Yarahamihira exactly coincides with that 
by which the Boman traders actually used to come to India, as is 
evident from the writings of Pliny and others. 

^Un^Rvh ^MM^U^W' t (Jyotirvid4bharav«). 

2 Vide Dr. Kern's edition Vrhatsaiiihitc, Prefncei p. 18. 

3 Yrhatsaiphita, chapter XYI., verse 6. 

•Journal of the Asiatic Society of bengal. [J^annary, l90o. 

2. Two New Gyprinoid Fishes from the Helmand Basin, — By 
C. Tate Began, B.A. Communicated by Libut.-Colonel A. W. 
Alcock, CLE., F.R.S. 

[The Fishes collected in the affluents of the Helmand by Colonel Sir A. H. 
McMahon, K.O.I.E , G.8.I., and the offioers of the Seistan Arbitration 
Oommission, have, by the kindness of Messrs. G. A. Bonlenger, F.R.S., and 
0. Tate Began, of the BritLsh Mnsenm, been identified as follows : — 

Diseognathue variahUiSt Heokel; Seaphiodon macmahoni^ n. sp.; Sehizc 
pygopais stoliezhsSj Stdr. ; Nemachiltu aUnuruSy Herz. ; and Nefnachilus 
rhadinseus, n. sp. — A. W. A.]. 


Depth of body 3| to 3|- in the length, length of head 
4^ to 4}. Snout obtuse, shorter than the postorbital part of head. 
Diameter of eye 4 to 4^ in the length of head, interorbital width 
2f to 2|. Mouth inferior; lower jaw with nearly straight 
transverse anterior edge ; barbel originating directly below the 
nostrils, shorter than the eye. Scales 37-39|, 4 between lateral 
line and root of ventral fin, 16 or 18 round the caudal peduncle ; 
the two rows above the lateral line the largest; scales of the 
lower part of the abdomen small or rudimentary. Dorsal III 
10, its origin equidistant from tip of snout and base of caudal ; 
third simple ray moderately strong, serrated in its basal half, 
I to i the length of head and 1:^ as long as the last branched 
ray ; free edge of the fin straight. Anal III 6-7, the second 
branched ray a little longer than the first or the third and twice 
as long as the last, as long as or a little longer than the long^est 
dorsal ray. Pectoral a Httle shorter than the head, extending 
f or f of the distance from its base to the base of ventral. 
Yentrals originating below the first branched ray of the dorsal, 
extending nearly to the origin of anaL Caudal forked. Caudal 
peduncle 1|^ to If as long as deep, its least depth not more than 
i the length of head. Grayish above, silvery below ; fins pale or 
somewhat dusky. 

Two specimens, 70 and 110 mm. in total length. The 
larger with tubercles on the snout and on the rays of the anal 

Gyprinion kirmanense Nikolski, 1899, appears to be allied 
to this species, but differs at least in the larger eye, the thick and 
strongly serrated last simple dorsal ray, the form of the dorsal 
fin and the coloration. 

NsMACHiLUs rhadinj:us, sp. nov* 

Depth of body 7 to 10 in the length, length of head 6 to SJ. 
Depth of head J to ^ its breadth, which is 1| to 1| in its length. 
Diameter of eye 7|-8J^ in the length of head and 1| to 2 in the 
interorbital width. Snout longer than postorbital part of head. 
Cleft of mouth extending to below the nostrils ; lips moderately 

Vol II, NoL LI Tto Xetr Cypntu<id Fi*he: 9 

thick, smooth, the lower intermpted mcdianly ; six barbels ; outer 
rostral barbel as long as the fnarillaiy buiiel, extending to or 
beyond the nostrils. Scales entirely wanting. Dorsal III 7, its 
origin nearer to tip of snout than to bnse of caudal ; free edge 
of the fin convex. Anal II-III 5. Pectoral extending about j- of 
the distance from its base to the base of ventraL Ventrals 
8-rajed, originating below the anterior branched rays of the 
dorsal, extending ^-^ of the distance from their base to the origin 
of anaL Caudal slightly emarginate. Caudal peduncle 2 to 2| 
as long as deep, its length 5 to 5^ in the length of the fish. 
Large oblong or rounded dark spots on the back and sides ; dorsal 
and caudal with some small dark spots ; lower fins pale, immacu- 

Three specimens, 165 to 260 mm. in total length. 

Perhaps allied to NemachUut sargadetuis Xikolski, 1899, 
the description of which is somewhat deficient in structural 
details, but the coloration appears to be too different to justify 


10 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [January, 1906. 

3. The Origin of Mankind {according to the Lamaic Mythology). — 
By Em Sarat Chandba Das, Bahadur, c.i.e. 

In the beginning of the present Kalpa ^ when all living beings, 
with the exception of man, had sprang up in the regions of the 
Rirab (Sumeru) mountain, situated above the residence of the four 
Dika Pal a (guardians of the world called Mahdrfija KSyikA *), 
two Deva-puti-a (angels) came down to this earth from heaven, 
on account of their merits having diminished and miraculously ^ 
became transformed into a shape which was the prototype of 
humanity. One of them was Nima^ Bab-nang (refulgent sun), 
and the other was Dawa ^ Di-meh (stainless moon). These were 
followed by other angels whose term of residence in heaven had 
expired at the exhaustion of the merit they had acquired before. 
[It should be remembered that the paradise, where gods live, is a 
place of harmless enjoyments. There neither virtue nor vice is 
acquired. A god only enjoys the fruit of his good karma. When 
the moral merit that is to his credit becomes exhausted he 
cannot recoup it by fresh acts as long as he remains in heaven. 
He then returns to this world where there are opportunities to do 
bofch good and bad works.] In heaven there is no opportunity to ac- 
quire moral merit. Thus humanity, evolving from heavenly origin 
in course of time, multiplied on earth. These transformed and 
fallen divinities lived to immeasurably long age, and are said to 
have been of a very tall stature, something like thirty- two cubits in 
height. In that early age they subsisted on contemplation's food.^ 
Then there was no sun nor moon, nor day nor night ; they moved 
in the light that emanated from their own bodies.? They could 
walk in space and perform all their works miraculously in the 

1 ^^pr^ great period of time ; nge. « ^^*^^^q | 

8 B^ ^ ffl^ miraouloafl birth. 

♦ ^ " *N ^"^ the luminosity of this angel resembled that of the sun. 

It is probable that this indi?idaal, after acquiring immense moral merit, 
retarned to heaven and there became the snn. 

6 S^ A } "^^^ ^*8l»t <^l^at came out of the body of this angel wbb 

mild and cool like that of the moon. He too, like Nima RabnRng, eventually 
returned to heaven and became the moon. 


I Tol. n. No. 1.1 The Origin of Mimkind. II 

niAnner of the gods of the Dhyani-loka > heaven. When with the 
farther exhaustion of their moral merits their longevity decreased, 
I there grew in their minds desire for tasting. 

Sheehn * was the first of the human race who had tasted of the 
nectar. Those who came after him, being also grown by miracn- 
loos transformation, were called Sf*eehu'kyehj^ and began to subsist 
on that ambrosial drink. Accordingly, their stomachs being stuffed 
with food, they began to feel the necessity of evacuations, which 
brought on uneasiness in their minds. Their body being thus- 
tainted by impurities, its resplendence — glorious colours — gradu- 
ally began to fade. When Uie luminosity of their person was 
lost, they became very unhappy. At this stage, while deploring^ 
the loss and downfall from a happier state they had sustained, 
they thought intently on the necessity of external light, without 
which they were no longer able to work for their existence. By 
the force of this concentrated wish of all humanity, and also on 
account of there still existing to their credit some moral merits^ 
there appeared in heaven the sun, moon, constellations, and 
other numberless luminous bodies. Then there arose the division 
of time, day and night. With the appearing of light, the 
distinction of colour, the sense of beauty and ugliness, the dis- 
crimination of good from bad complexion, also pride, envy, etc., 
arose. These demerits caused the food of nectar to vanish from this 
earth. In consequence of this fresh and greater misfortune, hu- 
manity now concentrated its desire for subsisting on something that 
was next in quality to the ambrosial food. By this combined will- 
power nature was forced to yield a condensed milky fluid which was 
formed on the surface of the earth when the gods had taken away 
the little nectar that had remained in the ocean by churning it. This 

was (^S*^^) *^® earth-cream which contained nutrition similar 

but inferior to that which was in the food of the gods. Mankind 
enjoyed this delicious article for a great length of time. Increase 
of their demerit caused a corresponding decrease in the supply of 
earth-cream, in consequence of which mankind had to think of 

some other food to subsist upon. Vegetable shoots (^ t^ ®^ ) 

now sprang forth everywhere, and furnished an inexhaustible supply 
of food. They now sought variety, and appordingly, got the Wildly 

grown (uncultivated) 5|'5J^^^*Q^^^!3 9al% rice, which 

grew in the morning and matured at noon, and became fit for 
harvesting in the eveniQg. Such were the blesbings which people 

in the Krtta yuga ( 6^^^^ ) »«e , the age of perfection, enjoyed. 

The duration of that age was 1,728,000 years. 


12 Journal of the Asiatic Society of BenyaL [Januftrv, 190^. 

At the end of the Krita ynga^ there grew in the hnman kind a 
tendency for eating animal food. Indulgence in this brought out 
the development of the distinction of sex Sexual attachment and 
union became necessaiy for the multiplication of the race. ' Hence- 
forward further addition by the miraculous transformation of fallen 
angels to humanity stopped. Out of the foui' fundamental vices, that 
of the sexual abuse, t.e., adultery, for instance, prevailed in this 
•age. Modesty and shame now came into pix)minence in the human 
conduct, which ci^ated the necessity of residence in houses. 
People learnt the art of house-building. Birth from the womb 
became the necessary i-^sult of procreation. On account of the free- 
dom from the thi*ee principal ixK)t-vice8 which this age enjoyed, it 
came to be known by the name Treta yuga or Sumdan * Its dui'a" 
tion was 1,296,000 years. At the approach of a more degenerate 
Age, humanity having ei*ewhile not much to do for earning food, 
gradually turned idle. Lazy people, at each time, reaped moi'e 
com than was necessary for the day's consumption, and stored 
it up for use duiing the time they intended not to do any i-eap- 
mg work. In some houses there were provisions stored up for four 
or five days' use ; in others, food for even seven days was kept. This 
storing up of com pi*oduced the necessity for its protection by 
husk.^ At this stage, nature refused to supply a ready harvest for 
the subsistence of idle humanity. It now became necessary for 
people to betake themselves to the labours of the field for grow- 
ing com. When one party pi'epared a field for cultivation another 
party came and foi-estalled them in sowing corn which they had kept 
in store. When the time foi* harvesting came, a third party, who had 
neither tilled the soil nor sown grain, came and reaped the com. 
There grew much confusion in the division of the produce which 
all tlie three parties claimed as their own. This brought in the 

9^*^ I Pag-sam jonsafk, p, 10. 

Vol, II, No. 1.] Tfu Origin' of Mnnkivd. 13 

•question of right and possession. * Honest men endeavonred to keep 
to themselves the frmt of their toil ; idle and dishonest folks tried 
to subsist on the labours of others. This again raised the question 
-of might and protection of property. It was now found that the 
age of commonwealth had passed away, and people now required 
a king to keep peace and to make property secure They, thei^e- 
fore, agreed to choose a king from among themselves whom they 
all should respect and obey. Accordingly, they elected Maha Sam- 
mata ^ as their first king, who was so named on account of his being 
selected by the common consent and also foi* having been respected 
by all. This was the origin of royalty. His descendants came 
to be known as the Royal race, or Gyal-ri.* As it was not expected 
of the monarch to earn his own food by personal labour, his time 
being required for the public weal, it was agreed by all to give him, 
out of gratitude, in return for his good service to the public, one- 
sixth share * of the pi-oduce of the field From this oi-iginated the 
payment of revenue to the state. It was, at about this stage of civi- 
lization, that one party i-emoved another's property without leave or 
consent. Hence originated theft, one pai'ty stealint^ another's pro- 
perty and thereby living at ease at other people's cost. This was 
recognized by the king as the crime of theft, which caused worldly 
•enjoinments to degenerate. As two of the foui* vices, t.e., adultery 
and theft, now prevailed in this world, this age became known by 
the name Dwapar, i.e., after " two," or in Tibetan Si-dan,* the age 
in which two of the root- vices prevailed. Its duration was esti- 
mated at 8,640,000 years. 

Thereafter began the present age, with the institution of farm- 
ing lords ^ ( in Europe, fuedal-lords). When peaceful measures failed 
to govern the people, the necessity of inflicting corporeal punish- 
ment, and death- sentence for heinous crimes, arose. The fear of 
punishment now brought lying and perjury into existence. The 
four fundamental vices, viz., adultery, theft, murder, and lying, 
were now recognized as great crimes, in consequence of which this 
age was called Kali yuga, or the age of strife and feuds .^ lis 
•duration was 432,000 years. 

Origin of the five great races of JamhudvrpaJ 

The origin of the royal race has been described above. Such 
people as being averse to work and householder's life retired to 

4pT^ ^^'Sf^i »^*'^^i •^'^yi 

1 This paper embodies the translations of a few paragraphs from Pag- 
««jon»ft ^q«TfqfWf5j*qaCr pp.i6»ndl7. 

14 Journal of the AmHc Society of Bengal. [ Jauo^ry, 1906.] 

solitude for contemplation and f or Bpiritual cnltore, were called 
9%$%,^ Those who betook themflelves to worldly life and resided in 
retired vilUges, and places remote from towns, for leading a 
pure life {Brahma cary9k)^ and earned their living by reciting the 
Veda f were called the Brahmans.* Those who, without committing 
theft, i.e., by trading honestly in other people's articles acquired 
wealth, were called the Je-rig ♦ (gentleman-caste). 

Those who earned their living by serving the three superior- 
races, by the labours of the field, and also by doing some work or 

mischief toothers, were called the (^'^IC^^^'pi) Mang-rig, *.e.,. ! 

the common people. Such people who possessed little sense of mo- 
desty and shame, committed theft, murder, etc., and earned their- 
subsistence chiefly by doing menial service and mean works, were | 

called the Sudra or Dol-wairig.^ 

* i"^«T^ or Yaicyi. » eH^fiJ^'^qpf | 

ToL II, No. 2.] The Bengal poet Dhoytka, etc. 15 


4. Supplementary Notes on the Bengal poet Dhoytka and on the 
Sena Kings.^By Monmohan Chakravarti, M.A., B.Ij;, 

T. DhoyIka. 

The Favanadutamik was certainly known to Sndhara-dasa, as 

^ - • ^® quotes its verse 104 and the first half of 

:kM^ to th?"in. ^^ ^®^«® 1^1 "^ ^^« anthology, the Sukti- 

thologist Srldhara- karn-amrta, under the name Dhoyika. 

dasa. The verse 104, as quoted in the MSS.,^ 

nearly agrees with the printed text 

•(J.A^S.B. 1905, p. 68), the only variants being iAf% fori^K^ in line 

1» WWt'r for mrW in line 3, and ifWHHiraT for ^flUHillir in line 4. In 
the verse 101, the second half differs, but why it is not clear. 
, It runs in the anthology as follows : — 

^whw ^ifinjT^WT ftuwiftfir ^{^ 

ft^rw^ ^g ^^%?J^Enn^ Wll^ll WW^C^ I fol. 182b. 

^^T^trff^TTs irf^TT^ftr:, f^^rwNr', v. 29. 2. 

The Pavanadutam must, therefore, be earlier than S^aka 1127 
Phalguna, or 1206 a^d., in which year this anthology was 

Very little is known about the works of Dhoyika. So I give 

AH^ft* 1 ^^ *^® appendix 18 more verses quoted in 

sesof the'poet^^'" the Sukti-karn-flmrta, one quoted in Jal- 

* hana*s Suhh^sita-miiktAvali,^ and one 

•quoted in the Sdrhgadhara-paddhati, in all 20 verses. 

Jayadeva in his 4th verse calls Dhoyi kavi-ksmS-patih as 
Srutidhara^, or one having good memory. According to the com- 
mentators, this means that he was not original, probably alluding 
to his fondness for imitation as shown, e.g., in the Pavanadutam, 
The epithet Srtitidhara is, however, used in the verse of Dhoyika 
•quoted above. 

IL The Sena Kings* 

. Further materials for the ascertainment of the Lak^mapasena 

-M-/^ A #4af • Samvat are to be found in the "Notices of 

La: 8a! era. Sanskrit MSS. " in the Durbar Libi-ary, 

Nepal, edited by our Philological Secretaiy, 

Mahamahopadhyaya Pap^it Haraprasad S'SstH, which has just 

1 Uccavaca'prnvdhajjk, »ffar<!fta-s«nto-WctA, 6th verse (v. 61.5), fol. 

2 Dr. Bhap^arkar's Report on the Searoh for SaoBkrit MSS., 1897, 
f). xxvi 

16 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [February, 1906. 

come to my hands. Some 57 MSS. contain colophons dated in La. 
Sa. ranging from the year 91 (in the MS. No. 400, p. 15) to the 
year 56§ (in No. 1076-73, p. 41). In most the dates are in figures, 
with the abbreviated symbols La. Sa. In only four MSS. words like 
the following have been used:— ^(^ H ^t l^H^MfH ii^ (MS. 787 m, 
p. 22), ^win*(MS. 1577 w, p. 33), <Hwl | i i |J1i| (MS, 1113 w, 
p. 35), and ^HH^mV (MS. 13616, p. 51). The words IW * expired,* 
and W^ are significant. 

Unfortunately, most of the dates given do not mention the 
tithis and the weekdays together, and are hence not verifiable. Of 
the few which do, in the following, the tithis come out correctly 
with the weekdays, if the La. Sa. be taken to have b^un in 
A.D. 1119-20 (paka 1041-2) :— 

(i) The Mahdhharaia, ^Snti-parwa, Maithili characters 
(MS. No. 867, p. 25). 
La, Sa, 412 Kdrttika-hikla'Sasfhyam gurau £?ine = Thurs- 
day, the 27th October, a.d. 1530 (the La. Sa. year 
being cun-ent). 
(ii) The Bhagavata'da^ama'Skandha'ttkH of ^i^dhara-svami 
(MS. No. 934, p. 28), Maithili character. 
La. Sa. 472 Kflrttika ^udi S ravau (;?twe=s Sunday, the 
15th of October, a.d. 1591. 
(iii) The TOtparyya-parisuddhik of Udayana, in MaithiH 
character (MS. No. 1076 m, p. 31). 
La. Sa. 339, Bhadra hidi safthyUm A:f*;e= Tuesday, the 
15th of August, A.D. 1458. 
(iv) The Kdrttika-mahiltmyamj in Bengali character (MS. 
No. 1077 w, p. 32). 
La, Sa, 447, Sravana vadi 5, candra-vdsare as Monday, the 
5th of August, A.D. 1566 (the La. Sa. year being 
(v) The Devi'mdhdtmya-tikcly in Bengali character (MS. 
No. 1361 V, p. 51). 
Netr'Shdhi-rdma-yuta-Laksmanasena-varse BhSdre kuje 
Haripnxfi Hari-vasare drdk or La, 8a. 372, BhOdra 
iu 12, twye = Tuesday, the 15th of August, a.d. 1491 
(the year- being current), 
(vi) The Levt'mUhatmyam, in Maithili character (MS. 
No. 153411, p. 613). 
La. Sa. 392, Pausa vadi 3, 6iid^e = Wednesday, the 18th 
of December, ad. J 510 (the year current, already 
calculated by Professor Kielhom, see note 4 to 
p. 19, Professor Bendall's Introduction), 
(vii) The Suryya-siddhanta-hhifsyam of Cande^vara, in 
Maithili character (MS. No. 1165, p. 133). 
La, Sa 392, Phalguna stufi 7, ca^wirp = Monday, the 23rd 
of February, a.d. 1511. 
(viii) The Bhngavata, dasama-skandJia, Maithili character (MS. 
No. 358, p. 13). 
La. Sa. 397, SakobdM 1399. 

Vol. 11, No. 2.] The Bengal poet Dhoyika, etc. 17 


The only colophon giving the La. Sa. with another era. They 
do not agree on the baais of S^aka 1041-2. It is possible that the 
figures have been wrongly read or copied. Then Saka 1399 s La. Sa. 
357, if the date fell in the months OaitraSdvtna. 

These La. 8a. dates in the *' Notices" thus support the 
conclusion that the Lak^maaasena Sam vat was an expired year 
(though the current was often used;, beginning in S'aka 1041- 
42, or A.D. 1119-20 ; and if there is any significance in the word 
Mate, that it was adopted by the king Lak^mapasena. 

The genitive does ,^ The use of genitive in the king's name, 
not necessarily though the year was of an era, I have 
signify regnal traced to an old period. In the Taxila 

year. plate of Patika, the inscription begins : — 

An old example. 

[Saikvatsa'] raye athasatatimae 20 20 20 10 4 4 Mahatayasa 
Mahamtasa [Mo"] gasa, (p. 76) ; 

About which Biihler remarked : — "The year 78" is, of course, 
not that of the reign of Moga, but of the era which he used.'* 
(%. Ind, IV., p. 76). 

From this analogy it does not seem improbable that the Lak^- 
ma^asena Samvat may be the era of the founder of the Sena 
dynasty, though passing in the name of Lakfmanasena. 

In the Sukti-karn'dmrta six verses are quoted under the 
Waa thAre a aAno. ^*^® Srimat-KeSavasenadeva, and one verse 
prinoe niuned Ke- ^"i^®^ Purusottama'pdddnanh along with 
savasenaP ^^^ verse under Sri-BallAlasenadeva-piidd- 

nSm, and eleven verses under the name Sri- 
mal-Lakfnuufasenadeva (or simply Sri-L. or Sri-L.-sena without 
Deva),^ Were, therefore, a prince by name Ke^vasenadeva in the 
Sena dynasty, and another prince named Puru^ottama P i*addndm 
may mean a prince in the ancestral line, probably deceased. Prin- 
sep read in the Bakarganj plate the name Ke^vasena, as a son of 
Lakfma^asena, though this is now said to be a misreading of Vis- 
varftpasena. In its traditionary list of Bengal kings, the Ain-i- 
Akbari mentions one Kesd Sen, the second remove from Lachman 
Sen (Translation, II. 146). 

It is clear that from Vijaysena's time downwards, the tracts 

mt^ix^^r^fr^f^v.^ ^^ Gau^a, Vanga, Suhma, and probably 

Sena Kingdom. R&4ha, came to be under the sway of the 

Sena kings. An inscription of Vijayasena 

1 Is the Sir^adhara-Paddhati, one vene (No. 768} is q noted nndbr 
BallalMena and one rerse ( No. 928) nnder Lnk^mnii^aBena. In Jibftnanda Vidyi- 
Mgar^s antholofryi Kivya^sa^hgrahaf under the heading Padya-sathgrahah, four 
yeTMi are cited, two being qaestionB of Lakfm'aii^asena and the other two 
the reply of his father Ballilasena. 

In the AdbhutQ'Bdgara nnder the heading Sapt-arpifdm-adhhiUdni I find 
the following important pasflage : — Bhuja-vaswdaia 1C81 mita idke htmad' 
Balldla»ena-rdjy'ddau'Varf'eka-fnf(hi.munir'Vinih%to ■> viiefdydtk (India Govt 
MS.,fol. 52a. Was then «aka 1081 (A.D. 1160-60) the first year of BalUla. 
Sena's reign P Tiie same MS. (fol. 28b} also refers to " 1090 loka " under 
the hiding Brhaspater-adbhut-ivartd^ — M.M.O. 12-8-19Q6. 

18 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [February, 1906. 

was found at Deopara, wbich is in Godagiri TKana, District 
Rajs^i. This is in the Yarendra tract, of which Graa^a was the 
capitaL In the Dana-sOgnra and the Adbhuta-sdgara^ Balla- 
lasena has been described as the king of Ghtncja. Similarly Laky- 
maijiasena has been described in the PavanadUtam as the king of 
Ghku<}a. In the same poem his capital Vijayapuri, identifiable with • 
Nndiah, is located in Suhma. It was to Vaoga Lakfma^asena 
retired on the sack of Nndiah by Mnsalmans ; and there his 
descendants were ruling in the time of Minhaj-as-Sirftj. It 
is not unlikely that the R&^ha, which lay so close to Kudiah, would 
have fallen under the sway of the Sena kings. Consequently in 
the time of Ballalasena and Lak^manasena the greater part of 
modem Bengal had fallen under one overlordship ; and from the 
wide prevalence of the Lak^ma^asena Samvat in Mithili, 
one may as well ask if Tirhut did not acknowledge his 

Both Ballftlasena and Lak^mapasena liberally encouraged 

Sanskrit learning. A number of reputed 
ture^SoSrfBhed??" Sanskrit poets and writers flourished dur- 
the Sena rule. ° ^^^ their reigns, one of whom, Jayadeva, 

atteined an Indian reputation. The reign 
of Lak^maijiasena may not inaptly be called the * Augustan* 
period of Sanskrit learning in Bengal. This subject is interesting 
enough, to be reserved for another article. 


Additional verses of Dhoyika, 

(a) Snkti-karf^Omrta. 

(i) ^t^ftwr ^sft ^iqirmf%^ 

'Tftr^nrninrnTfT^'^t wn?« i foL 576.i 

WTTORiTJ, ftrirei^>ir«i Wti:, in^wt*' or n. so. 5. 

(ii) ^n[:an iTW^:iirir^ njw etijiwgffwi 

1 The reading is from a MS. of the Aeiatic Society of Bengal (A) 
checked by a MS. of the Sanskrit College (S ) and a MS. of the Bensmpam 
College (Sr.). The folio pagings ar« from the MS. A.. 

Vol. II, No. 2.] The Bengal poet Dhoylka, etc. 19 


f fit wnr ft§tT ^r ifcm?): fvi^f^ iw^^ 1 fol. 59a. 

i?1PROTr»:, ^rjcn^r^r^fti:, fvftij^fr*:, II. 34. 2. 

(iii) ^4jllfff^«fnV^: VnC^WPT 

▼rPfrWlH^ftf ^^^ ft^lfhRT^' J fol. 59a. 

t6., tfe., ^^Tl'I^V!, II. 34. 3. 

(iv) f <^ fflft'rr^fl^ ?:*«% 'fi^ m^jm 

inriirt ?wt ?nrr ti ^^ wfiT ti !^ i^? i foi. 596. 
*6., ^n^rvr^fti!, ^g^^j, IL 35. 4. 

(▼) ^KM}' ^WH^ifipwr«iT^ i^rwwfrfinit 

lb,, OT^jptj^ftfifJ, fi^f^'r^fNrs II. 51. 2. 
(vi ) nT^^ww^BTTfiRT finj?inT:Ti:Tur uwwir 

fi^jw* ir^ii«fm^RftRrifl# iw? irwftr i foi. 706. 
t^., wiMtvftftf^s ^*>Hr-> n. 68. 4. 

(▼ii) ^ ^^*)W fq^TPI ^rt¥ ftTjiiw«« im ««t 

Tift wcRTft^^wfir inr in^i^ ^w^ 

*^$5rtiTO ti*<iJifatnGa fr %^ ^mi^^^^Rtflw* ifoi. 706. 

«., ITT^ftft, tllj^^:, IL 59. 4. 

20 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [February, 1906. 

(viii) innftr m^ ^m^nvnwK^ 

'l%irfTs 'ir^ K«fti:iWR: H fol. 726. 

lb., fafR^fwifi^lUf^t, ^q^^fNn, II. 64. 4. 

(ix) tt^T^* fr f^^« (ei*)^ 

^Wi^T #WIW^ I fol. 77a. 

*., tt^TR^^fti:, f%^Wt*s, II. 77. 2. 

(x) ^nr*rrftTT^fif*N^w^ 

^ftW^ *a^rfH ^TUIKHTJ I fol. 77a. 

•6., mirftt^:, ftJl^iMl^ S n. 78. 2. 

(xi) erreiii Tjtf^R^^^^J in^isiTfiRHiT 

iriHJ iPtWTWftT^ir fiK^: $?[^n:r l foL 89a. 

ift., WftfTTC^tfti:, Tf^^wt^J, II, 107. 5. 

(xii) fiMi4ni^*i^4^«q^i'nT^r5'n^mf«r wIHohR 

^wi'^iiiiij iR^vri^iiniiv^vi) ^(f«*)(^*ii^*ik^ I fol. 

»6., ^^frftftr: t|5^T5ft«liJ, II. 108. 4. 

(xiii) fTWTOTJ UttlMJlf^d^^Cl^lHJTfirUT- 

* f^, 8r. * II, S. H, Sr. * J^. S. 5^, S'- 

Vol.- tl, JSo. 2.] The Bengal poet DKoytka, etc. tJl 

^^mm^^ "^ f^f^?p?trf>* i««lfe«rt B fol. 996. 

tfe., ^inftnwrf'nftf^', »fhsn^^-, ii. 135. 3. 

▼) ^9 ^^^ H^^ra^ tft?^ H^fHWIT^ I [1036. 
*6., ITO^TT^^rt^-, ^5*8^^^ n. 146. 4 

T^flTOHlfii^ 5 f^ Ijftrftf ^^*^NRr ^jf^I^ 1 fol. 124a. 
TOWTTS f^'ftftift^S fv?t^wNrJ, III. 13. 2. 

(xvi) fnin fi^^ifii^ ^ftpirfti « t^^i*i43ii^«4« 

^ert: S?^^^«Rq*fttf^ih 3Pffi?iI« fol. 1326. 

%b., ^in^^iWtf^:, *«n^^<*5, in. 33. 3. 

(xvii) ir^T^j^^ft^nraftj^^jJfiwnr ( :* ) 

^n^T^Rs* wft:^TK ^^iWFf I fol. 1716. 

^^Rtr 1RTT-, g^^iflt^s ^w^fN> V. 2. 1. 

(xviii) ipnft^TS[ft^TO^Bw^^invnw^«:^ I 

^q^^i[»iiriWT^<r g^iJiTTfir^wnnn ^^^\t fol. I7i6. 

t6,i6.,fl#t^Wt^^ V.2.2. 

(6) Jalhana's Suhhanta-muktavali, 

(xix) fiwinnrqfr ni^iwr^ ^%w wiftm w\f^ 1 

jftNWt ^rfiliiW I fol. 1326. 

' IT, 8. Sr. * HR, A. "^ % A. 

• WITT, A. ' ^. A. 

22 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Februrj, ld06.] 

Quoted in the Silhitya-darpana without the author^s name 

(8th pariccheda, verse 15). 

(c) S&r^adJiara'paddhatt. 

(xx) d^?^ ifwftpct ^ iwirftr $%w ^^* vf^ 

Peter6on*B Edition, No. 1161, p. 189. Ascribed to Umapftti- 
dhara in the SQkti'kank'dmrta. 

1906.] The Unigd Hill hiscripHom. 23 

5. The Umgd Hill Inscriptions in the District of OayS. — Bt 
Parmeshwar Dayal. Communicated by the Philological Secretary, 

The Grand Trunk Road which passes through the southern 
parts of the District of Gaya (in Bengal) has long been the most 
frequented highway in the district ; and before the construction 
•of the East Indian Railway, it was the chief route for traffic 
between Calcutta and Delhi. Travellers passing through this high 
road generally meet with beautiful sceneries of mountains covered 
with forest trees, and table-lands intersected by hill torrents rush- 
ing through overgrown jungle. About a mile and a half to the 
west of Madanpur (an important camping ground and Police out- 
post on this road) the scenery towards the south has always 
charmed the travellers and attracted their special attention. A 
group of hills is found covered with forest trees teeming with 
ruins of temples. One of these temples, standing on the western 
slope of a hill, is built entirely of stone and is still well preserved. 
It is very large and attractive, and commands a wide view to the 
west and north for several miles. Travellers have often been 
tempted to leave their road and to proceed southward to take a 
nearer view of the temple. This is the " Umga Hill Temple," 
which has since long drawn the attention of archseologists and of 
the admirers of natural sceneries. In the front of this temple, 
which faces the east, lies a large slab of stone containing a long 
.Sanskrit inscription of 28 slokas giving a short narrative of the 
founder of the temple. Raja Bhairavendra and of his royal ances- 
tors. The inscription appears to have been noticed so far back as 
1847 A.D., by one Captain Kittoe, 6th Regiment, N.I., whose notes 
with a translation of the inscription, in Hindi, were published 
in the August and December numbers of the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society for A.n. 1847, Vol. XXXI. In a.d. 1866, it was 
again noticed by one Mr. Peppe, whose notes, with a photo of the 
temple, were published in No. I of the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society for 1866 a.d. I had occasion to see these ruins in 1898 
A.D., and on receiving information from one Pandiit Devadatta 
Misra of Pumadih, a village situated in the vicinity of these hills, 
•of the existence of another long inscription in one of the ruins on 
the top of the highest peak, I visited the spot twice. For a few 
years past (since the discovery of nn image of Sr! Gaurifiankara 
in a cave on the top of it) this peak has been named " Gauri- 
Bankara Hill." The way leading to the top of the hill is very 
difficult and has become misleading by being intersected by 
numerous footpaths of the wood-cutters. After a long search for 
the second time, on 5th November, 1901, my labour was crowned 
with success, and the stone containing the inscription sought for, 
was found lying loose in the heaps of the ruins of a temple. Some 
facsimiles of it were taken by me at once, and with the help of the 
said Pai^4^t Devadatta MiSra, who had accompanied me on this 
occasion, it was deciphered immediately. 

This inscription exists on a slab of stone about 22 inches 
long and 15 inches broad and is comprised of 15 lines containing 8 

24 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 

filokas. The inscription begins with salutations to Siva and 
Parvati, in prose. Then follow the Slokas. The first two Slokas 
give the names of the 12 ancestors of Raja Bhairavendra. The 
third sings, in high terms, the praise of Bhairavendra himself. The 
fourth Sloka mentions the fact of the temples of Uma, MaheSa, 
and Ga^eSa, having been consecrated there by the Raja. The fifth 
contains the date of construction of the temples in astronomical 
symbols. After this is a small sentence, in prose, giving the year 
of construction of the temple in figures. Then follow three slokas 
quoted from some Puranas describing the merits of such pious 
deeds and the blessing secured by them. Then follows a small 
sentence invoking blessings to all. The inscription is dated 
Saipvat 1500. The characters are modern Devanagari, with very 
slight difference in some of the compound letters. The figure 5 is 
of a curious shape, thus VJ+. There would have been perhaps 
some doubt when deciphering the date 1500 Saipvat, were it not 
for the fact that a serial number exists at the end of every sloka, 
an(jL the figure at the end of the fifth sloka is of this shape. The 
letters are generally -i-^tYi of an inch long. There is a crack in 
the stone in the left-hand side of the lower comer, and the writing, 
with the exception of a few words in the end of the last four lines, 
and a letter or two in the 3rd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, and 11th lines, 
is well preserved. The stone is perhaps even now lying loose 
near the heaps of the ruins, and on account of its compact ob- 
long shape is liable to be removed by villagers for domestic use. 
It would be very well to fix it in a puckka platform to be built 
near these ruins for the purpose. It would be also much helping 
the cause of archasology if the village staff in chai^ of XJmga 
Mahal be requested to see that plants, etc., growing on the ruined 
temples, are rooted out from time to time. The images of the 
gods, the consecration of whose temples is mentioned in this 
inscription, are still seen, some lying in or near the mined 
temples, and others placed in a cavern on the top of the hill. 

This inscription being composed in simpler style gives a 
clearer expression of the facts stated in figurative, and in con- 
sequence somewhat ambiguous language in the larger inscription 
noticed by Captain Kit toe, and therefore seems to throw addi- 
tional light on the facts stated therein. 

In the bigger inscription, the founder of the family of 
Bhairavendra is named Durdama, which means '* invincible " and 
the epithet Bhumipala (King) is attached to this name. As the 
names of the various successors of the king and with the word 
" Pala," such as Kumara Pala, Lakfiniana Pala, etc., Captain Kittoe 
was led to consider Bhamipala as the chief name and Durdama as 
an epithet. This newly-discovered inscription fully clears the 
doubt now, as the name Durdama is mentioned in it with a new 
epithet. The names of the kings given in these two inscriptions^ 
are justaposited below for comparison : — 


The Umgd Hill Inscriptinns. 



Names of kings given in the inpcrip- 
tion noticed before by Cap- 
tain Kittoe. 

Names of kings given in the 

smnller inscription now 





















Abhaja Deva 

Abhaya Deva. 


Malla Deva 



Keii Raja 



Barasiipha Deva* 











• (Shoald be ** Narsiiphadova.") 

It will be seen that the termination "jsfiZa " has not been 
given in the names noted in the 2nd inscription except in Lak$- 
mapapala and Nayapala. The name Nayanapala of the Ist inscrip- 
tion is Najapal in the 2nd inscription. Sa^^hapala of the Ist is 
San^heSa in the 2nd. Keshraj is Ke Si 9 vara. It also becomes 
clear that the name Bnrasii^iha read by Captain Kittoe is actually 

In the last para, of his note on the larger inscription, Captain 
Kittoe notices the fact of another inscription of the year 1297 a.d. 
having been found in the hills of Sirgi^ja by Colonel Ously, 
recording the fall in cattle of a Raja named Lachhmandeva, son 
of Kumara Raj&. Bhairavendra (whose last inscription, now un- 
der notice, is dated Saipvat 1500, corresponding to a.d. 1443) is 
the 10th in descent from Lak^manpala. This gives an approxi- 
mate period of about 15 years to each king, and takes back King 
Durdama to the earlier part of the 13th century a.d. 

About three miles to the west of the village of Umga, there is 
another small hill covered with ruins of temples, etc., called San- 
dhail Hill. In one of its caves, called " Sit& Thapa," there are 
still located some old sculptures, with a few words of insignificant 
inscriptions here and there. The Chief " LiHgatn of Siva *' is 
named San^heSvara Natha. Near the Police station of Fateh* 
pur, about 45 miles east of IJmga, there is another shrine called 
oap^heSvara Mahadeva, which is surrounded by views and 
which is much frequented by pious Hindus. In honour of this 
shrine a fair is still held in the Siva Ratri festival, in the month 
of Phalgun every year. These facts naturally suggest the idea 
that both these shrines were probably consecrated by the King 
San^heSa, one of the ancestors of Bhairavendra of Umgft, and that 
the kingdom of Sap^heSa extended over a considerable area in 
this district. About 25 miles north-east of Umgft is Konch which 

26 Journal of the^Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 

is famous for a very lai*ge ancient temple built of bricks. It re- 
sembles in construction the ancient temple at IJmga, and by tradi- 
tion its construction is ascribed to Bhairavendra of Umga. This 
wonld prove that the kingdom of Bhairavendra was also ex- 

The importance of these two inscriptions lies specially in the 
following points, vix : — 

(1) That they contain a full description of the geneology of 
13 kings of the lunar Dynasty, and may, on the discovery of some 
important inscription of any of the kings of this Dynasty, throw 
some light on the ancient history of the district of Gwya. 

(2) That they contain clear dates in the widely-known era 
of Vikramaditya, and thus give a very clear idea of the period, 
when the facts stated in them occurred. 

(3) That one of them maintains tlie fact of consecration of a 
temple to Jagannatha, Balarama and Subhadra, and therefore 
iierves as a conclusive evidence of the fact that the worship of these 
^ods prevailed in Gay a, at least so far back as the 14th Century 


(4) That the other inscription mentions the fact of construc- 
tion of a temple to Uma, MaheSa and GapeSa. The images lying 
near the ruins of the temple are one of GaneSa and the other of 
Oanri-Satikar, viz., of Ganri, sitting on the left thigh of Saukara 
(Shiva). This image is of a comparatively modem form, though 
•of a very ancient type. I mean its design is like that of the 
images of Gauri-Sai^kara, made of black stone, lying mutilated 
there and thei'e throughout the district (specially in the town of 
■Gaya) in vast numbers, which by their appearance seem to be 
very ancient, and which in structure resemble the ancient Buddhist 
floulptures, which bear inscriptions in Kutila or other still more 
ancient characters ; but the image of Gauri-Saukara found near 
the ruins of the Umga temple, on the top of the hill, is not of 
black stone, is much inferior in sculpture, and appears to be of a 
•comparatively very recent period. A figure of Gauri-Bankara, 
lying in the cave of Sita-Thapa in the Sandhail hill, however, 
much resembles this image. The images of Gauri-Sankara are 
found in abundance in this district, specially in the town of old 
•Gaya, as stated before. Some are fixed in the walls of modern 
temples or private buildings, while others are lying here and there 
under trees or in ruined temples like the Caityas, the relics of 
the Buddhist faith. The enshrinement of such a figure of Gaurl- 
iankara is entirely out of fashion in this period in India or at 
least in Behar. The facts that very old images of Gauri-Bankara 
are found in great numbers everywhere, and that tlie enshrine- 
ment of the most modern of them yet discovered, has been clearly 
mentioned in an inscription, dated a.d. 1443, are likely to throw 
6ome light on the religious history of India. It would appear 
that the worship of the image of Gauri-Bankara was much in 
vogue for several hundred years before the 15th century a.d. 

(5) That these are perhaps the only inscriptions in the 
district, with the exception of the cave inscriptions of the Baraber 

1906.] The Umgd Hill Insci^ptiom. 27 

Hills, and the inscription of Kulchand, a governor of Gaja, under 
the Emperor Firoze Shah, dated 1429 Saipvat, in the temple of the 
Sun God in Gaja at Suraj Kund (published by Professor Keilhom^ 
CLE , in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. XX, for September 1891), 
that still remain attached to the ruins of the ancient temples, the 
construction of which they commemorate. 

(6) That they bear a decisive evidence of the fact that the 
modem Deva Nagari character continues almost unchanged from 
nearly 500 years ; and that, therefore, the inscriptions found in 
Gaya, containing no date in any recognised era, and written in 
characters much different from modem Deva Nagari, must either 
be very ancient or wi-itten in imported characters then prevalent 
in other parts of India, by people who came to Gaya either as 
pilgrims or as conquerors. In this connection it may be said that 
the following inscriptions now available in the town of Gaya, 
which bear a clear date in the era of Vikramaditya, are written in 
modem Deva Nagari character : — 

(a) Inscription dated 1257 Sai)ivat, 1200 a.d., on a slab of 

stone fixed on a wall on the northern side of the temple 
of Parpita maheSvara in Gaya, and being No. 22 of 
the list of Gaya inscriptions given by General Cun- 
ningham, in Vol. Ill of his report on the Archeeologi- 
cal Survey of India. 

(b) Inscription of Suryndasa, dated 1516 Saipvat, attached to 

the GayeSvan temple in Gaya (being No. 28 of the 
list of General Cunningham), a translation of which was 
published by him in Vol. Ill of his aforsaid report. 

(c) Inscription of Kulachand, dated 1429 Saipvat, corres- 

ponding to 1373 A.D., attached to the Surya Kunda 
temple in Gaya, published in the Indian Antiquary, 
Vol. XX, pp. 312 to 315. 
{(1) Inscription dated 1519 Saipvat, of seven long lines on a 
slab of stone, about 25 inches long and 7 inches broad, 
fixed on a wall in the temple of KoteSvara Mahadeva, 
south of the well-known temple of Sik^i Mah&deva 
near Vi^nupada in Gayd. 

According to local tradition, the line of this family of the 
lunar kings ended with Bhairavendra, the last king named in 
these inscriptions. After his death, his widowed Queen is said to 
have succeeded him ; but she is said to have been overpowered 
by one of the ministers of Bhaii^vendi a, who was a Bhat (baixi) 
by caste, but whose name is not known now. This Bhat minister 
was trying to seize the throne for himself when chance ordained 
it otherwise. 

It is said that four brothers, warriors, belonging to the 
family of the Maharai^a of Udaipur were proceeding to the 
shnnes at Gaya by the route, which later on seems to have 
been developed into the Grand Trunk Road by the Emperor 
ShSr Shah. They happened to halt for the night under some 
trees near a well in front of the town of Umga, the capital of 

28 Jourfiat of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 

Bhairavendi'a. Some maidservants of the widowed Queen, who 
came to fetch water, asked them not to halt there as tigers used to 
come there at night. The hrothers did not mind this warning, 
and stayed there, and actually killed some tigers, This spread 
the fame of their valour next morning so much so, that the 
Queen solicited their assistance in disentangling herself from the 
clutches of the 6 hat minister. The brothers readily offered their 
services, and succeeded in killing the Bha^ minister. The Queen, 
in recognition of this service, adopted one of them, named Rao 
BhSnu Singh, as her successor. This man, who belonged to the 
Sisodhia familv of the Rajpoots of the Solar dynasty, stayed 
there and was the founder of a new generation of kings who ruled 
for a long time at Umga. Of his three brothers, one is said to 
have proceeded to Nepal, where he is supposed to have become 
the founder of a new line of kings. Another of them is said to 
have proceeded to Purl, in Orissa, and to have been the founder of 
a new line kings of the Solar dynasty there. The fourth brother 
is said to have returned to Udaipur. 

Rao Bhanu Singh, according to some papers, supposed to 
exist in the family of the present Raja of Deo, is said to have 
been succeeded one after the other by 15 other Rajas ' named 
below, the last of whom, Rajakumara Jagannatha Prasada Nara- 
yaija Siiph of Deo, is now a minor, aged about 9 years, whose 
property is under the management of the Court of Wards. His 
father Raja Bhickham Narayana Sivph Bahadur died in 1898 ad. 
Assuming that the accession of Rao Bhani\ Singh happened in 
1448, viz,, after five years of the date of the last inscription of 
Bhairavendra, the 15 Rajas appear to have reigned throaghout a 
period of 450 years, giving an average of thirty years to each 
reign. It is said that Atibala Singh, the sixth in descent from 
Rao Bhanu Singh, killed the then Muliammadan rulers of Deo, and 
removed his capital from Umga to Deo. The fort at Umga is now 
a heap of ruins covering a large area and overgrown with jungle. 
Some traces of gateways, walls and wells can still be foand, and in 
one of the rooms are still enshrined some family gods, to worship 
which the Rajas and Ranis of Deo even now use to go to the 
ruined fort once a year or at least on the occasion of marriages. 

A tomb of Bijuli Shahid at Deo, and one of Ddna Shahid at 
Ketaki, a neighboui*ing village, are still associated by ti*adition 
with the conquest of Deo by Atibal Singh. 

In this connexion it may be said that almost all the peaks 
and ranges of hills in the southern part of the district of Gaya 
have marks of ruins on them. Some of them were apparently the 
strongholds of kings, while others were the sites of sacred shrines. 

* * — . 

1 (1) RhO Bhinn Siipfaa. (2) SihasaMalla Siipha. (8) Tariohand. (4) BU- 
vambhara 8ii{ihH. (5i Kalyi^a Siipha. (6) Atibala Siipha. (7) Nayapala 
Siipha. (8) Pratfipa Siipha. (9) Prabil Simha. (10) Ghatrapati Hiibha. 
(II) Fateh Naraja^a Siipha. (1^) GhnnaSyama Siipha. (18) MitrabhanD 
Simha. (14 M Hharij a Sir Jay apraki^ Siipha, Bahadar, k.cb.i. (15) Raj& 
Bhikham Nariyapa Siipha Bahadar. (16j Kajknm&ra Jagannatha Frasada 
Nayapa Singh (the present proprietor of the Deo Bnj). 

1906.] The Umgd Hill InscnpHons, 29 

The ruins on the hills of Manda, Pachar, Dongra, Cheon, Bakan, 
Sandhail, Umga, Aranagar (about six miles south of Deo), Pawai, 
Koluha, Singar, Maher, etc , may be quoted as instances. In the 
days of jore when tlie use of artillery was in its infancy or 
totally unknown, or out of practice on account of being in- 
humane, kings and noblemen probably selected tlieir capitals in 
hills and other inaccessible places where fortification was render- 
ed easy by nature. To build a castle in the plains was perhaps 
considered unsafe. The seats of Government were therefore in 
the southern hills and in the inaccessible jungles, which still 
abound in ruins of towns and palaces. The northern fertile 
plains of the Gayd district were therefore perhaps less densely 
populated in those days, being more open to foreign attacks. 

Text of ihe inscription on the top of Gouri Shankar Hill near Umga^^ 

District Gayd, 

^ ^^ TPS' ^^5 ^^^tJ^Tft ^5Hh\ %irTf% ^TT'irift I 'CN^UDcrw 
^: I ^ I ^Hi iiTTi: ^OT jmit ^mx^ ^w U^ fwf^^s i 'r^f^^* 

^: I ^imcf^wT Ttjrf^ wnnvt fM ^%^ b i t ^^ ^nm^ ^^ f^[ir$J 
nwfi^f ^ a^ I wr^gfiDci ^ w^^n^fP^ ^ II ^ I 5HW5 w»l I 

1 Should be Jl'tftftnlni I 

ft Should be IWWI^ I 

8 In the original it is ft^JH, that is, the ^ is wanting. 

« It can be also read «i<if< ^^^^ H 

( %9 ia probably a miatake ^Ot H 

does not seem to he ronoct Snnsldit : may be *nWli^*l 

30 Jouitial of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March,. 

Translation of the second inscription discovered recently on 
the top of Umga Hill in Gayd. 

Om ! Salutation to Siva ( Gauri) and to Siva. 

There was in the lunar mce one (King) Durddama the- 
invincible, a fire for the forest of miseries. His son was Eumara, 
the supporter of his race, and the ocean of virtues. Of him 
(was bom) Lak^mana Pala, the virtuous; and of him Gandra, 
who was like the moon ; the lotus-eyed Nayapala the refuge (of 
all); his son was Sai^dhesh. — 1. 

Of him was born Abhayadeva the Gretit; of him Malla, 
and of him the virtuous KeSiSvara well up in the devotion of 
KeSavii. His son (was) Narasiipha, the defeater of enemies. Of 
him (was bom) Bhanu the Great, and of him, Soma, the jewel of 
the ear of the lunar race, the great bestower of Worlds and giver 
by ten millions. — 2. 

Of him was born King Sri Bhairavendra, the extender 
of dominions, the leader of kings, promoter of his race, the lord, 
the great, the accumulator of treasures, the supporter of worlds, 
the king by having whom the earth has the honour of being 
named a kingdom, (who is) the defender of the poor, the excava- 
tor of tanks, the performer of sacrifices, the consecrator of temples 
to gods, the knower of Dharmas, the lord of elephants, (who is) 
like Rama in fame. — 3. 

Having enshrined (in temples) Uma, MaheSa and GaneSa 
with his Ga^as, (the king who is) well acquainted with rites and 
(having strengthened) with fortifications of rivers, etc., (he) made 
Umga the residence of the clans of the lunar dynasty, an abode 
of (all) good things. — 4. 

On (this) hill, the King Bhairava, who has no equal, 
(Lit who is one) enshrined Girida (Siva), Ginja (Gauri), and 
Gra^eSa, on Monday the 12th date of the dark half of the month 
of Jyai^tha in the year 1500 of the era of Vikramaditya. — 5. 

Also here in figures 1600. 

Even he, who commits the most horrible sins, such as the 
killing of the Brahmanas, etc., by building a temple to Hari, is 
washed of his sins and goes to heaven. — 6. 

Three times greater merit than that stated above, (is 
secured by him) who builds a temple to Vis^u in a place of 
pilgrimage, in a sacred place, in a place of devotion, and in an 
hermitage. — 7. 

It is said the merit is 100 times greater than that stated 
above (to him who builds a temple ) on a hill, and thousand times 
(to him) who builds a temple on the top of a hill. — 8. 

Peace be to all. 

32 Journal of the Adatic Society of Bengal, [March, 1906. 

6. Some Lulldbies and Topical Songs collected in 
Persia by Lieut, Colonel D. C. Phillott. 

The following lullabies (with the exception of 
No, VI) are common in the districts of Shiraz or 
Kirman, and probably in other parts of Persia : — 



LA-/d la-ln be my Rose ; 
Be my darling ; be my Bul-hul. 
Never die nor leave me. 

La-la la-la u-iay. 

La-la laH he falls asleep. 
The sound of his dada's shoe I hear. 
La-la la-la, my own wall-flower, 
Why wilt thou ne'er rest still ? 

La-la la-la in-ia't. 

La-ia^ lay-laH lay-ia'i lay-ldH 

Sleep dear life lay-aH Idy-Wi. 
Ala 1 la^i Baba • Man^ur 
Go tell my motber. 

i AU is here part of the lullaby sound : it is not an interjection. 
2 Bahd a slave- boy, a kind of * buttons.' Manfur " Victorious " is a name 
often given to negpro slaves. 


Vol. II, No. 3 1 • Persian Lullabies and Topical Sonjs* IV'I 


</^-» (V** •'* iSJ — ^ 

yt;— 4^ tl? »3( UK 




'^» ,,'Vc^* 




aJ" tri^ o'^c*" 



*U liO ^V » 


j.^.it« ^ ^_*i 

i La-2<i, lullaby : Id-ld kardan (m.o.} " to lull an infant to sleep." 

2 Ui-ud, vulgar for mi^dyad, 

3 Arum^ i.e., aram. 

4 The Persian bulbul (DauHa« Hajizi) is very like the Koglish nightin- 

S4i Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal, [March, 1906,. 

Thej gave me a pitcher and I went to draw water ; 
Close by the spring I fell asleep. 
Ala laH Baba Mannar 
Go tell my mother. 

Two Turkish men from Turkistan 
Carried me ofF to Hindustan. 
Ala laH Baba Man^ur 
Go tell ray mother. 

They married me to the son of a king, 
Ruler of men and of women. 
AlCi Id^l Baba Mansnr 
Go tell my mother. 

KowVour sons I've got, 

One's with the flocks, one's with herds, 

One's at school ^ and one's in the cot.* 

Ala laH Baba Man?nr 

Go tell my mother. 


La-da liUla my dear son 

Sleep my sweet life ; 

Snhel * has risen o'er the hills, the moon behind him. 

Oh leader of the caravan, when wilt thou load and start f 

1 Kxiin-i^dna for maktah-ijiana. 

2 Gahrarn is a Zo?r cradle of canviis, etc., suspended from four low posts like 
an English cradle. Nannl or nanu^i^ vulgarly gdchu, is of leather or of danvns 
and is suspended and rocked like a hammock. The Shah styles the hammock 
in a circus underneath the trapeze ndnfi^, 3 Suhel Canopue. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Persian Lullahies and Topical Sonffs. 35 

^^ ^\j «)0Ab > — ^*• 

jTiz; bb j^ ill' 

;^— -*^ Lb ^H JIf 

'^11^ Lb ^$J iJf 

^ — i ^ A r^**^ *^ 

^; ^ ***; «^^ ••• ^ J^ ^) J-i 
~"^ bb ^ji ^r 


» l^a-na " mummy," a child's word for mother, aod hence a mothei'n 
aildrees for a child, tnde note 2 to Lnllaby No. lY. 
♦ Kiid P.« l?t/l, a child, son or danghter. 

36 Journal of the Anatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906«, 

Oh leader of the caravan, pray travel slow 
Foi* my little child has> lagged behind. 
Ln-lH l(X4H be my sweet marjoram, 
Thy dada's come ; bright be thine e'en. 

Come, oh mooil of my sky ! 

Art np-rooting violets : • 

AH planting roses ? • ' 

La-Ui la-Id be my sweet marjoram. 

Thy dada*s come ; bright be thine e'en. 

A white bird was I in the almond tree * ; 

Fate cast a stone and broke my wing. 

Oh Fate withhold thy hand, for I am yonng ; 

The World's to me as yet unknown ; 

The joy of life's unwon* 

Ln-ta l-A-ld be my sweet marjoram ; 

Thy dada'6 come ; bright be thine e'en. 

1 Lit. pUta tree. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Persian LuUahieB and Topical Songs. 37 

f^\^^^^^ ^yo fX^ ^Jli 
^—^^^ o* — ^ ik^T oi^ b 

i ib«?ufn pronounced Sb»han, in Arabic »a*/[ar, is also called pidina-y^ 
knhl or hill-mint : here-*' my sweet child." 
» Chaih'at^ mlg. for chashm^aU 

38 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 


lA'la laH, my Sweet Life in-la'i. 
My darling and sweet soul in-Wt ; 
For thee, dear, I would die lH-Wi ; 

La-la la-la la-U-iaH. 

Friends, pleasure in this life's in wealth ; 
Who has a child has pleasure pei-f ect ; 
Who has no child in this world, 
Were he Jamshid imperfect were he. 

Ln.ia id-la la-ia-ia^i. 

La-la la-la la-la la-la la^la't; 

Friends, my sweet son is sleeping ; 

Wei'e I to die for him, tVould be but just ; 

La-la la-ld la-la la-la la-la'H. 

Art thou lion, art thou leopard, I know not ; 
This I know thou'rt straggling with me ; 
La-la la-a l my Sweet Ijife, la-lOH. 
Friends my son is sweet of speech ; 
He will have a pen and be wi-iter to the Court 
His clerks will all be safe from harm, 

Ln-ia in-la la-la la-la la-ia'u 

Vol. II, No. 8.1 Persian LuUahtes and Topical Songs. 39 


^ yy yji ^ If 

0.-.I JUf b ij|j> Jib o^L^* 

v^^ JJI *J( *^ 


^yn I y y y y y 

^ — ^^ U Ij y «^ ^U— A^ 
^y K ^.^-^ e)^ lipy H 9 

^yy liy yy iiy 

1 Banii for bartfy-oi. 

* Midar : relatioDS call cbildren by the same appelation that obildren call 
tbem ; thnB a motber will oall ber son or daugbter midar or midar' jin and uq 
■•n. 8 ilafjFQtare Tense. 


40 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Marcb, 1906, 

3tj ^f^—iif v^JJl VJI 

3ili ^^^-i^* ^JlJI JlJl 

i Mtr Jt^gn Ba2 is the name of the father of the infant. 

2 Tau - iavdf. 

S itttZ utul * dar tn fat va dar in taU 

♦ i.e., jirn. 

i £i d^dan « nuqfon dddan. 

Vol. II, No. 3.1 Persian Lullabies and lopical Songs. 41 


The following topical songs {tamlf) collected in 
Persia are fair samples of those composed and sung 
by the liitts.^ 

^ Lttfi a strolling player, a buffoon, to., eto. 

42 Journal of the A»iatic Society of Bengal, [March, 1906. 


The King op China's Daughter. 

*' The King's daughter is jast like this and jufit like that. 

Come, show me thine eyes, 

That I may describe them." 
" Mine eyes — what dost thou want with them P ^ 

Hafit never seen the eyes of the gazelle P 

Mine, too, are like them." 

" My love's brows are just like this and just like that : 

Oh show me thy brows. 

That I may describe them." 
" My brows — what dost want with them f 

Hast never seen a bow in the bazaar f 

They, too, are like that." 

" My love's lips are like this and like that : 

Oh show me thine lips. 

That I may describe them." 
** My lips — what dost want with them P 

Hast never seen a pista * in the bazaar 

They, too, are like that." 

'' My love's cheeks are like this and like that : 

Come, show me thy cheeks, 

That I may describe them." 
" My cheeks — ^what dost thou want with them P 

Hast never seen peaches in the bazaar P 

They, too, are like that." 

1 * What dost thou want with them/ t.«., ' why do yoa ftsk about them t * 
* PoetB compare a mi8trefl8*e mouth to a pista nut. The nut is boiled in 

its shell, which parts slightly like two lips and exhibits the pink skin of the 

kernel inside. 

Vol. n, No. 3.] Persian Lullabies and Topical Songs. 43 



1 Hamc/itn u chin or chtn u cTitn ; ooUoqaial for hamchunin u hamehufiin. 

^ Chi 18 the vnlgar form of chit and chi ckiz or chi chl is Tulgar of 
'* what ? " 8 For nn-dida-t, 

4 Hamehtl is in speaking pronounced hamchh Ast is sometimes shortened 
into a final a : this is now considered vulgar. 

6 f.ttp, "cheek." 

44 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. ; [March, 19<J6. 

" My love's teeth are like this and like that : 

Come, show me thy teeth, 

That I may describe them." 
" My teeth — what dost thou want with them f 

Hast never seen fresh pearls P 

They, too, are like them.'* 

*' My love's breasts are like this and like that : 

Come, show me thy breasts," 

That I may describe them. | 

" My breasts— rwhat dost want with them ? I 

Hast never seen Shiraz limes ? / 

They, too, are like them." ^ J 

*' My love's bosom is like this and like that : t 

Come, show me thy bosom, 

That I may describe it." 
*' My bosom— >what dost want with it V 

Hast never seen white marble ? 

It too is like it." 

** My love's navel is just like this and jiist like that : 

Come, show me thy navel, 

That I may describe it." 
*' My navel — what dost want with it ? 

Hast never seen a crystal bowl' ? 

It too is like one." 

*' My love's * chastity ' is like this and like that 

Come, show me thine honour, 

That I may describe it." 
" My c ♦ * t — what dost wish with it ? 

Has never seen the foot of a gazelle ? 

It, too, is like one." 

1 Nif-i finjdhi ddrad; ft point of beauty much inBisted on by Porsiftn story- 
tellers. Finjdn is the small deep glass for drinking cofiPee or tea, and ndj-i 
nnjdni is a navel deep shaped like Kfivjdtu 

VoL II, No. 3.] Persian InUlahies and Topical Bongs, 45 


• ** * 

1 Tar, "freeh, «.«., with lustre." ^ J^maf and nawK^, ya^at farj^ 

3 fiM [Ar. pi. afct(;48], is the crudest word for the article either in 

Persian or in Arabic. 

♦ Z* 8irr»i nihan-ash yah'% karf hud 
Swn-i dhu-i rafta dar harf hud» 

" — to one thing only can it be compared i.«,, to the print of a gazelle'n 

foot in pure snow." 


Journal of the Ajdatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 

Tasnif'i Dukhtar-i ^afurUA 

»:>3 l^j — w ^j|fj^J{ J! — i- 




rV? Sfjt ,^ !<;* vf 




*y>'c;j>^y « lAi-'i , V 


yjL. JjB^jA^ ^jlf *f 


r/*< »*/ o*«^>«j <rf^ 


rj*^ (/jiji*, ik i *\y. 


"^'— ^ cfyo'o }k /• 


r^-*^ t?;'^"'^ .;— ** r* 

I Safurd was the daughter of a mulla in Shiraz. She had n repatatiou 
for learning nnd piety and used to preach to -v^omen from the pulpit. She, 
hoivcver, strayed from the path and thia tapiffwhB composed by the wags of 

* Illdlii — ** I hope/'i 8 Bu, i.e., lash. ♦ Biratn ■ hi-ravam. 

Yol. II, No, 3.] Persian Lullabies and Topical SongSf , 4% 


Tasti'ff'i Slddiq-i MuUd Bajah.^ 
I * [Every secpnd line is from Hafiz.] 

oJmj^ a^ i> y .**^ a^ OMwt ^3^ ^^ ^ ^^ 


Tasnif-i Sddiq-i MtdUi Bajab, 

i /^idtq son of Mulli Rajab of Kirmao. He adopted the profeaaion of a 
IRii from choice, and his tofnifH, amongst certain clastot, have a notoriety. 

2 Qdyam underetood after zan-i yisht. 3 Ki '* b^oanse '* 

* 8hab-i Jum*ah is m.C. for Panj-sha^a. Any good work done on the 
Muslim Friday night (i.e., the English Thursday 'night) hns^ special* value. 

6 Lupcha, dimin. of inp, ** cheek." 

9 ifia-iiikmy, meating doubtful : probablj garm thadan^i J^ivSndt dar 
vaqt'i juft giriftan. 



48 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [March, 1906. 

^li/^LT -^J J ^^J^^il^"^ 

^^ «/• c A — ^* «> J — ^ V^; ^ J«il*« 

f,ii^ 0^ c^j,^ J^ ^»*isxl» ^t ^•ma. ^^f 

(•fft^ aA 00,^ ^^ f,f^ ^f ^•AftXa^ ^f 

^•^ ^^/ (^ ^h <^**^ c^^ •'• C^'^J — ^* )^ ^ J^^y V.^— ^ *^ 
. ^»«ai <^^ c>f^; ^yLc |»*6U» ^^f ^»A|^ ^f 

^»u«Ai ^ o^j^ ^Jil* ^•mJs ^t ^•>«k ^^t 


* My heart it loves a gypsy, Oh ! ' 
o^f ^ J — i* ^y is)\'^^3 «-J .-. *s^f *>^ ^y /Jd ^jjCULfc* 

1 ITiZtZ for him. 

s Digger of ^ano^s. 

.8 fif»taiii*spar, i.e., fiia*«^ii^a. 

4 Bar-gUf poetical. 

& There eeems to be no clear meaning in these two lines. 'AzU, 
** dear " is also a title for the Bnler of Egypt. 

t Vik. The Lulis spin thread. 

1 QhaUtOy vulgarly jtftiZtya, is a kind of grass from which baskets are 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Persian Lullabies and Topical Songs. 4ft, 




^ $ 

JJ Ow-t ^jjlo ajU«A ^-Jl( » y^ w9^ 

J/ JZ^ al>T A— iL »y ^-. 

^ y^* v^* — ^ Ksj--'^^ r*^*^ 
-6J </^ v^ r^ uH <^^/ ^ 

1 Qu^, ** oheek.'* ** They gave me their cheeks to kiss." 
« Kur^ in the dialect of the Lulis, is a small boy or girl. 
8 Qumpi a bunch of flowers. A plamp boy is called gump-i gul. 
4 Ham-pd, "with." 

t My road became divided, i.e., I fell in love both with the mother and 
the dangbter. 

50 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [March, 1906» 



, i^j^ *i^ ij^. (^ tk^ (^y .', *^ (^ (*dj^ o ». t ft ^^1^ 

^^U ^^ ^.^ <^ J^jj f^y ,\ aiU ^3 ^^yk *^3y *^ (^!^ 
» i>\i^j V\^j a;jL— JLwc Ail — L^ .«. ^^^ — ^^^ ^ ^^j^ (S^ j^ J^ ^ 

* *i|«)J^ ai|0^^ iuU--g© Ail X^ ... 2 ^ U fl^ ^ ^^ yk ^^p^ JjJ 


c^y u^— ^^ v^^ r-^3 u^y c!^ 

^.>r*f (^ — p v^j 3,; 
(••>ry is^. ^j^ tt)'^ 

(^•^-•f <^» «-« — 1> L 

Cr;^4;i^0»*^y 3t > 

^^x* 3b Ai>^ ^i* — ♦^^j ^; ^ — --^ 

1 Fa understood. 2 Xhjg ij^e has no clenr moaning* 

3 Tliese lines are from Hilfiz, 


Vol. II, No. 3.] Persian Lidlahies and Topical Songi, 51 






Tasnif on Moti Jan.^ 

cr— ^j ^* — idj — f ;t — l^t ^— ^y ;^ 



li ^ (X — -Uo ^j^ — A^ jby ^ — 1^ ^ 

vS--w| ^^ ^«*'— J^ w ' A^ r^ *Hi^ i» ■*» 

1 Moti Jan was a famous Itidian coarteann who went to Shims. 
< Ifut ifttti Jian — the lady's nHme. 

52 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Marcli, 1906. 

(J — k f^ c;^* ^f;T .'. ^J — L ^T ^yl«.^ui^ c*« 

f^Xi 1 i-JJ ^— ^y 4^ e>> ^ ? 

!; ^ ^— *^ ^i j—^/ c^ c;>» >< — ^ 

<j5 — ^ ^ c?^ — ^ «;>* c^J^ cA->* ^— -^ 

(^ ^f vy^ — »^ o^j^ .'. <,, — t if ^^^ — ^aLc s>^ 
Ji;t,3 c;l)^ * 45!^—* (J — fc^? e^— W ^ — ?t 

u — ^ c^ tt)^ (^f;!^ •'• k5 — ^ ^^ c;^ — ^^ •■=** 

^ ^f ^y[ — apj gi,^^^ .-. ^^^ — b ^f ^1 — 7^ Ca^ 


A-~m I— ^ J>j»j Uf7— * U«»^ .'. «>^ fi *^y J«> US7— **• V '^^ 

*^ !^ ^ r^ ^'^ sr— ^3 -rJ) </y •'• *^ ^ *— ^ y / >> y - v J^ 



i 21to vulg., a gold ornament for the hair. < Vulgar for ziySK 

• Bnamel work. * Hava here — Wiiyii. 
( The allusion is not clear. 

* Taft-ta pira/ian, adj. * with nothing on but a chemise.' 
"V tiim for ^-am. 

Vol. II, No. 3,] Persian Lullabies and Topical Songs, 5.5 


Verses by a Dervish to extract monej from a British Consul. 


Tasnif'i ^usatn-i Lutu 

i fttZa^-namodi : contrary to the usual custom of Khans he used to wear 
a Persian felt hat. 

* Kirman-a — Kirman ast. 

8 IHin-a ■■ kun ast. The Shiraiis pride themselves on being m#n and 
look down on the quiet Kirmanis who are mostly weaTers. 

i Also in Arabic J-A^. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 66 

7. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, No, I. — A variety of 
Spongilla lacastriH from, Brackish Water in Bengal, — By N. 
Annandale, D.Sc, G.M.Z.S. 

Thanks to Carter's^ classical memoirs, the Freshwater Sponges 
of India are better known than most of the animals which inhabit 
-oar Indian tanks. In Bombay, Garter examined five species, basing 
on them the researches which laid the foundation of the scientific 
study of the SpongillidsB as living organisms. Two species have 
been recorded f wm Calcutta by Weltner,* and two by Bowerbank * 
from Central India. The following list, based mainly on the third 
part of Weltner's *' Spognillidenstudien** * shows the distribution, 
in India and in the world, of all the forms as yet known to occur 
^as members of our fauna : — 

Indian Spongillidje. 
Genoa Spongilla, 

1. 8. alba. Cart. ... ... Bombay. 

2. 8. homhayensis, Cart. ... Bombay. 

3. S. caHeri, Brok. ... Bombay, Chota Nagpur, Central India, 

Calcutta; Madura (Malay ArchipolNgo}, 
Manritins, Eastern Europe. 

4. 8. cerehellatay^ Bwrk. ... Central India. 

5. 8. cxnerea. Cart. ... Bombay ; Celebes, Flores, N. Amerioa. 

6. 8. deeipiene, Weber ... Calcutta; Celebes. 

7. 8. lacustris, auct. ... Lower Bengal ; Europe, N. America, 

Northern Asia, Australia. 
QenuB Ephydatia, 

8. E.plumosa (Cart.) ... Bombay; N. America. 

The following species have been recorded from countries near 
India and will probably be found to belong to the Indian fauna : — 

8p<mgilla sumatranat Weber ... Sumatra. 

Ephydatia fiuviatilw. and. ... Eastern Asia, Europe, N. America; 

„ hlemhingvifi Evans ... Malay Peninsula. 

During a recent visit (January 28th-30th) to Port Canning 
in Ix)wer Bengal, I was much struck by the enormous number of 
sponge*gemmules which formed a scum on the surface of some of 
the shadeless brackish pools so numerous in the neighbourhood. 
These g^mmulos originated in a Spongilla which incrusted the stems 
of plants growing in the Water and sticks which had fallen into it. 
Some of the pools were already drying up and the sponge was be- 
ginning to be exposed to the air. At one point I saw specimens 
which appeared to have been carried some distance from the 
tank by a gale of wind and were hard and dry. 

1 Ann. Mag. N'at. Hist., 1847, 1840, 1866, 1850, 1874, 1881. 

a Wiegm Archiv. f. Naturgewh. LXT, 1895. 
' S Proc Zool. She. 1863. 

* iCarter regarded this form as no more than a variety of his S. alba, 
•» * Qwirt Joum Micr. Science, 1900. 

56 Jaurnul of the Astatic Society of Bengal, [March, 1906. 

I have made a careful examination of living and preserved 
material, and I cannot find any specific difference between this 
sponge and the widely -distributed Spongilla lacustrts, which is not, 
however, usually regarded as a tropical form. It may be con- 
venient, for the sake of reference, to give the form a varietal 

Description of S, lacuslris var. hengahnsis — 

Texture firm, resistant, fibrous. Thickness never more than half 
an inch. Hahtt incrusting ; without branches, entirely surround- 
ing support ; pores and oscula inconspicuous ; surface smooth, 
rounded. Colour flesh-colour or dull-green. Gemmules numerous, 
disposed throughout the sponge except on the surface, of two sizes, 
thickly coated, with a single funnel-shaped opening, sphericaL 
Spicules : — skeleton spicules smooth, slender, cylindrical, feebly curv- 
ed, very rarely bent at an angle, abruptly pointed, joined together 
in strands to form a reticulation in which the gemmules rest : 
flesh spicules very slender, cylindrical, feebly bent, pointed, 
minutely spineal throughout, numerous : gemmule spicules slen- 
der, cylindrical, sparsely covered with fine, pointed, recurved spines, 
which are more numerous towards the ends than at the centre ; 
the spicules very numerous, arranged tangentially, not penetrating 
coat of gemmule. 

A. «B skeleton spicules. C. « flesb spicule. 

Length of skeleton spieiUe ••• 0*3 mm. — 0*4 mm. 

Length of flesh spicule ... 0*14 mm. 

Length of gemmule spicule ... 0*16 mm. 

Diameter of larger gemmule ... 0*9 mm. 

Diameter of smaller gemmule ••. 0'6 mm. 

The most notable peculiarity of this variety is the total ab- 
sence of branches,^ but in certain forms of the species the branches 
are better developed than in others. S. lacv^tris is so variable 

1 Ledenfeld describes his 8. lacustris var. sphaeriea, from New South 
Wales, as '* ohne Forts atzsy kuglig oder eiforming^" (Zool. Jahrh. part 2, 1887). 
The exact position of this form is doubtful ; Weltner is not sure that it 
belongs to the genus Spongilla, no gemmules being available for examination. 

VoU II, No. 3.] Notes on the FreshwcUer Fawm of Induu 57 

that Potts,* in his monograph of the Freshwater Sponges of the 
world, recognized six varieties in addition to the typical form. 
The Bengal form most nearly resembles his vnoniana (from the 
Catskill Mountains, New York) as regards its spicules ; but in the 
gemmule spicules the spines are more distinctly aggregated at the 
ends in the Bengal form. I regard the angularly bent skeleton 
spicule, of which 1 have only seen two examples, as an abnormality, 
llie gemmules are very distinctly of two sizes, the smaller 
ones being less numerous than the larger ones. They are scattered 
indiscnminately through the sponge, and in both the opening is 
directed outwards. They are not found in groups, and have no- 
large air-cells. Dried pieces of the sponge bear a close external 
resemblance to Weltner's ' figure of part of a branch of EuspongiUa 
lacushis from Germany ; but there is in the centre of each of such 
pieces of the Bengal form a twig or grass-stalk which would be 
absent from European specimens. The green colour of the Port 
Canning examples was due to a multicellular alga^ whose 
filaments ramified among the spicules. This alga was evidently 
growing with great activity, but it had only commenced to invade 
certain pieces of the sponge. 

S. lacustris has been recorded from brackish water in Europe 
and possibly in Australia. The species is evidently adaptable, and 
its great fertility as regards gemmules, gives it every chanoo of a 
wide dispersal. 

The common sponges in the Calcutta tanks are 8. carteri and 
fif. decipiens. The former propagates itself during the winter 
months, by means of buds, and forms gemmules rather later in the 
year than does 8, dedpiens. By the end of January, specimens of 
the latter are usually reduced to mere skeletons containing these 
bodies, while even large examples of 8. carteri are, at the same date, 
either devoid of gemmules or contain only a few. 

The life-history of these two forms differs also in other- 
respects. The bnds of 8. carteri attach themselves chiefly to water- 
plants such as Pistia stratiotes and Limnantliemum and grow rapidly 
into globular masses, which may be six or eight inches in dia- 
meter. These gradually weigh down the leaves or roots to which 
they adhere, and finally sink them in the mud. The lower part of 
the sponge then dies, the cells probablv migrating towards the 
upper part. 8. decipiens, on the other hand, incmsts the lower 
part of til e stems of reeds, bricks which have fallen into the water, 
and other sunk objects. Neither species is exposed to the air for 
any great part of the year in Calcutta, as both are said by Carter 
to be exposed in Bombay. 

Both species shelter a number of Insect larvae, acme of which 
are generically identical with those found in the same position in 
Germany. A minute Naidomorph worm is abondant in the- 

i Froc, Aead, Nat, Science, Philadelphia, 1887. 
« Ent. Nachr, (Berlin; xx.,*No. 10, p. 160, fig. 7, 1803. 
3 Cf. M. and A. Weber, Zool. Ergeh. Niederland Ost-Ind, Vol. 1, page 60,. 
pi. V, fig. 1. 

58 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [March, ^906. 

decaying tissues of older specimens, and appears to play an impor- 
tant part in the liberation of the gemmules. At Port Canning I 
found a crab of the genus Varuna concealed in considerable num* 
bers among grass stems coated with 8, loGustris. The relations 
between the Freshwater Sponges and the various animals associ- 
ated with them is a subject to which I hope to return later. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Notes on the Freffhwater Fauna of India. 59* 


8. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No, II. — The Affinities 
of Hislopia. — By N. Annandalk, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

The genus Hislopia was founded in 1858 bj Carter for a fresh- 
water Polyzoon ^ sent to him in spirit from Nagpur by Hislop the 
geologist ; while in 1880 JuUien • described a form, which he recog- 
nized* in 1885 as allied to Carter's, under the name Norodonia, has- 
ing his diagnosis entirely on external characters. The systematic 
position of these Polyzoa has remained obscure, Stoliczka,* who 
referred to the existence of Hislopia in Lower Bengal in his ac- 
count of the brackish water Membranipora bengcUeTtsis, did not 
carry out his intention of describing its life history. A recent ex- 
amination of living material from a tank on the Calcutta 'raaidan' 
enables me to give a general account of the anatomy of Carter's 
species, H. lacustris^ and to indicate its affinities in general and 
its relationship to Norodonia. 

Carter, who i^garded his new genus as allied to Flustra, de- 
scribed the colony as '' spl:*eading in aggregation over smooth sur- 
faces, sometimes in linearly, but for the most part with no definite 
arrangement." In Calcutta the linear arrangement is far com- 
moner than any other, but occasionally several zooecia are adjacent 
to one another in a transverse series. This may be due either to 
parallel branches chancing to approach one another, in which case 
there is no communication between the polypides, or to lateral bud- 
ding. In any case the zoarium is flat and consists of a single 
layer of cells. The substance of the zooecia is transparent but 
stiff, while the thickened margins of the orifice have a deep brownish 

The individual zooecia are described by Carter as '' irregularly 
ovate, compressed,*' and his figure {op. dt. pi. VII, fig. 1) shows that 
considerable variation in their outline is brought about by the 
pressure of neighbouring cells. Although he represents, in the 
same figure, a considerable flattened area between some of the cells, 
he does not note that their homy margin is of considerable width, 
and his fig. 2 is misleading in this respect. Moreover, the relative 
length of the spines tit the angles of the thickened borders of the 
orifice is niore variable than he indicates. In some zocecia they 
are very short, and occasionally two or even three of the four are 
vestigial. The large " stoloniferous holes ** he describes and 
figures are a veiy marked feature ; the actual plate being normal 
in chjiracter, although the depression at the base of which it occurs 
is of considerable extent. Even when the colony coAsists of a 
single line of zooecia these depressions may be present on the sides 
as well as the extremities of each cell. They then indicate that 
lateral budding is about to commence ; for although no aperture 

I Ann. Mag. Nat. HivL (3) I, page 169, pi. VII. 

i Bull. 8oe. Zool. France, 1880. page 77. 

3 Ibid. 1886, page 181. 

♦ Journ. As. Soc. Bengal. XXXVin,(2}, page 61. 


Journal of the AsicUic Society of BengaL [March, 1906. 

Fio. 1. Sislopia lacustris : two zocecia from the centre 
of the zoariam (drawn from life). 

A. « Qnicellular alga in gizzard. £. « eggs. 

Yol. II, 2^0. 3.] ^otes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 61 

aR yet exists, a ronndisli mass of nndiffereiitiated tissae on the 
iimer wall of the zooecia opposite their base represents the young 
bnd. Occasionally a very short, flat creeping stolon is produced 
between two zooecia. 

It is only as regards the zooecia that it is possible to compai'e 
the diagnoses of Htslopia and Norodonia. The following is a 
translation of that of the latter : — 

" ZooRcia homy, creeping, strongly adherent to submerged 
bodies, originating one from another below the summit to form 
linear series, primitive axis of the zoarium rapidly giving rise to 
secondary, tertiary and other axes, these appear on a level with the 
upper third of the zooecium, sometimes on one side, sometimes on 
two ; lateral margin thick, bearine a delicate membranous area, 
near the summit of which is the orifice." ( 1885). 

Allowing for the dried condition of the specimens examined, 
this diagnosis applies equally well to Hislopia. In dried specimens 
of H, lacustris the front collapses below the margins, which then 
appear thickened, and the tubular character of the orifice is less 
conspicuous. No mention is made of the four " valves " which 
«lose the orifice in Htslopia ; but they are extremely delicate mem- 
branous structures, which cannot be seen in dried specimens. 
For these reasons I regard Norodonia as a synonym of Hislopia, 
Whether Jullien's N. cawhodgiensis is specifically identical with 
H, lacustris, it is difficult to say ; but the author's figures bear a 
close resemblance to dried examples of the latter. 

As regards the polypide of H, lacustris, one or two important 
features may be noted. The lophophore is circular, not horse-shoe- 
shaped as Jullien's (1885) copy of Carter's figure would suggest. 
There is no epistome. A folded collar, very conspicuous when the 
lophophore is in the act of expanding, exists and is well represented 
by Caurter (op. cit. pi. VII, fig. 3). When the polypide is retract- 
ed, the aperture is closed by what appear on the surface to be four 
valves. Garter stated, and indicated in his figure, that the pos- 
terior of these was larger than the others and had a different 
character from them ; but in the living animal the relative extent 
of these ** valves" is by no means constant, even in the same 
zooecium at different times. Their nature is best indicated by a 
study of the young bod. Before the orifice is actually perforated 
its lumen is edmost circular, the edge is hardly thickened, and 
there are no spines. At this stage no ^' valves ** can be seen, al- 
though the collar, which is very long, may be already apparent. 
As an opening is formed, and as, simultaneously, its edges become 
more or less completely rectangular and stiff, the upper extremity 
of the walls of the orifice, inside the thickened rim, collapse to- 
gether, and a slight transverse folding takes place, producing what 
appear on the surface to be regular flaps, Although the folding is 
not sufficiently marked for the projections from the four sides of 
the orifice to have actually this character. These projections are 
the so-called valves. In such forms as Alcyonidium and Bower- 
hanhia, the walls of the orifice close in more or less tightly above 
the collar when the lophophore is retracted, but no projections of 

62 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [March, 1906^ 

this kind are formed, the aperture being circular and not ])aving 
stiffened edges. In Paltidtcella, in which the opening is rectan- 
gular but without a thickened rim, the resemblance is much mora 
striking. In Htdopia there are no peculiar muscles connected with 
the orifice, the structure of which is absolutely distinct from that 
of the Cheilostomes. 

The tentacles are, as Carter says, " about sixteen," occasion- 
ally a little more numerous ; but their number is not constant. 
When expanded they are long and slender. The pharynx is rather 
lengthy. Near its point of origin it is swollen slightly ; but it be- 
comes cylindrical again before entering the gizzard, which is sphe- 
rical and bears from two to six greatly thickened ridges on its 
internal surface. The passage between the gizzard and the stomach 
is capable of some extension and bears peculiarly long and active 
cilia. The gizzard almost invariably contains a number of round- 
ed green bodies, which appear to be unicellular alg». Sometimes 
these bodies remain in the gizzard unaffected for at least two days. 

• .T. 


Fig. 2. Diagrammatic loDgitadinal seotion of the orifico, 
the polypide being retracted. 

T. ■ thickened rim. P.V, — poBterior valve. A. V. — anterior valve. 

Those situated furthest down are in constant motion, being whirled 
round and round by the cilia in the passage between the stomach 
and the gizzard. Occasionally a movement of the whole aliment- 
ary canal causes some of them to descend into the stomach ; but, 
owing to their spherical shape, the action of the cilia brings them 
back into the gizzard again. I am inclined to believe that these 
bodies are merely food which is waiting to be crushed by the 
gizzard, as some of them are alwajs disappearing and the 
faeces afterwards are green. If so, the animal is able to save up 
an excess of food for some time in this manner. The stomach, 
which has the usual chai-acters, is well represented by Carter ; but 
the intestine is a cylindrical tube when empty. The '* globular, 
sometimes elliptically dilated portion " is merely the temporary 
swelling caused by the presence of f feces, and several such swel- 
lings may occur. The rectum is shorter than the intestine. The 
anus is, of course, external to the lophophore. 

The intertentacular ory:an is large, and the ganglion appears 
to be normal. The muscular system is well developed ; but I can* 
not detect a definite funiculus. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Notes on the Freshtoater Fauna of ItuHa, 63 

The ovaries are attached to the wall of the zooecium on both 
sides of the polypide and are of considerable extent. Spermaries 
occur in mnch the same position, but neither kind of gonad can be 
said to have any very definite arrangement, although both are 
found together. Apparently the female elements, as a rule, mature 
earlier than the male. When the former are ripe a ** brown body " is 
formed and they escape through the orifice, occasionally, at any 
rate in captivity, as unsegmented ova, but this may be due to 
abnormal conditions of life. 

The exact position of Hislopia has hitherto remained uncer- 
tain ; but I think there can be little doubt that it is a somewhat 
aberrant representative of the Ctenostomata, the orifice having un- 
dergone special modification, possibly in connection with life in 
fresh water. Probably the genus should be regarded as constituting 
a distinct family closely allied to the Paludicellidae. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Some instances of Vegetable Pottery, 66 


9. Some Instances of Vegetable Pottery. — By David' Hooper. 

Certain vessels are frequently xaade in India from the dried 
fruits of trees and used for holding water and liquid substances. 
Familiar examples are found in the bottle gourd {Lagenaria 
vulgaris), the bel {^gle marmelos), and the cocoanut (Cocas 
nucifera)* An aperture is made at one end of the fruit, the piilpy 
portion is removed by excavation and washing, and the dry, hard 
shell forms a bottle-shaped vessel which serves many useful 

While many of the poorer villagers in India take advantage of 
these naturally-shaped vessels, a peculiar use is sometimes made 
by others of a glutinous and plastic material entirely of vegetable 
origin which, when formed by the art of a potter into cups, 
saucers, and jars, and dried in the air, is a substitute for earthen- 
ware. There is more than one instance in history of vegetable 
matter being confused with earth or clay. So long a^o as the 
fifth century, Prosper Alpinus noticed that the powdered pulp of 
the fruit of Adansonia digitata, commonly known as the baoab, 
was sold as Terra Lemnia to those unacquainted with the original 
article. The genuine Lemnian earth of the Greeks, or Sphragide, 
was a yellowish-grey earth or clay found in the Island of 
Stalimene (ancient Lemnos). It was regarded as a medicine in 
Turkey, and was esteemed as an antidote to poison and the plague. 
Another instance of confusion between vegetable and mineral sub- 
stances is the name Terra Japonica, formerly applied to the extract 
or cutch of the Uncaria plant, which was supposed to come from 
Japan. The analogy between cutch and clay is shown by the fact 
that the former can be readily moulded into figures and vessels 
which retain their shape when dried in the sun. Dr. Annandale, 
during his recent visit to Ramnad in South India, found the 
villagers adepts at making toy images of black catechu, and illus- 
trations of their workmanship will be given in a future number of 
the Memoirs of this Society. 

The powdered root of the turmeric (Ourcuma longa) was 
another substance formerly regarded as of mineral origin and 
known as Terra Merita, probably on account of its resemblance in 
colour to ochreous minerals. 

The pulpy parts of various astringent fruits have the peculiai* 
plastic property of clay, and by hardening in the air, after being 
moulded into pots, they are impervious to water, and have the addi- 
tional advantage that they can fall to the ground without being 

The use of the fruit of the aoula for making pottery was 
described in 1896 in a letter from Mr. James Martin, written from 
the Tnmgaon District, Baipur, Central Provinces, to the Reporter 
on Economic Products to the Government of India. He writes : 
" I have come across a peculiar ware that is made by the Banjaras 
'* of the district from the fruit of the aoula {Phyllanthtis emhlica). 
*' The fruit is collected and dried. It is then boiled in water until 
*' quite soft and pounded, the stones removed and the pulp beaten 

66 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906.. 

'* up and worked with the hands into a thick, dark-brown, sticky 
^^masB. When this is quite ready, the manufacturer takes an 
" earthen vessel — any shape that pleases him — and coyers it all over 
" with a thick layer or coat of the pnlp. This is then put aside to 
^* set a bit, and when hard, rude devices are stamped round the neck 
^^Rnd shoulders of the article, which is then set aside to dry. 
" When quite hard, the gharra inside is broken and the pieces* 
^' removed. These vegetable pots are sold according to size from 4 
" anuas to 8 annas each, and are much sought after by tlie people 
" of the plaoe. Oil and ghee stored in them are well preserved 
" and show no evidence of rancidity/' 

In another letter, Mr. Martin describes the process in greater 
detail: '^ I sent for some Banjaras and got them to stay for four or 
" five days at my camp and prepare, in my presence, first the pulp of 
"the Phyllanthiis emblica fruits, and then saw them mould and 
" form the jars in the various stages of the process. On the first 
" day I sent the men to collect fruit and they brought in a large 
" basketful. The same evening this was put into large mudden (?) 
" gharras with cold water suflBcient to cover the fruit, placed over 
" fires and boiled till soft. The gharras were then removed and 
" the contents emptied into a basket and allowed to drain and cool. 
" On the following morning, the fruit was broken by hand, each 
" into five or six pieces, the fleshy pericarp dividing easily into 
" sections, the stones as they were removed were thrown aside, and 
" the fruit, spread on a mat, was placed in the sun to dry. The 
" day after, the gharras were three parts filled with cold water and 
" placed over fires. As soon as the water boiled, the previously 
" boiled and dried fruit was added and allowed to cook till soft 
" again. The vessels were then taken from the fii*es and all liquor 
" carefully drained off. This was kept in a separate vessel for 
" future use. A small quantity at a time of the fruit was next 
" taken and reduced to a paste on a stone slab with a muller, a 
" little of the fruit liquor being added to keep the pulp soft and of 
" a suitably plastic consistence. The moulds —in this case small 
" earthenware gharras — were next attended to. The outside surface 
" of these was first carefully washed, and then coated with a paste 
" composed of ashes of burnt cowdung and the fruit liquor, and set 
" aside to dry. When all was ready, the fruit pulp in small quanti- 
" ties, as much as could be manipulated by one hand, was taken and 
" dubbed on with the right hand, the operator holding the mould 
" in his left. 

" He commenced by covering the mould round the neck and 
"then worked downwards finishing off at the bottom, spreading 
" and smoothing the coat with his hand, which he every now and 
" again dipped into the fruit liquor. When the entire surface was 
" covered with pulp about i inch thick, the mould was stood (?) neck 
" downwards on the ground in the sun to dry. It was left there all 
" day but brought in at night. On the folio wins: morning a second 
" coat of pulp was plastered on as before, and the pot was again 
" left out all day in the sun, being removed at night. On the third 
" day, after having stood in the sun all day, the earthen moulds 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Some instances of Vegetable Pottery, 67 

'* were broken by being tapped with a stone inside, and the pieces 
" removed. The necks of the jars thus formed were then moulded 
^' by hand with the addition of more pulp, and then the entire jar 
** both inside and out was smoothed and finished ofE with a coat of 
" pulp thinned down with the fruit liquor, after which the jars were 
*' again set aside to harden. When hard enough to handle — which 
^' was by evening — an attempt was made at ornamenting the neck of 
** the jar by impressions left by pressing a thin round stick against 
** the yet soft and yielding pulp. Kowrie shells and the red seeds of 
" Ahrus precatorius are often imbedded in pulp round the neck to 
'' beautify it. The Banjaras declare that the manufacture is stopped 
" during the rains." 

The aoula tree is very abundant throughout the forests of 
tropical India and Burma, and the fruits, known as Emblic Myro- 
balans, are frequently employed in medicine and for tanning. 
The advantages which the fresh palp possesses for preparing 
vessels might well be recommended for more extensive trial, and 
probably the fruit of the g>ib {Diospyros embryoptens) could be 
similarly utilised. 

Another material used in making jai's is the root of the great 
asphodel {Eremnrtis aucherianus, Boiss.) The fleshy root of this 
plant, by drying in a sand-bath and grinding, is prepared into a 
flour which, when mixed with hot water,* yields a most tenacious 
vegetable glue with which the Persians make great vessels for 
holding oil and clarified butter The native cobblers employ it in 
preference to animal glue in their work. Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison 
describes ^ the method of making these vessels in Persia : '^ The 
*' tenacious gum is painted over a hollow earthen mould that has a 
" single layer of some coarse country cloth covering it ; on this 
*^ cloth, layer after layer of the glue is painted until a sufi^ciency is 
'' reached ; this forms, when dry, a parchment-like skin, the mould 
" is then broken up and removed through the mouth of the jar, 
*' and then usually the jar is sewed into a goat's hair sack. With 
*' ordinary moisture, or the amount of moisture likely to affect the 
" jar through the goat's hair covering, no harm is likely to accrue, 
" but if the jar is allowed to stand in water for days, it will in time 
** dissolve or melt away." 

Sarish'i-narm is the name of the flour made by grinding down 
the dried roots of Eremurus with the intention of converting them 
into glue. Sariskn-haki is the vegetable glue ready made for use. 
Daba'i'Sarish are the vessels made in the above manner. There is 
«aid to be a large trade in this material in Khorasan. 

1 Notes on Products of Western Afghanistan and NoHh'Eastem Persia^ p. 66. 

Vol. U, No. 3.] Notes on some SeaSnaJces caught at Madras, 69 


10. Notes on some Sea-Snakes caught at Madras, — By T. V. R. Ai tar. 
Communicated hy H. Maxwell Lkfroy. 

The almost unbroken coast of the port of Madras extending 
from Cassimode on the north to Mylapore in the sonth, seems to 
afford but little shelter to these marine reptiles, the favourite 
haunts of which are salt-water estuaries and tidal streams. They 
are said to be found in shoals along the Burmese coast near the 
months of the river Irrawadi and the Sunderbunds of Bengal. 
However, with all its disadvantages as a locality in which to carry 
on such an investigation as this, 1 was able to procure from the- 
Madras coast a fairly good number of specimens during the com- 
paratively short period of my work. Of the specimens collected, 
the majority were got along the rock-bound coast of Royapuram and 
from within the artificial harbour, where young ones are often 
found swimming in their characteristic fashion* 

There seems to be no particular season of the year when sea- 
g(nakes are found ; all the year round hardly a day passes without 
some fisherman coming across specimens of these snakes. During 
the cold weather, however, rtz., from the month of October to 
February, they are found in greater numbers. Big snakes 
generally approach the shore at night and this fact is corrobora- 
ted by the experience of the fishermen who often fish at night. 
During the rainy weather when the sea is rough, many of them 
are dashed ashore and found stranded on the beach, when they 
easily become a prey to the eager sea-gull, which I have seen eat- 
ing them. 

Sea-snakes are generally hauled up in the big fishing nets 
employed by the Madras fishermen in the mid-bay. Among the 
various undesirables which the net raises up, aa urchins, corals, 
sea-stars, etc., at each drawing of the net, sea-snakes invariably 
come up, and unless anyone interested in these succeeds in pre- 
vailing upon the fisherman to retain these snakes, they are thrown 
overboard with the rest of the useless lot. With their natural 
hatred and vulgar antipathy towards these reptiles, it requires no 
ordinary promises of presents to induce these illiterate men to 
fetch home specimens of snakes. Sometimes a fisherman, in- 
duced by payment to catch them, brings big eels and. specimens of 
Ohreshydrus granulatus ; and on being told that they are. not 
the right creatures wanted, he loses his confidence in the offer 
and gives up collecting them. 

A few general observations may be recorded as regards habita 
and other features which I have been able to make during a recent 

The peculiar habits and surroundings of some of the species 
have been found to have brought about several marked variations 
in the genei*al form of the body. The most strikiniir of these ia 
the peculiar modification of the anterior poi*tiou of the trunk in 
some species of Hydrophis, It may be suggested that the small 

70 Jouriial of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 

head with the attenuated and cylindrical neck is specially adapted 
to penetrate into the crevices and crannies among the rocks in 
search of prey. It may also be urged that the modification serves 
the purpose of an offensive organ also, inasmuch as the prey 
could be easily caught and poisoned by an agile dart of the 
anterior portion, without the thick belly exerting itself much. The 
graceful Distira viperina Boaleng. with its unique ventrals adapted 
to a slightly regular motion on land, is, I think, a shallow water 
form often crawling along the sandy bottom of the littoral area. 
I have seen specimens crawling on the sand after being caught. 

With regard to coloration, the young ones are, as a rule, 
found gracefully adorned with bright bands and streaks, while as 
the snakes grow old the colour becomes dull and the bands, streaks, 
and other markings appear very faint and sometimes even dis- 
appear. This is especially the case in Enhydris cnrttts Merieni., 
Enhydritia valakadien Kassell, DLstiru cyanodncta Russell, and 
Hydrophis cantoris Giinth. The arrangement and number of 
the head shields and scales which are taken as the criteria in 
determining the specific characters are, in many cases, found to be 
very variable. In almost all the species described above, the 
number of scales vary from those given by Mr. Boulenger in his 

Though one and all the species are poisonous, the poison fangs 
are not so very well developed as in terrestrial snakes. They are 
small and not markedly differentiated from the maxillary teeth be- 
hind them. In one species, however, viz,, Enhydrina valakadien, 
they are comparatively larsrer. The terminal end of the poison 
duct in these snakes is found to be very convoluted. The 
fangs being small, the puncture caused by the bite must be 
very minute ; nevertheless the effect of the bite from a toxicologi- 
cal point of view, is said to be very deadly. Some of the most 
eminent medical men,^ who have been recently conducting a re- 
search into the action of snake venoms, have found out that the 
most deadly of all substances of this nature, which they have ex- 
amined, is the venom of the sea-snake Enhydnna valakadien. 
The native fisherfolk are not unawai*e of the poisonous nature of 
these snakes ; in spite of this knowledge they are always found 
carelessly playing in the waters, even of localities which are 
aaid to be the special haunts of sea-serpents. And it is none the 
less curious to note, that cases of bites by sea-snakes are very 
rarely heard of ; evidently they attack man very seldom. Here is 
what one observer* says : *' Although all these are poisonous, they 
rarely attack man. I have seen scores taken by careless sailors on 
the north-west coast of Australia without any bad restdts. 
Several instances of fatal bites have been recorded, one having 
caused death in an hour and a quarter. '' A case of fatality by 

I L. Rogers in Proo. Boy. Soo. Izxi. (1908), p. 481 and Ixzii. (1903). 
p. 805; Sir Thomas Fraser and B. H. Elliot, in Phil. Trans. Boy. Soc.B. 197, 
(1904), p. 249. 

< Basset Smith, M.B.C.S., B.N. 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Notes on some Sea-Snakes caught at Madras, 71 

IN.S.] _ 

sea-8uake bite ca«me to my notice dnring my investigations « A 
fisber-boy was bitten by a slender-necked species wbile on a cata- 
maran in tbe bay, at the Boyapuram coast. The boy did not feel 
the bite, though he knew it was a snake, but gradually became pale 
and unconscious. He was brought ashore, at once and all sorts of 
I'estoratives and handy medicines were resorted to, but the boy 
•expired in the course of the next day. The natives regard the 
fspecies Hydnis platurus Russell as the most deadly of all sea-snakes, 
next in grade being the slender-necked forms to which they give 
the name of Molagadien pflmh. Implicit faith in the curative 
•effects of sacred murmurs and chantings is entertained by almost 
all fishermen. An experiment in the way of mutual poisoning 
was tried by making the jaws of a healthy living specimen of 
Enhydris rnrtns close on the body of a young specimen of 
Enhydrina valakadien which was very active at tlie time. For 
some time the latter exhibited no sign of poisoning or ill-health, 
but the next day it became paralysed and died. This killed one 
had been living for a long time in captivity, and was appai'ently 
healthy when bitten. 

In the matter of food, all these snakes more or less confine 
themselves to a diet of fish. Of all the species, Enhydrina vala- 
kadien seems to be the most voracious. In almost all the speci- 
mens of the species that were opened, several fish, half digested, 
were found, the fishes being chiefly spiny ones. In some cases 
small crustaceans were also found in tbe alimentary tract. The 
«lender-necked species, which cannot swallow big fishes, are found 
to feed on young and small fish. I am also inclined to think, that 
these snakes haunt coral reefs and feed on the minute polyps. 

Female specimens, with their oviducts crammed with well- 
-developed eggs, were chiefly found during the cold months from 
October to January. 

The peculiar way in which the ecdysis of the epidermis takes 
place in these marine reptiles is well worth a note. Unlike the 
terrestrial snakes which periodically shed their skin as a single 
piece, these snakes have the habit of casting away the epidermis 
piecemeal. Consequently a tliorough moult takes longer time 
than in ordinary land forms. During the period of moulting, the 
snakes are found to be very inactive. It seems to me a mystery 
why such a method of ecdysis should be the rule in these marine 
snakes. The following feature which I observed, however, makes 
me hazard the conjecture that the sea- water may play a part in 
this process of piece-by-piece moulting. Some specimens of sea- 
snakes, which I had kept in captivity in fresh water, underwent 
this process of moulting more or less like the land snakes, the 
-epidermis coming off almost as a single piece. 

Several specimens of the snakes collected, especially young 
ones, had foreign organisms attached to the surface of their 
body. The chief of these organisms are the barnacles, both the 
stalked and the sessile forms (Lepadidas and BdtanidcR). These 
were abundantly found in young specimens of Enhydrina valaka^ 
•dien. In a specimen of Enhydris curtus the body was completely 

72 Journal ofthe^A^atic Society of Bengal. [March, 1906. 

fringed with hydroid colonies like grass. A specimen of Dw- 
tira viperina was found to have attached to its body the calcare- 
ous skeleton of a polyzoon colony (Membranipora f ). 

The way in which sea-snakes behave when thrown ashore, 
and their habit whilQ in captivity, are not uninteresting. Once 
out of their native element, they generally become quite helpless and 
appear blind, except DUtim vipenna. They are unable to progress 
on land because of the want of big ventrals. None of these ever 
attempted to attack, but they often try to bite and injure their 
own bodies. I tried to feed some in captivity, but with very 
little success. Dr. Fayrer says that they die very rapidly in 
captivity, but I was able to keep some alive in captivity for a 
fairly long time. A specimen of EnhydHna valakadten^ V GJ" long, 
lived in fresh water from the 12th of September to the 9th of No- 
vember, which is nenrly two months. One specimen of Enhydris 
curtuSy a foot long, lived from the 19th September to the 12th 
October, — nearly a month. Another specimen of the same species 
2' 9" long, lived for neaily 20 days, viz., from the 26th December 
to the 15th January. A specimen of Distira jerdonii Russell, 
3' 2y long, lived from the 9th November to the 1 4th January. All 
these were kept in open tin buckets half full of fresh water, the 
water being changed now and then. Other species were also tried, 
but none lived any appreciable time in captivity. In captivity all 
were active and quite at home, and it was probably starvation that 
killed them, since they refuse to feed in captivity. 

Here is a list of some of the Tamil names by which sea- 
snakes are known in Madras : — Nulla Wahlagille pam of Russell 
is called Karivnla primb. Species of Enhydris are called Potta 
p/Imb (meaning blind snake). E. valakadien is called Vdldkadien 
pUmb (meaning the net- biting snake). The slender- necked ones 
are called Molakadien pOmb : also Kodal nagom (meaning sea- 
serpent). The long and banded ones are called Kadal sarai 

Vol. II, No. 3.] Wcrrmia Mammi. 73 


11. Wormta Mansoni: a hitherto undesa-thed species from Burma. 
—By A. T. Gage. 

In May 1905, Mr. F. B. Manson, now retired from Government 
service but then Conservator of Forests, Tenasserim Circle, sent to 
the writer a species of Wormia, which could not be identified with 
any species in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 
More material of the same species was sent in the following July 
and September by Mr. Manson's successor. This allowed of a fairly 
complete description of the species being drawn up, which is given 

The writer is indebted to Colonel Prain and Mr. J. F. Duthie 
for having kindly compared the species with the Wormias in the 
Kew collection, with none of which has it been found to agree. 

Wormia Mansoni. — Frutex primo cum foliorum nascentium 
costis costulisque subtus pilosis denique omnino glaber ; ramuli 
teretes brunnei lenticellati. Folia alterna, breviter petiolata, sine 
ala stipulari, elliptico-lanceolata, apice acuta, basi cuneata, serrata, 
coriacea, supra nitida, infra surda, nervis lateralibus 12 — 15. 
PetioluR 1 — 1*4 cm. longus ; lamina 13 — 16 cm. longa, 4*5— 6*5 cm. 
lata. Flores 4 — 5 cm. lati, in racemis terminalibus 3-4 flores geren- 
tibus diapositi, alabastro in bractea decidua incluso. Peduncnli 
2 — ^3 cm. longi. Sepala 5, in alabastro imbricata, camea, ovato 
oblonga, tria interiora circa 1*7 cm. longa, 1*5 cm. lata, duo exteriora 
minora. Petala 5 — 7, alba, undulata, integra, obovata, 2 — 3 cm. 
longa, 1 cm. lata, in alabastro imbricata. Stamina numerosa, 7 — 10 
mm. longa, filamenta fere aequalia 3-serialiter disposita, antheris 
per ostia terminalia dehiscentibus. Carpella 5 raro 6, subtrigona, 
vix in axe cohaerentia, staminibus obtecta ; stigmata tot quot car- 
pella, subulata, reflexa; ovula numerosa bi-serialia axillariter 
disposita. Fructus 2 — 2*5 cm. crassus; carpella maturescentia 
2— -3-sperma, camea, baud intorta, vix cohaerentia, basi staminibus 
persistentibus cincta et calyce camea persistente inclusa. Semina 
reniformia, fusco-bmnnea, rugulosa, 5 mm. longa, 3 mm. lata, in 
arillo (alboP) tenaci incluRa. 

In ripis fluminis Yunzalin, prope confluentem cum Salween, 
Tenasserim, Mansonf 

Up to the present the species of the Eu- Wormia section, found 
in Ceylon and the Malayan Peninsula, which have been described 
are : — Wormia triquetra Rottb., Flora Brit. Ind., i. 35, from Ceylon ; 
W.pulchelln Jack, Flora Brit. Ind., i 36, W.meliosmsefolia King, W. 
ScortechiniiKing^ W. KunstleriKmg, Jour n. ABia,i. Soc. Bengal, Iviii. 
11,365-366, all fram the Malayan Peninsula. The present species^ 
which extends the distribution of the genus northwards into Burma, 
is readily distinguishable from those just mentioned W. triquetra^ 
W. Scortechinii and W. Kunstleri are trees, the two latter at least 
20 metres high, while W. Mansoni is a shrub. W. meliosmasfolia is 
described as a small tree, and W. pulchella as a shrub. The former 
differs from W. Mansoni in having 12 carpels, the latter in having 
obvate-oblong entire leaves with only 5-7 pairs of nerves. 

Vol. II, No. 3.1 Testudo hah^chioTnim, a neio species, 75 

12. Testtido haluchiorum, a neio species, — By N. Annandalk, D.Sc, 
CM Z.S., Deputy Superiiitendent of the Indian Museum. 

Diagnosis of Testwlo haluchiorum, sp. nov. 

Shell arched transversely and longitudinally, slightly moi*e 
than half as deep as long ; anterior margins slightly reverted, 
serrated ; costals almost vertical. Head small, broad, covered 
with irregular scales above ; interorbital region of the skull almost 
flat, but sloping a little towards the nasal opening; upper jaw 
tricuspid, feebly serrated ; occipital process short, barely extending 
beyond the condyles. Four claws on each foot ; the fore- foot 
with about six rows of large imbricating scales on the anterior 
surface ; the hind foot with three spur-like tubercles on the heel ; 
two Inrge snbtriedral tubercles, surrounded by smaller ones, on 
the back of the thigh. Tail short, with a small apical tubercle. 
Shields of carapace coneentrally striated, with a flat sculptured 
central area; supracaudal single, almost vertical. Plastron 
truncated in front, probably notched deeply behind. Colour of 
shell pale brown, irregularly marbled with darker brown. 

Locality, — Baluchistan (A. W. Mui*ray). A stuffed specimen 
in the Indian Museum, identified by Anderson as T, Jwrsfieldiu 

Remarks, — This species may be distinguished from the Afghan 
Tortoise (T. horsfieldii), the only other species of its genus with foui* 
claws on all the feet, by its deeper carapace, which is not flattened 
on the dorsal surface, and by the characters of its skull. In 2\ 
liorsfielihi there is a marked transverse depression across the 
interorbital region and the sides of the upper jaw are smooth. 
The new species resembles T, zarudnyi Nikolski in several of its 
characters, notably in its almost vertical costals The description 
of the latter Tortoise, described from Eastern Persia and possibly 
occurring in Baluchistan, is given below. 

As it seems probable that the type of T. haluchiorum is abnor- 
mal in certain respects, I have given a very brief and guarded 
diagnosis of the species it represents. The anals are almost 
entirely absent, being represented by several small, irregularly 
shaped tubercles, which separate the femorals from one another 
at their anterior extremity. There is no evidence that this is 
due to injury, as the place where the missing plates should be is 
covered with normal and apparently healthy skin. 

Bimensioyis of the Type of T. baluchiorum. 

Length of shell 

... 211 mm. 

Depth „ „ 
Breadth,, „ 
Length of skull 
Mnxinium breadth of skull 

... Ill „ 

... 160 „ 
... 35 „ 
... 30 „ 

For comparison the diagnosis of Tedud(t zarndnyi Nikolski is 
appended. It is quoted from Nikolski's paper in tlie Anm air** 
dn Mnsee Zo()logiqne dc VAcademte, St. PeU'rshurgy 18^7. I am 

76 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [March, 1906.] 

mnch indebted to Mr. G, A. Boulenger, who has sent me a copy 
of this paper on loan. 

'' Testudo affinis Tesiudini iberse Pall., a qua carapace lateribns 
compressa, scntis margino-lateralibns perpendicularibns, supra 
non visis, scnti morgino-brachialis anterioris margine inferiore 
valde assurecta, unguibus brevibns obtnsissimis, rhinotheca dis- 
tincte denticnlata, dilFert. 

Testado, latitndine carapacis in media parte 1*5 in ejus 
longitudine ; margine ejus posteriore expanse, parum assnrrecto ; 
marginibns scntorum margino-femoralinm, incissura mag^ inter 
se discretomm, rotnndatis ; margine scuti margino-brachialis 
anterioris valde assnrrecto, snpra posticeqne spectante; scnto 
nuchali elongate, ensiformi ; scntis margino-oollaribus snpra dnp- 
licibns ; scntis margino-lateralibns perpendicularibns, supra non 
visis ; scuto supracaudali indiviso, sub angulo 45^ ad planitiem 
horizontalem posito, longitudine ejus scnti longitudini scuti verte- 
bralis primi aequali ; margine anteriore scuti vertebralis primi 
rotundato, nee angulato ; latitndine omnium scntorum vertebra- 
lium longltudinem coram multum superante, latitudini scntorum 
costalium fere aequali; margine posteriore plastronis inciso, ad 
suturam inter scuta femoralia et abdominalia mobilij margine 
anteriore plastronis inciso, sutura inter scuta analia cum sutura 
inter scuta femoralia multum quam sutura inter se abdominalia 
breviore, scntis axillaribus nngninalibusque parvis angnstis, 
sutura inter scuta brachialia dupla quam inter pectoralia longiore, 
scutello praefrontali duplici ; rhinotheca distincte dentictdata ; 
pedibus anterioribus antice scntis latis rotnndatis imbricatis 
5 series longitudinales et 6 transversales finctis, tectis ; longitudine 
horum Acntorum distincte quam latitndine eorum minore, tubere 
magno comeo subconico in femoris parte posteriore; nngnibus 
brevibus obtnsissimis, longitudine longissimi unguis oculi dia- 
metrum longitudinalem aequante, vel paulo superante, latitndine 
unguium vix 1^ in eorum longitudine ; cauda tenui, longa, 
longitudine ejus longitudinis capitis majore, scutellis caudalibus 
dilatatis deplanatis quadrangularibus vel pentagonalibus, 6-8 
circum caudam dispositis; carapace lateribus flavescente, macula 
nigra in scntorum costalium tuberibus omata ; margine anteriore 
carapacis, scutis vertebralibas nigricantibus, scutis margino- 
lateralibns nigro-marginatis, plastrone flavescente nigro-notato ; 
scutis pedum anteriornm flavescentibus, angnste nigro-marginatis, 
unguibus palmamm flavescentibus plantaram nigricantibus. 

Longitude carapacis 254 mm. 

Habitat in montibus provinciae Birdschan in Persia orientali." 

.Vol. II, Ko. 4] . An account of the Ourpa Hill. 77 


13, An account of the Ourpa Hill in the District of Oaya, the 
j^ohahle site of the KukkuiapHdagiri. — By Babu Rakhal Da» 
Banerji. Oommunicaied by Dr. T. Blooh. 

Introductobt Bemabes. 

Since Oeneral Canningbam's nnconyinoing identification 
of the Kokku^apada Hill, mentioned by tbe Gbinese pilgrims as 
tbe pbice wbere Mabaka^yapa entered Nirvana, witb some low 
bills nortb of Enrkibar in Glaya District, Dr. Stein in bis report 
on an Arcbadological tour in Soutb Bibar and Hazaribagb, bas 
located tbis site on tbe S^obbnatb Hill, tbe bigbest peak in a range 
of bills fnrtber sontb-west from Enrkibar and abont fonr miles 
distant from tbe village of Wazirganj.^ 

Tbe followinflc acconnt describes anotber bill in Gaya district 
wbicb, for yarioos reasons, seems to agree more closely witb tbe 
acconnt ^ven by tbe Gbinese of tbe Enkkntap&da or (inmpftda- 
giri, as it also nsed to be called. Tbe bill bas first been bronglit 
to notice by Babn Sreegopal Bose, a Snb-Overseer of tbe Pnblio 
Works' Department, in cbarge of Bodb Gaya, wbo already noticed 
the great similarity between tbe remains on tbe Gnrpa Hill with 
the description given by tbe Chinese of tbe EakkutapSldagiri; 
He accompanied tbe antbor of tbe following paper on bis visit to 
. the bill during tbe last Gbristmas holidays. 

Tbe points wbicb to my mind make tbe identification of tbe 
Gnrpa HiU with Enkkntapadagiri preferable to Dr. Stein's 
identification witb tbe S^obbnath Hill, are tbe following : — 

(1) The modem name Qurpn is an exact Prakritic develop- 
ment out of Sanskrit Ourupdda, tbe second name by 
wbicb the bill nsed to be called according to tbe 
2) Tbe distance of 19 to 20 miles east of Bodb Gaya agrees 
better witb tbe 100 1i east of tbe same place, the 
distance given by Hinen Tbsang, than tbe distance of 
14 miles north-east of Bodb Gava, as calculated by 
Dr. Stein for tbe S'obbnath Hill. Probably also tbe 
corresponding distance from tbe approximate site of 
Bnddbavana will be found to aeree better with the 
Ghiuese accounts for Gnrpa than for ?obbnatb, 
(3) Tbe Gnrpa Hill has a lax^ tunnel running through it 
and forming a passage leading to tbe top, thus corres- 
ponding accurately with tbe cleft through the hill 
made by Eafyapa on his ascent according to the 
Gbinese accounts. No similar feature is recorded for 
tbe S'obbnath Hill by Dr. Stein, wbo, on page 89, 
merely observes that '' in tbe confused masses of rooks 
heaped up all along the crest lines of tbe three spurs, 
we can look for the passages wbicb ES^yapa Was 
supposed to have opened up with bis staff. 

i Ind. Ant, March l90ii p e8. 

7d Joufmal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [April, 1906. 

(4) The top of the Oarpa Hill has three distinct peaks 
forming the three cardinal points of a triangle. Hiaen 
Thsang likewise speaks of three high peaks on the 
summit of Knkkn^padagiri, between which Kft^yapa 
sat down when he entered Nir7aQa. With regard to 
S'obhnath, Dr. Stein mentions merely three spnrs, 
extending from one joining point into various direc- 
tions and thus resembling a cock's foot, from which, 
according to him, the hill came to be named ' Cock's 
foot HiU ' (Skt. Kukkuta^dagifi). 

The Gurpa HiU hae, on its peaks, remains of old brick 
buildings, which may have belonged to the Stupa on the top of 
Kukkutapadagiri, mentioned by Hiuen Thsang. 

That the Gurpa Hill still forms an object of local worship 
is also a point which cannot be overlooked. 

From all the above arguments, I think the proposed identifica- 
tion of Gurpa with the Kukkutap&da or Kurupadagiri of the 
Chinese has much that speaks in its &vour. I only regret that 
the paper impressions of the two short insoHiptions r^erred to 
below were too indistinct to enable me to add a complete reading 
of the inscriptions. 

T. Bloch. 

Vol; II, No. 4.1 

An account of the Onrpa Hill. 


Gnrpa In the name of a hill near the station of the same name- 
at the 25th mile on the new Railway from Katrasgarh to Gaya. 
Directly, it is about 19-20 miles from Bodh Gaya. The village folk 
call the hill Gnrpa. They say that the deity of the hill, Gnrpa- 
sinmai, suffers nobody to climb on it with shoes, and whoever 
does so is snre to slip his foothold. The sides of the hill are- 

very steep and composed of polished slipperv boulders large and 
small, which justify the statement. There is only a single path 
leading to tlie top on the north side of the hill, all other portions 
being undimbable. The plain surrounding the hill is thickly 
wooded. From the station to the foot of the hill is about one 
qiile, and we had to cross the dried-up bed of a hill stream on 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

the way. The hill is a onrved chain ranuing S.W. to N.E. The 
south- wefitem portion ends in a small peak. In the middle of 
the chain there is a sharp rising of about 300 ft. which divides 
itself at the top into three sharp peaks; after this, at a 
distance of about 500 ft., it ends abruptly. This is the highest 
peak iu the neighbourhood, higher than the Brahmayoni, the 
height being slightly short of 1,000 ft. Along the track to the 
summit the trees grow smaller, and along the highest peak the 
vegetation shrinks to short reeds and sharply-pointed grass. There 
is a sort of wood-land track up to the back of the hill, i.e., up to 
the base of the highest peak, going across the hill to the south- 
western or other side and ultimately losing itself in a rough 
upward incline at the base of the highest peak. Here is a small 
Ahir shrine consisting of six small mounds of earth well plastered 
oyer with cowdung and marked with vermilion, which is known, 
as Dvarapila, the gate-keeper of Gurpasinmai. Here, concealed 
among the shrubbery, appears the mouth of a tunnel or cave 4 ft, 
wide and 6 ft. in height. At a small distance from the entrance, 
it branches into two parts, one south-westemly going downwards 
and choked with large bricks, stones and rubbish, and the other 

2 ft. in width in the 

The plan of the tunnel 


Choked np. 

entrance going up- 
wards, gradually nar- 
rowing until at the 
53rd ft. from the 
junction, it becomes 
mpassable, being 
merely a fissure in the 
rock with sharp rocks 
interlacing across the 
fissure. Here another 
passage opens towards 
N.E. Turning to this 
gallery one stumbles 
as it is extremely dark, 
upon a staircase of 
stone of 28 steps at the 
end of which the pas- 
turns sharply 

almost at right angles towards the east and ends on a platform 
formed by a large boulder. At the extremity of this platform is 
another Ahir shrine. The object of worship is a small pool of 
rain-water formed in a natural depression in the rock, around 
which are placed three small boulders of about a man's height. 
Here the track becomes sheer impossibility. The path is along 
boalders of stone polished to the smoothness of marble by the 
action of rain-water up an incline of 60° with no hold for assist- 
ance, for at this height vegetation consists of sharp, thorny grass 
and thin reeds. After a climb of more than 50 ft., another 
platform is reached. Here, another tunnel is reached running 
north to south across the whole width of the mountain, a length 

Vol. II, No. 4.] An account of the Ourpa Hill. 81 

of about 30 ft. The tnimel is formed of hoffe pieces of stone 
leaning on one another, thus forming a sort of archway 4 ft. in 
height at the entrance, gradnally widening in circumference— 
the height at the end of the cave or tunnel being nearly 30 ft. 
The tunnel ends in a steep precipice about 500 ft. high. At 
the edge of the tunnel there is a rectangular tank with a single 
step running along its four sides (8'>c5'). The tank is dry and 
there is no possibiHty of its ever being filled with rain-water. 

I heard a curious story about this tank from a guard of the 
East Indian Railway, Babu Daval Gh. Gupta. He told me that 
the tank was covered with a huge piece of stone which was 
raised by order and in the presence of Mr. F. E. Cockshott, the 
Engineer-in-charge of the new line, and inside was found a skeleton 
more than 6 ft. in length. Where the skeleton and the covering 
stone is now I could not ascertain. Was this a Sarcophagus? 
On a small boulder along one of the walls of the cave are some 
Buddhist sculptures, a headless statue of Buddha about 8' in 
height, another of a crowned Buddha in the Bhumispar^ Mudra, 
V-^" in height and a votive stupa with panels containing a 
Buddha on each of its four faces abont 2 ft. in height, all 
uninscribed. The track to the top continues from the platfrom 
at the entrance of the tunnel or cave mentioned above along the 
walls of the cave. Here steps are cut in the stone of the width 
of about ten to eleven inches. From this platform further climb- 
ing with boots and shoes on became an impossibility. Many of 
these steps are almost effaced with age, being mere notches less 
than an inch wide scarcely affording a foothold, while some are 
perfect The last part of this curious stairway which leads to 
the top of tJie highest of the three pinnacles winds itself half 
around it. From the platform the three peaks are distinctly 
seen, their pinnacles would form a right-angled triangle. 

The N.E. peak is the highest, the Western in the next, the 
Southern being the lowest of the three. On the top of the 
highest peak Uiere is a piece of level ground about 20 ft. squaw 
on which there lie, side by side, two shrines each five feet square 
in dimension. The shrines are made of huge ancient bricks, 
sculpture and statuary loosely piled without any mortar or cement. 
In each is shrined a pair of footprints on di^k square pieces of 
stone. The western shrine contains a slab which is evidently 
modem judging from the clumsiness of the sculpture of the floral 
ornamentation around the footprint and the unnaturalness of 
the footprints themselves. Besides these there are numbers of 
Buddhas, some of them crowned and Buddhist Taras enshrined 
in each of these shrines. Lying on each of the four comers of 
the eastern shrine are four votive stupas. The slab in this 
shrine contains two lines of inscriptions along the two sides of 
the slab in early Eufila characters, such as those which occur in 
the Bodh Oaya inscriptions of MahanSman. One of these lines 
is the usual Baddhist sloka " Te DharmA hetu prabhavffj'' etc. — 
the '' hetu prabhavft ^' is quite distinct in my impression. The 
other line most probably contains a dedicatory inscription as 


Journal of th^ Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906» 

along the middle of it I can read in my impression *' tad bhcsvaiu 
satvUnSm mdtapitro^, etc,^^ On the walls of the western shrine I 
noticed a ohaitja panel inscribed below with a Deya-Dharma and 
ye Dharmd hetu, etc. The one other inscription is by far the 
most important of the whole lot. It is incised on the back of a 
door lintel or jamb. On this side the jaggedness of the chisel 
marks has not been removed by polishing. The initial 
is most probably gu ; then follows several letters which I can* 
not make ont. Then a gap of abont 3 or 4 inches after which 
follows a na inverted and after that another letter also inverted, 
but which has been cat away by an incision in the stone probably 
for the iron clamp which secured this piece to other portions of 
the door or window. 

On the western peak there is another sqaare basement of 
large bricks, probably the base of a stupa. At present the peak 
is difficult of access. On the southern peak there is a large pile 
of fragments of sculptures, bases of stone stupas, votive stnpas, 
portions of statuary, etc. Traces of blood stains were found at 
the door of the two temples on the north-western peak, and, on 
enquiry, I learnt that the villagers offer animal sacrifices at all 
the shrines. The best view of the three peaks is obtained from 
the platform where the Ahirs worship a natural hollow in the 
rock described above. It is evident from the above description 
that the remains at Gurpa are of Buddhistic origin. 

Position of the hill. 

To Gaja 25 miles. 

Railway line. 

To Patwns 6 miles. 



Relative position of the peaks. 





Gurpa Hill coincides remarkablv well with Hiuen Thsang*s 
description of Eukkutapadagiri. The tunnel through the rock 
must be the very tunnel wnich, according to Hiuen 'fhsang, KS^yapa 

Vol. II, No. 4.1 An aceouta of the Qurpa HiCl. 83 

opened for himfielf . " Ascending the nortb side of the monntain 
he proceeded along the winding path and came to the south-west 
ridge. Here the crags and precipices prevented him from farther 
advance. Forcing his way through the tangled brashwood he 
struck the rock with staff and thus opened a way/' This is the 
first tunnel in the accompanying plan which branches at a short 
distance from the entrance and goes downwards. "He then 
passed on having divided the rock and ascended till he was 
again stopped by the rocks interlacing one another. He again 
opened a passage through, and came out on the mountain-peak 
on the north-east side.'* One of these is the tunnel leading to 
the stairway and the other is the tunnel which contains the 
stairwav described above. We learn from Fa Hian that the entire 
bodv of Kasyapa was preserved in a side chasm on the hill. 
Perhaps the skeleton found in the cave is the skeleton of the 
venerable Kftsyapa. Fa Hian also says that outside the chasm 
is the place where Kaiyapa when alive washed his hands. This 
is the natural hollow in the rock described above as an £hir 
shrine. It is interesting to note that the place is still an object 
of local worship. Both Hiuen Thsang and Fa Hian agree to the 
fact that the approach to tlie hill lay through a dense forest 
inhabited by wild beasts. This is still so. The whole of the 
plain is covered with dense forest. On our way from the Railway 
to the base of the hill we found marks of enormous paws on the 
sandy ground. According to our guide, a local man, the forest 
is inhabited by large numbers of bears and tigers, some of whom 
are white. Probably these white tigers are described by Hiuen 
Thsang as Lions, since lions in these parts of the country are 
scarce. According to Hiuen Thsang Kasyapa, after emerging 
from the tunnel, proceeded to the middle point of the three hills and 
there he still lies awaiting the coming of Maitreya Bodhisattva. 
The second tannel described above is formed of huge boulders of 
stone leaning against each other. A further point of coinci- 
dence is this. Hiuen Thsang says : " On quiet evenings those 
looking from a distance see sometimes a bright light as it were 
of a torch, but if they ascend the mountain there is nothing to be 
observed/' I heard from Day&l Babu that on dark nights lights 
are visible on the top of the mountain. The villagers attribute 
the presence of these lights to jewels which they say are on the 
mountain-top. Some Europeans organised a search party, but 
on reaching the top they of coarse found nothing. This also is 
a curious survival of the tradition which has been recorded by 
the Chinese master of law thirteen centuries ago. The gentleman 
from whom I received these pieces of information know very little 
either of the Chinese pilgrims or of the venerable Maha Kftiyapa. 
The mountain-side is covered with caverns which justifies Hiuen 
Thsang's epithet " Cavernous." It is imposible to photograph the 
three peaks, because the place whence the only distinct view is 
obtainable is too small for working a camera. 

86 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

14. Some Tertian Kiddles collected from dervishes in the south 
of Persia. — By Liedt.-Colonel D. C. Phillott, 23rd 
Cavalry, F.F., Secretary to the Board of Exaimners^ 

1. A strange thing I saw in this world : 
Water babbling round fire. 

Answer : Samavar. 

2. A strange thing I saw in this world : 
It roared and wailed and circled round. 

Answer : Mill. 

3. What is that which travels without feet, head or hands P 

Answers : Water, 
Wind, a Worm. 

4. What is that which hides men in its belly P 

Answer: The Earth. 

5. What is that which encompasses the world in a moment P 

Answer : The wind. 

6. What is that which from head to foot is all tongue ? 

Answer : Fii^. 

7. What is that which no woman will eat P 
If a man eat it he grows strong. 

Good is it and impalpable, but in eating it 
Neither hand, nor lip, nor mouth is used. 

Afiswer : Knowledge. 

White ai-t thou as snow ; black am I as a Negro : 
My head is split : thou art below and I am above. 
You do not move : though I do move. 

Answer ; Pen and 

What is that travelling ship, double-doored, 
Lion-armed and dragon-shaped P 
Another sight I saw in it : 
It made the dead alive. 

Answer : Tortoise. 

Vol II, No. 4.] . Some Persian Biddies. 87 

i^4>^y» rr ^^ ijiy- ^^ i\ ^^ku c^^^U *2^iU 

I*" J C^A ^^^ !•«»— J^ t****-* wJl^tl^ 1 

»Y , ^ O**^ y;Jj.> (•'*""H^ t«^^*J^ wJl^tP 2 

lib OS lU ^ ^i: a^ «>^y^ aiuJ «Jo a^ ca«^ v:;f 5 
^ ^ I e^ b y •>>— ^ (/y ^;> i«ir* J 

88 Journal of the A$iatic Society of Bengal* [April, 1906. 

10. A headless orane I saw^: nor barley does it eat nor 

Water it drinks from the river and it benefits all 
mankind. Answer : Pen (reed). 

11. What is that strange creature with two heads ? 
Six holes ha9 it in its body : 

Weigh it and its weight is six misqal ;^ 
On its back it carries a hundred mann,* 

Answer : Horse-shoe, 

12. A strange creature I saw that had six legs and two 

heads : 
Stranger still, listen to me, was this ; its tail was in its 
back. Answer: Scales. 

13. A strange thing I saw in this world 

That had a hundred nails in its feet and hands. 

Fire bodies, five heads and four lives 

Read me this riddle, oh wise man. 

Answer: Bier (with 
the corpse borne 
by four men). 

14 What is that which is light as a fairy ? 

It. flies without wings ; it emits sound though void of 

Answer: Paper-kite. 

%^ 15* What is that which is round and rolling 
Its whole without life : its halves alive ? 
Ass is he that guesses not this 
And less than a goat is that ass. 

Answer : Melon 

16. A man from Africa came to me ; 

A strange weird creature he had with him ; 

The animal by God*s creating 

Had eighty heads and ten bellies and thirty legs. 

Answer : Elephant 


17. The head of (the word) mtdld on the neck of mullH. 
This riddle is made in the name of Gtod, 

Answer : The word 
Mo/id* "Glorious." 

[The head of muLlH is the letter mimy and the Arabic for 
neck ' is jid : together these make Majtd,']^ 

1 One mi§qal iB*-^ oz. and 90 mii^qdlm^li ps. 

> The Tabriz mann ib about 7 IbB. 

8 By ahjad : ci-80 and ^>- 10 and J->80. 

One of the ninety-nine attribnteB of God and also a proper name. 

VoL n, No. 4.] Some Persian Biddies. 89, 

V Ajiciji o^ *j (i^ A-^^ij ju^ <J^ y ^j;3j i^i^j 

j3»y — '^-'' 


^u* ^ e>0*y ^^ 

^, c^^o^jb^ ^^_j ^l) A_-» ar 

\^ jbl u—^^ iji J ^ji ^ ^. 
f c)^^ J ^7* *>^^ *^T *^*-' ->4^ *^ 15 

r cuAb u ^j^ jj ju»» 3 <j#flAA 16 
I j>— j/ '^jfAi. ^ 3f ^yU ^f 

iL- ^j-ij S— - ^-.-^ 17 

()i — *[fuo ^U jy& I — «A« ^J 


90 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [April, 1906. 

18. It travels to the ekj ahead of the eye 
But no one has ever seen it. 

Answer: Sight. 

19. This wool-dressed and well-staffed Stlfi 
Has one penis and two hundred testicles* 

Answer : The Kafhal ' 
or Jack-fruit. 

20. In the depths of this sea there dwells a shark 
That holds in its mouth a single pearl ; 
Strange that though it has no beilj 

It drinks the sea to the last drop. 

Anstoer : The Wick of 
a Ohirdgik- 

21. A bird I saw without legs or wings ; 

Bom neither from womb of mother nor loin of father : 
Neither in the sky nor 'neath the earth it lives, 
Yet it ever eats the flesh of man. 

Anstver : Anxiety. 

22. Wliat is that fairy-shape that has no life ? 
It laughs yet has no mouth : 
It weeps yet has no eyes 
It travels much yet has no feet. 

Ansicer : Cloud. 

23. What is that which has no bones ; 

In its body it has neither breath nor life P 
When hungry it is at rest 
When full it complains. 

Answer : Mill -stone. 

24. A strange thin? I saw in this world ; 
Inanimate it followed the animate. 

Answer : Threshing- 

25. Two bodies in two Caravans I saw 
Their heads bared, their bodies blistered ; 

The Caravans do not move without permission of those two 
Nor do those two move without permission of the Caravan. 

Anstver : Dice at 

1 This riddle was made in India. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Some Persian Riddles. 91 

j^ «i lU ) 

1 »«i.— jji t^y ^ j » ■■■ ^| i to> e^j 

j^ _ .1/1 *-"•- ^ ^-« "-^^ v^-^i^ 


«JjUt . k^^\ 

f 0,^ ^— *i ^a:i o^-jfc ^— ^ 20 
^Jr* M;^ •>;.>— *it* c^*?5 

^ *^f CUA^ d)^ a m^ 

^ — JU. jj^fAi «> — K^ U a — ij 
^^1^ jl j ^niH ar c*—- ^ e^t 23 

^ ^ r ^sJ^d ^^^ ">^d i*— ^-« *-*^i^J» 24 


r aiili j:> ^1 — A^ wiy tt^ J* ^0 26 

I c;5 3^ ^yT e;i» </ »«>* lytj!) ^^ ^ 

1 Jra2«{-Xram. 

92 Journal of the Asiatic Society of bengal, [A^rilf 190& 

26. What is that w)iich has no bones ; 
If it fastens on jou it does n^i harm. 

Answer : A Leech. 

2V. A warblepof this garden am I, and this garden is my 
flower ground 
I'm a fire-eating bird,^ am I, and fire is mj plumage ;* 
Mj bones are silver and in my heMy I carry gold ; 
He that guesses this is wiser than I. 

Answer : Egg. 

1 Ata»h'ii^>Sr is also a name for the pheasant. 

2 As it snrronnds it when cooking 

Vol. II, No. 4] 



Some Persian Biddies. 93 

1 djf4>i ^L—^Ai i>ik$' ^ 


»j>« *y o?r* 28 


- a-, 

*y ^j^ </• * — ^ ^}^ ci>^ 

>J( ^i^fc <^j if* '>>*CA^ 

1 Bit for hi-at ( o* *i ) 

2 From matidan ** to taste.'* 

^ From ^amdan « to slide, be slippery." 
♦ (i^of on/ar •* lion " : farr " magnifioence." 

VoL II, No. 4.1 Oyantte Bock IrueripHon. 95 

15. Qyantse Bock Inscription of Ohos-rgyal-finis^pa^ a ruler under 
the Sakyapa Hierarch in the fourteenth century A.D.— JSy 
MahImahopIdhtIta Satis Chandra YiPTlBHC^AisrA, M.A« 

This is a bas-relief in a heavy piece of grey slate 2 feet 3^ 
inches long, 1 foot 1^ inches broad, and 1 inch thick. It was 
brought from Oyantse Jong dnring the late Tibet expedition and 
is now deposited in the Indian Mnseam at Calcutta. The inscrip- 
tion is in a perfect state of preservation but a few letters on the 
comers at the top and bottom of the slate have been broken 
away and lost. It consists of 23 uneven lines which, if properly 
arranged, would make up eight verses of four feet each. As each 
foot consists of 9 syllables, there are altogether 288 syllables or 
words in the inscriptions. It is written in the Tibetan language 
and characters, but there are two benedictory phrases in Sanskrit 
at the beginning and end of the inscription. 

The first 5 J lines describe Upper Nyang, of which Gyantse 
is the capital, as a splendid dominion where all wishes are accom- 
plished at once, and in which the ten perfect virtues always 
prevail. The next 9^ lines refer to the repair and new construction 
of various Tantrik images such as those of Guru Padmasambhava, 
Trinity of Father and Sons, the Three-fold Body of Buddha, etc., 
which were undertaken and accomplished by a ruler of Gyantse 
with the object of securing longevity for his wife the queen, for 
the increase of prosperity of his people, and for the propagation 
of the Blessed Doctrine. This ruler is named Chos-rgyal-g^nig-pa, 
who is described as a virtuous man, a skilful disputant, a miracu- 
lous manifestation of Yajrapani, and victorious over all Quarters. 
The remaining eight lines contain the prayers of the man who 
raised the inscription. It is very probable that Chos-rgyal-gnig-pa 
(literally : religious king the second) is identical with Chog-rgyal- 
rab-brtaii (literally : religious king the firm) who, as a regent 
under the Sakynpa Bierarch, ruled over Gyantse and founded 
the fort and monastery there in the fourteenth century a.d. 
There are evidences that the inscription belonged to the Sakyapa 
sect, and was prepared at a time when the Dalai Lamaic Govern- 
ment had not yet been established. 



A splendid dominion, productive of the ten perfect virtues,^ 
in which the extent of the earth is washed by the light of love 

1 Ten virtueB called in Tibetan Qe^eu ( S^*^£ ) *"d in Sanskrit Daia- 
(i) ^'fi'^l^'V, imnftinef ^Xfy, not to km anything Hying. 

96 Journal of the Ariaiic Society of Bengal, t-^^^l, 1906. 

and kindness, 1 which brings about the highest blessing of eman- 
eipatioa from reiatoty existence,* in wbicn religions l^ngs, who 
are miracnlons manifestations of Jina,* rale in snocession, and 
where siHocess (the ultimate object) is attained from fortune of 
the merit of good work — this dominion of Upper Nyang* (San), 
where all wishes are accomplished together, has Gjantse * 
(Sgyal-mkhar-rtBe-mo) for its capitaL 

(ii) »l'§a|'MJ;*li'^'q, IV^trr^m ftrfar, not to take what haB not 

been given, 
(iii) qiil*qJ:'li'«lW-q, mW f^rnnXK f^rcfir, nottofomioate. 
(iv) if ak'Shr^, ^KWrm ftff;fif, not to ten a lie. 
(▼) ^■l'3?^'Sf'J'^, 'WWTnr.ft^, not to use harali language, 
(vi) C;^'8<^lr|'H, irf9iYllQ^Tir Orcftr, not to talk fooliahnesB. 
(vii) »J'W»r8S'^, ^tV9 ft^ftr, not to calumniate, 
(viii) mxrNWN'W'8^'«4, mfHVSn ft^, nottobeawicious. 
(ix) ai^-W^'W'l^*^, '^rnn^ ft^f^, not to tWnk upon doing 

(x) q[«l"JJ'»Jl«>'^, fi?«![T^fe ft^Or, not to entertain heretic 

notions. Cf. Mahavyntp&tti, section 87, and Dharmasaipgraha, 
section Ivi. 

1 Vf^"RS (lo^® <^nd kindness) may also signify ' Maitreya, the coming 

Buddha.' There is actually suoh a Buddha in Gyantse. Percival Landon 
writes :—" Inside the central crimson-pillared hall (of the monastery at 
Gyantse) the only conspicuous object is the great seated figure of Maitreya, 
the next Boddha to be re-incarnated (Lhasa, Vol. I., p. 210). 

« 9f^*3r^signifies'*re-birth,'* whQe q<V'^B|<V' means ''summum 

bonum." The whole means : " the highest good caused by deliyerance from 
re-births." That rotatory existence and emancipation from it are inseparable, 
is the phief doctrine of the Sakyapa Sect as explained in Gser-chos-^cug- 
sum. bdc Sarat Chandra Das's article on Tibet, J.A.8.B., 1832, p. 127. 

8 Religious Kings who are miraculous nmnifestations of Jina, called in 

Tibetan SQ]*q^*^9|'a^<^*dS^'8Qfy are arong-Uan-gam-po, born a.d. 627, 

Kri'Srong-dB'tBan, born a.d. 728, Khri'tal or Bal-pa'Chen, born a.d 864, etc. 
The Lamas of the Sakyapa Sect who. under authority from Kublai Khan, 
ruled over Tibet, 1270-1340 a.d., are perhaps referred to here. 

4 The Province of Nyangis divided into two parte : (1) <)Cy^, Upper 
Nyang, and (2) ^C;'}|^^ Lower Nyang. The capital of the former is Gyantse 
while that of the latter is Shigatse. 

B Gyantse is a small town on the right bank of the Pena Nyang Chn 
river It is situated about two small hills which lie east and west and are 
united by a saddle. On the eastern hill is a large fort (Jong) and on the 
western hill a Gompa in which there is a chorten called Pangon chorten. 
See " Report on the iSxpIorations in Great Tibet, by A. K., p. 81. 

Vbl. tl, N(). 4] Oyantse Bocjb Inscrit^ton. 97 


Hete there are heaped n^ light blue ^ iihages bdantif ul like 
the tnrkois basins. It is ezplaineid on a margin o^the Register 
(Sar-chag) that old ones were repaired and (thd new ones that 
were) erected (are those of) Gara (PadmasaiiibhaYa) in eight 
forms^* Dag-mar (Lohita Budra), Dharnia-sambhoga-nimiSna 
kfiyas,* etc., consecrated^ Lamas who combat against avidyd 
(Cosmic Blindness) being born in the line of Manjngho(^,^ 
practitioners of charms, who are the essence of the Omniscient- 

1 Here some of the letters have been broken away, f '^^^ means 

'white stone.' If the reading is S*1-^y which fieems probable, the 
meaning would be i ' light blae.' So the meaning is either * light bine 
mages ' or ' images of white stones.' 

s Padma-sambhava generally called FkMi-yang or Gam was the founder of 
Tiamaism in Tibet. He has been deified and receives now more worship than 
Bnddha himself. He was a native of Udyana, a follower of the Yog&oirya 
S<^ool, and a sindent of the College at Nalanda. At the invitation of King 
Khrisrong-de-tsan he visited Tibet in a.d. 747 and founded the monastery of 
Sam-ye, which is the first Tibetan monastery, in a.d. 749. His eight forms 
are thus enumerated :— 

(i) Gom-padma-hbynn-guas, *' Bom of a Lotus *' for the happiness of 

the three worlds. 
(ii) Gum Padmasambhava, " Saviour by the religious doctrine." 
(iii) Gum Padma Gyalpo, ** The king of the three collections of scrip- 
tures (Tripitaka)." 
(iv) Gum-rdo-rje gro-lod, " llie Diamond comforter of all." 
(v) Gum fii-ma hod-zer, " The enlightening sun of darkness.** 
(vil Guru-Bakya Sehge, *' The second Sakyasimha." 
(vii) Guru Senge, sgra-agrogs, '* The Propagator of religion in the six 

worlds with the roaring lion's voice." 
(viii) Gumblo-Idan-Qohog-sred^ '* The conveyor of knowledge to all." 

Cf. Waddell's Lamaism, p. 879. 

' ^*S) vlnirT^, *'The body of law or the absolute body" is 
Bnddha in the Nirv^a. QfC^N*^, ^TIvfNraTW, *'the body of happiness 
or glory " is Buddha in the perfection of a conscious and aetive life Qfr> bliss 
in heaven. 'V^'fl> f'l^AnV^linT) " ^^^ ^o^J o^ transformation and incar- 
nation " is Buddha as man od earth {Vide Jaschke, under S ). 

« The reading is obscure. ^^C;^X^S^ probably is the same as 
^ififfkllK consecrated. If Uie reading is ^V1C;*1)(^ it would mean *'of 
eight powers.*' 

6 Mafijngho^a ( QF^T^QC^N ) is the god of wisdom whose chief func- 
tion is the dispelling of ignorance or cosmic blindness. '* Bom in the line of 
Mafiiugho^" signifies " very learned^" and refers specially to the Lamas of 
the Sakyapa sect. 

98 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

merciful one, the Trinity of Father and Sons,^ (}a9apati and 
Gon-slial • — altogether twenty-seven in number. 

Chog-rgyal-gnig-pa ^ (religious king the second) was virtue 
accumulated, a miraculous manifestation of VajrapS^i,^ an up- 
rooter of bad controversialists and victorious over all quarters. 
He, with his soti in conference, for the longevity of her majesty 
the queen, for the increase of happiness and wealth of the people 
and for the propagation of the blessed doctrine, erected these 
images. Whatever power these h^ive of doing good deeds by 
the same may the discordant conditions in all directions be- 
come quiet, may the strife among the eight classes of devils and 
the frontier war be appeased, may the imprecation ^ and magic 
circle be averted, and may good fortune be given to us. 

Here we have made these designs. For other sentient beings 
living to the end of the sky, may the two aggregates, vu., virtue 

L Trinity of Father and Sons (^^^ffVlSTf) means "Father and two 

Sons,** that is, " Master and two Disciples." Xt probably refers to Khon. 
dkon-mchog-rgyal-po who founded the Sakyapa seot and to Je-knn-gah-dol- 
chog and Kun-gah*zan-po who were t))e founders of the two sab-sects, viz.^ 
nor- pa and Jonan-pa of the Sakyapa School. 

2 9{ff|3i* ^y IpETy or Lord, is a class of demon-generals of the fiercest 
type numbering seventy-five. 7fff)3i'(^^ (perhaps same as ^{fil^'^^V ^^) 
" Lord-face " is, according to Waddell, a demoniacal guardian of the 
Sakyapa sect (Vide Lamaism, p. 70). Here 9(ff)^ and ^QJ may be taken 

separately, so that the sentence may be interpreted thus: — " Ga^i^ati 

and Naths (mgon) — altogether twenty-seven individuals (shal, faces or 
individuals) in number," 

3 Chos-rgya1-gnis-pa (religions king the second) refers probably to Chos- 
fgyal-rab-brtan who built the fort (Jong) and the monastery of Pal-khar-ohoi-de 
at Gyantse. Bai Sarat Chandra Das Bahadur, G.I.E., writes : — 

*' It (the Jong of Gyantse) is very strong, and was built by the famous 
Chos-£gyal-rab-bj[tan who ruled in the fourteenth century over the Province of 
Nyang, of which Gyantse was the capital. This province was a part of the 
domain of the Sakya hierarchs." . . . . " He (a well-informed Nyingma 
lama) told him (Ugyen), furthermore, that there existed two printed volumes 
about Choigyal rabtan (Ohos-]^yal-rab bj^tan), the famous king who had founded 
the Palkhor choide of Gyantse, but Ihat these works and the history of 
Gyantse were now kept as sealed works [terchoi) by the Lhasa Government.'* 
... '* On the first floor (of the chorten in the Palkhor choide) vro were 
shown the statue of Choigynl rabtan (Chos-fgyal-rab-brtan), under whose 
benign rule Gyantse became famous, and who gave a fresh impulse to 
Buddhism and literatare. The Kunyer of the chorten touched our heads 
with the sword of this illustrious monarch, and said that by his blessing 
(jin-lah) we could triumph over our enemies and enjoy longevity and 
prosperity in this world. "-»( Sarat Babu'g Journey to Lhasa and Central 
Tibet, edited by Rookhill, pp. 87, 88, 89.) 

♦ Vajraparii, a tutelary deity, generally invoked by the followers of the 
Sakyapa sect. 

^ Imprecation ( Wj^ ^^..This is a kind of imprecation which consists 

in hiding the name and image of an enemy in the ground underneath an idol, 
and imploring the deity to kill him. 

Vol. II, No. 4.1 Gyantse Bock Inscription, 9> 

and wisdom be accomplished and the two defilements^ qnickl/ 
dear out. For the quietude of the unstable world may the three 
persons (Dharma-sambhoga-nirmaj^a kayas) collectively come. 
By the blessing of the three may the approved infallible truths 
prevail. May the king with brother, sister, mother and son live 
a long life and may the kingdom go on smoothly. May there be 
happiness and prosperity as in the golden age.* 

All auspicious. 


-N^l^ II Sva-sti 11 Phun-tshogs d8re-b<^iL bgkran-pahi uoinah 
mdang lagH Byams-brtshhi ho^-kyis hdsin-ms^i khyon 
byab-pan Mnon-nttho neg-legg d pal-la sbyor-uoLdsad-Pahi n Rsryal- 
wabi rnam-hphrul chog-£gyal rim-byon rgyal | Legg-byag J^sod* 
nams dpal-l<^& grnb-pabi ytiln Hdod-dga Ihun-grab Nan-gtod rig- 
hbyuji-wa. . Gho9-!:gyal pbo-bran Sgyal-jj^khar-£tse-mo-yi | Qju* 
gshon-ltar noKises rdo=gkar debg-b'^^ngS I^n I Snar-bshugg ^kar- 
ohag-znr gsal shig-bsog dan | Yar-bsheAg Ou-m ngitshan-blgjad 
Dra^-dmar dan n Ghog-long-gprul-sogg dwaA-brgyud b^^-ma dan i 
Ma-rif2r-la hkhon hjam-dwyang-rigg-hkhrnng-pahi H Mkhyen-brtsehi 
bdag-nid giiagg-hohan yab-srag gsumn Tshogg-bdag Mgon-boag 
shal gra^ ni-2a-b<^un n Chog-rgyal gnig-pa bsod-namg Ihnn-grub 
dan n 6saA-b<^ag rnam-hphrul mol nan noithar-byed-pan Phyogg- 
lag rnam-rgyal srag-boag b^^-bg^^S-^^^ H Lha-gcig rgyat-mo gkn- 
tshe bc^^'P^y^ ^^^ ^ Mnah-hbang b<^o-9^id dpal-bbyor-rgyag 
byed daft I Bgian-pahi mig-ckyen dge-wa igyag-glad b^heAgt 
Hdig ottsbon rnam-dkar mdsad-pa ji-gned ]|ithugK Qnag-gkabg 
mi-mthun phyogg-rnamg shi-wa dan ii Scie*brgyad hkhrng daA ^tba- 
dmag zlog-pa daA 11 Qtad-lcl^ram hphrul-hkhon shi-wahi dge-legg 
gtsol I Hdi-ji phyogg-su b^od-pa-lag byag dan | Qshan yaA nam* 
upkhahi nathar thug semg-can-rnamg i Tshogg-gnig rab>cdsogg ggrib- 
gnig myur byan-nag | Srid shir mi-gnag gku-gsum Ihun-gmb iog t 
Brtag-bden mi-glu-rnam gsum-byin-rlabg-l^ II Mi-dwaii glni- 
opohed yam daiisragbcaa-kyill Slni-tehe brt^n-shin obab-srid hjam 
dou AogQ {Ldsogg-ldau bshiu-du b^^-Egyag b^^^^'^ii ^gd Sarva* 
manga*lam || 


L ^a* probably it the same aa V^T;^^ which ia thna divided :— > 

JHfWOT ^ i ?f^WT I JRVT^^Q* ^m^rrf %fif I (Dhannaaai|igrah», 
aeot. OXY). 

% ^^S'9^9^^ Wm^m (8atya*yaga) ia golden age. 

100 Journal of the Atiatie Society of BenqaX. [April, I9!06. 

l^'^ll |crpraj^j»5r^fJ5rq«rqn|a^'q5?r^l %^^ 

1 % is broken and destrojed. 

2 W^' is deatroyoi . \ 
S dS is broken. 

i ^'S^-^iB broken, and destroyed. Instead of V^^^ we shonld 
rather r«ad %^^X. I 

i» mX is broken and illegible, 

• Ts 1 1 a wrong spelKnif for* I^^ iHeaahiff eight P. 

Vol. ir. No. 4] Oyantie Bock Inscription, 101 

• iN.8.-] 

will th^'^^^^«^•«I^•39^^^!f•^?^^^^ ^'^Jg^own 

Properly arranged. 

1 The last letter ( 4( ) is broken. 

s This word is broken and illegible. 

> C;S* it altogether efliM^. It is supplied by the oontribator. 

102 Journal of the Atiatie Society of Bengal [April, 1906*^ 

ajqprg9r«i?r«\'j|5i?raparcwgq*^^ I 
aBVaJc5r^or?jq|^qc:-qg^-g-5r^r | 
^^owri|5r5ar5j^q«^spT|a^*q5'^*api | 

q^q^-^q|'3^^q[q-55rg«^'q^C5i|| 9» if 

c\^?rs?«^^5r*^'T^'«i^«^'qt'f «^-?i^^ I 
srt^^rfjjq^'^-si^'IsT^rj^si^i'^'q-^cii 99 ]]: 

Y6L II» No. 4.] Oyantse Bock Inscription, 103 


Vol. ir, No. 4.] ■ Notes on th« Frethuml^r Fauna ofliidia. 105 

16. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, No. IIL-^An 
'. Indian Aquatic Oodkroach and BeeUe Larva, — By N. Aknan- 
• DALK, D.S6., C.M.Z.S. ' '" r 

Little is known of tbe aquatic or semi-aqoatio Orthoptera,^ 

which are probably not uncommon in tropical countries, and t)ie 

only records of nqnatic Cockroaches I can find are from Halaja 

aiid Borneo. The existence of a species of Epilampra, Hving in an 

\ Indian jnngle stream, is therefore a fact of some interest. 

Jn 1900 I recorded certain Cockroaches * . as baying aquatic 
: habits in the Siamese Malay States. It now appears that at least 
two species were included, probably both belonging to the genu8 
Epilampra. One of these is in ihe habit of resting on logs float- 
ing in the Kelantan Biver, and of diving when disturbed ; while 
the other haunts the roots of trees and other sunken objects at 
the edge of jungle streams in the Patani States. Jn 1901, Shel- 
ford ^ published a note on two species, an EpUampra and a Pansd- 
thiid, from the base of a waterfall on Mount Matang in Sarawak, 
both species being immature. 

On March 4th last, while turning over stones in a sma^ 
jungle stream on a hill near Chakardharpur in Chota Nag^ur, I 
saw what I took to be a large Woodlouse swimming rapidly along 
the surface of the wateir, having evidently been disturbed by the 
removal of a small piece of rock. On capture this animal proved a Cockroach. Unfortunately it is a larva ( 9 ) and cannot, be 
identified specifically; but undoubtedly it belongs to the genus 
EpUampra. When placed in a large jar of water, it swam very 
rapidly, using all six legs, to the side, which it attempted tp mount 
.As was the case, with the - specimens observed by Shelford in 
Borneo, the tip of the abdomen, - which was >arched upwards, was 
held out of the water and bubbles of air rose from time to time 
from the thorax. The Cockroach, finding it impossible to climb 
up the glass^ attempted to dive beneath it. In so doing, however, 
the Insect was impeded hy the air which had become entangled at 
*the hase.of its legs and between them and the antennsB, which 
.were stretched backwards below the belly. Apparently in order 

' i Aorfdiids of the genns 8c$tymenaj which are semitlKiaatio, have been re. 
'corded from Java, Oeylon -and Bnnnai xnanj of the lodian and- Malayan 
•representatlveB of tbii gronp can ftwim well oh the inrfaoe ;' i(nd al leait ^ne 
•Malayan specioa can dive. As aquatic Phasipid (Fr%$ppu9) iw laiown from 
Brasi4. Wood-Maaon (^nn. Ifap. NaL Hist. i&)U 1978, p. :M)1) oalled at. 
tention to a Bornean form \Cotylosoina) which he believed to be aotnaHv pro- 
vided with gills ; bat Sharp (in Cambridge Nat. Hist. V., p. 278, 1895) expreesee 
doabt as to the function cf the stmotares thns interpreted. Miall and Gilson 
'{TraiM. Entom. 8oe. 1902, p. 284) have described an aqoatio -oriokel (JETydro- 
psdsticus) from Fiji ; an Indian Tridoctylus, common amo^g re^ds and Bodgfig in 
Calcutta, Jnmps into the water when disturbed and swims on the snrfaoe ^ 
while species of the letter gennritre known to leap on the surface 4lm. 

« Bntomologist*s Record, XII, 1900, p. 70^ . , - ^ 

> A«|wrt Bri<. JMOCtatton, 1901, p 689/ 

106 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

to eet rid of this air, it turned over on its back and swam along 
beUjr upwards. Its progress, whether belly or back upwards, was 
extremely rapid, and it soon became exhausted and remained . still 
si the edge of the jar, with the tip of its abdomen on the surfaca 
When held under the water it drowned in a few minutes, much 
more rapidly than a specimen of Periplaneta americana would or- 
dinarily have done. 

An examination of the specimen showed a structural peculi- 
arity which might have been expected from the fact that the tip 
of the body was held out of the water. The last spiracle is of a 
slightly tubular nature and projects at the side from below the 
posterior extremity of the seventh tergite, being provided with a 
thick ring of chitin. In other representatives, but not in all, of 
the Epilamprid» I find a similar modification, which in some is 
more marked than it is in the Chota Nagpur larva. This is spe- 
cially true of Epilampra pfeifferag, Molytria maculata and M, hadia.^ 
In the last ( <f ) the spiracle takes the form of a flattened, some- 
what trumpet-shaped tube, which is turned upwards distally and 
lies almost parallel to the outer edge of the eighth tergite. In the 
Chota Nagpur larva the other abdominal spiracles are present, but 
under ordinary circumstances they are hidden beneath the edges 
of the dorsal and the ventral plates, which close together so as to 
shut them off completely from the water. Shelfoid*s suggestion 
that the Cockroaches he took beneath a waterfall in Borneo used 

posterior abdominal spiracle for taking in air, and the pro- 
thoracic spiracle for expelling it, is very probably correct. It would 
be interesting to know whether the intermediate spiracles are 
modified in any way ; but the material at my disposal does not 
permit me to investigate this point. Nor do I know whether the 
species of Mclytria are ever aquatic. 

The specialization of the posterior spiracle in these Cock- 
roaches affords in some respects an interesting parallel to that which 
occurs, in vairing degree, in many Water Beetles, Dipterous larva^ 
and aquatic Hemiptera. It is a modification which in some cases 
escapes notice very easily. In 1900 * I stated as regards an aouatic 
Glow-worm, apparently a Lampyrid larva, taken in Lower Biam, 
that I could not discover any special modification in its structure to 
£t it for an aquatic existence. I find, however, that a very similar 
larva, not uncommon in Calcutta amonff the roots of a floating 
water-plant — Piatia stratiotes — is devoid of ordinary spiracles bat 
possesses a star-shaped funnel which can either be extended from 
the posterior extremity of the body or withdrawn into it. . This 
funnel is connected with a couple of very bulky air-tubes, which 
run along the sides of the body and send out fine offshoots interior- 
ly. The latter ramify an d frequently anastomose ainong the organs 
of the abdomen and thorax, so that a structure quite comparable to 
that found in other aquatic larvae has been evolved. As the funnel 

1 The identifioations are those of de Sanisnre, who examined ■peoimenui 
in the oolleotion of the Indian Mnsemn. 
t Proc. Zool. Boe., 1900, p. 868. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Note* on the Freshwater FautM of India. 107 

is generaUy thmst into the air which is retained under the leaves 
of Pistia strcUiotes^ it is seldom possihle to see it in nae. The com- 
plexity and large size of the tubes are probably rendered neces- 
sary by the fact that the Beetle is liable to be detained beneath 
the surface for considerable periods. It is unable to sink without 
assistance ; but when (surged with food it cannot rise readily, and 
is only able to crawl slowly up the stem or root of some convenient 
water-plant. Its ordinary method of feeding, moreover, causes it 
to drop to the bottom. Settling on the upper surface of the shell 
of any non-operoulate water-snail which may approach its hiding- 
place, it inserts its minute head into the tissues of the animal from 
behiDd, The Mollusc retreats as far as possible into its shell and 
sinks to the bottom, carrying the Beetle with it. Here the latter 
feeds upon its victim at leisure. I have known an individual to 
perish, apparently because it could not rise to the surface after 
such a meal. 

I have little doubt that this Olow-worm is the larva of some 
common fire-fly, possibly Lttciola vesperttna ; I do not think it is 
that of L, gorhamiy an even commoner species in Calcutta, the 
female of which is winged and abundant. The structure of the 
head, thorax and feet is essentiaUy that of an ordinary larva of 
this genus. Possibly, however, the aquatic form may reach seznal 
maturity, in the case of the female, without leaving the water, 
. and I have reason to think that the female does be^me mature 
with vexy little change of outward form. Specimens in my 
aquarium have, on several occasions, sunk to the bottom and died, 
after feeding for some months. Their bodies were distended, and 
dissection showed them to be full of eggs. Such specimens had no 
external genitalia, but were evidently about to undergo an ecdysis, 
their integument being loose and easily separated and a new 
.integument being already formed beneath it. 

Vol. II, No. 4.1 Note* on the Freshwater Fauna of India. i69* 

. [^-SO. . . . ^ 

17. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No. IV. — ^Hydra 
. orientaJis and its hionomical relations with other Inverte- 
: hrates. — By N. Annandalb, D.Sc, O.M.Z.S. 

To my deacription^ of Hydra orientalis I am now able to add 
the following particnlars, which I think establish its position as a 
distinct species. 

. The fully expanded tentacles are at least three times as long 
as the body. The gonads only occnr on the upper Iwo-thirds of 
the body. Tlie sexes are distinct. The normal egg id subsphefi- 
cal and is set with slender spines which are bifid or expanded at 
the tip, being more numerous and relatively finer than those en 

\ the egg of H. grisea. Eggs without a thickened external shell 

. are produced under certain conditions. 

. I hope to publish elsewhere a more detailed account of the 
structure, life history and distribution of the Indian Freshwater 
Polyp ; but it will be convenient to deal with its rehttions to other 
animals in these notes. It should perhaps be explained thai 
I use the term *' commensalism,*' in its wider sense, to include 
aiuy well-established permanent or temporary connection between 
two organisms which does not involve positive injury to either. 
In many such cases it is impossible, with our present limited 
jknpwledge o! the bionomics of nearly all aquntic animals, to. say 
w.hether the connection is beneficial to both, or only to one of the 
organisms involved. 


Although symbiotic algae do not occur in the tissues of Hydra 
ijrientalie I have found, on several occasional groups of minute 

. (M'gamsma, evidently belonging to the same order of plants as 
those which live in other species, attached to the surface of the 
body, generally towards the aboral pole. Probably these are not 
cammensal with the Polyp in any senae of the word, but their pre- 
Aance ia interesting as saggeBting the commencement of such re- 
lations as thoae which exiat between H. viridis and ita green cella 
or between certain corala and their yellow cells. In H* vindis 
the green cella migrate from the body of the parent into the egg ; 
but thifl ia not .the case with the Turbellarian Convduta roscqffiensis^ 
in which the green colour of the organiam, aa Keeble and Gamble * 
hare recently proved, ia brought about by infection with miniite 
algae from the ontaide. First settling on the external aurface of 

. an animal auch aa Hydra, auch algae may have originally penetra- 
ted into the tieauea by aome wound or aperture, only becoming 
symbiotic in the true aenae of the word by gradual adaptation, 
carried on through man^r generationa, to a new environment. 

Of animals living m more or leaa intimate relationa with the 
Pcjyp, I have found two very diatinct speciea of Protozoa, neither 
.[, I — . j„ — I . ; — ■ . > \ • 

1 See the Journal of this Sooietj for 1906, p. 72. 
« Proe. Roy. Boe. B. LXXVII, 1905, p. 06. 

110 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [Apnl, 1906. 

of wbich is identical with either of the two mentioned hj SaviUe 
Kent ^ as commonly found in asBociation with Hydra in Europe, 
viz., TricTiodina pediotdus and Kerona potypoium. On two occasions, 
one in January and the other at the beginning of February, I have 
noted a minute Flagellate on the tentacles of the Calcutta form. 
On the first the tentiEicles were completely covered with this Pro- 
tozoon, 80 that they appeared at first sight as though encased in 
^ngellated epithelium. The minate organism was colourless, 
transparent, considerably larger than the spermatozoa of Hydra^ 
slightly constricted in the nuddle and rounded at each end. It 
bore a long flagellum at the end furthest from its point of attach- 
ment, the method of which I could not ascertain. When separa- 
ted from the Polyp little groups clung together in rosettes and 
gyrated in the water. On the other occasion only a few individuals 
were observed. Possibly this Flagellate was a parasite rather 
than a commensal, as the individual on which it swarmed was un- 
tusually emaciated and colourless, and bore neither gonads nor 
buds. The larger stinging cells were completely covered by 
groups of the organism, and possibly this may have interfered 
with the discharge of stinging threads. 

Regarding the exact nature of the other Protozoon observed 
in association with Hydra orientalis there is no doubt. It was a 
Vorticella which agreed in every particular with the figures of 
^Tatem's F. monilata given by Saville Kent {op, cit pi. XXXY). 
Ab this appears to be rather a scarce form in Europe its occurrence 
in India is interesting. I found several groups, of from eight to 
twelve individuals each, attached to the upper part of the body of 
a Polyp in January, 1906. In Europe the species has been taken 
. on water plants, it is improbable that its association with Hydra 
. in Calcutta was more than fortuitous. The fact that I have not 
taken it except thus associated proves nothing, as I have not yet 
made anything like an extensive search for Protozoa in the tanks. 
V, monilata has recently been recorded from Paraguay by von 

On two occasions, while examining living Polyps at the be- 
ginning of January, I noticed a small Rhabdocoele which appear^ 
ed to issue from the mouth. I did not see it, however, actually in 
the alimentary canal, and possibly it may have come out from be« 
hind the body or a tentacle. 

Especially in the four-rayed stage, the Polyp not infrequently 
attaches itself to shells of Paludincu, and, more rarely, to those of 
other Molluscs. The smooth shell of this genus seems to be 
peculiarly attractive to temporary or permanent commensals. In 
the Calcutta tanks a Polyzoon,^ a variety of the common Euro- 
pean Plumatella repens, forms its colonies during the winter 

1 A Manwil of the Infuwria, I, p. 110. 

S Bihliotheca Zoologica, XLIV (1905), p. 43. 

> See Garter in Ann, Mag. Nat. HUt, (3) I-, p. 169, and III, p. 388. A 
▼artetj of PlumateUa repens ooonrs on Paludina shells in Europe (see Krftepe* 
lin, Die Deuttehen Suetwaater-Bryonoen I, p. 121, pi. IV, figs. 118, 114, Ham- 
bnrg, 1887}. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, 111 


months very commonlj upon the living shell, although I have not 
seen them on that of anj other genus and very rarely on any 
other support. Two other Indian Polyzoa,' Htslopia lacustris and ' 
Pectinatella carteri^ have been taken on Paludina shells. The Pro- 
tozoon fauna of Paludina shells seems also to be large. During 
summer and at the end of spring, Operctdaria nutans ^ is abundant 
upon them ; on several occasions, in January and February, I took 
colonies of Epistylis plicatUis (which is found on Limnsous in 
Europe) in the same situation and on the operculum ; while the- 
less conspicuous forms, as well as Botifers, observed have been 

It is doubtful whether this temporary association between 
Hydra and the Mollusc is of any importance to the latter. Even 
when the Polyp settles on its body and not on its shell (as is some- 
times the case) the Paludina appears to suffer no inconvenience^ 
and makes no attempt to get rid of its burden. It is possible,- 
01^ the other hand, that the Hydra may protect it by devouring 
would-be parasites ; but of this there is no evidence. In the 
Calcutta tanks operculate Molluscs are certainly more free fron^ 
visible attack than non-operculate species. This is the case, for 
instance, ns regards the common aquatic Glowworm, which de- 
stroys large numbers of individuals of Limnophysa^ LimneeuSj etc.^ 
If it has been starved for several days in an aquarium it will 
attack an operculate form, but rarely with success. Similarly 
Ohmtogaster bengcdensis attaches itself exclusively to non-operculate 
forms. In the one case the Polyp could do very little against an 
adversary with so stout an integument as the Insect, while, in the 
other, it is doubtful whether the Worm does any harm to its host. 
The Polyp would afford very little protection against the snail's 
vertebrate enemies or against what appears to be its chief foe, 
namely, drought. As the water sinks in the tank non-operculate 
species migrate to the deeper parts, but Paludina and AmpuUaria 
close their shells, remain where they are, and so finally perish, 
being left high and dry, exposed to the heat of the sun. 

On the other hand, the association is undoubtedly useful to 
Hydra, The mud on the shells of Paludina taken on floating ob' 
jects shows that it comes up from the bottom, to the surface, pro^ 
bably going also in the opposite direction. Moreover, the common 
Calcutta species ( P. bengalensis) feeds very largely, if not exclu- 
8ively,^on minute green Algee, as my observations on captive speci- 
mens show. It, thei*efore, naturally moves towards spots where 
smaller forms of animal and vegetable life abound. The Polyp's 
means of progression are limited, and, therefore, a beast of burden 
is most advantageous to it, for it can detach itself when in a favour- 
able habitat. If specimens are kept in water which is allowed to be- 
come foul, a very large proportion of them will attach themselves 
to any snails confined with them. Under natural conditions they 

L In 1906 this speoies first appeared in abnndanoe daring the first week 
in March in the Calontta tanks. I did not see it during winter. Unlike most 
of its allies, it flonrisbes in small vessels of water kept without aeration. 

112 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

i^onld thus be rapidly conveyed to a more favourable environment. 
In the tanks it ifl far commoner to find yonng, fonr-rayed Polyps 
on Paludina than individuals with five or six rays ; bnt the adults 
of the species are far less prone to change their position than are 
the young. 

Hydra orientalise especially during spring, exhibits a distinct 
tendency to frequent tne neighbourhood of Sponges and Poljzoa, 
such as SpongUla carteri and the denser varieties of Plumatella 
repene. Possibly this is owing to the shade these organisms provide. 

A Chironomid Larva tohich feeds on Hydra orientalis. 

The insect dealt with in the present note is common in the 
•Calcutta tanks in the months of November, December, January, 
a,nd February. It ceases to be so as the temperature commences 
to rise at the beginning of spring. Unfortunately, I have not been 
Able to diagnose it specifically, but, judging chiefly from the charac- 
ters of the larva, I have little doubt that it belongs to the genus 
' ^~Witronomus although the pupa closely resembles that of Tanypns. 

In many respects the life-history of this Indian species in 
veiy similar to that of the English forms described by MialL ^ The 
•eggs are set in a roughly globular mass of jelly from 5 to 10 mm. 
in diameter, .without any very definite arrangement. The mass 
adheres to the under surface of a Limrumthemwm, leaf or some 
other floating object, but sinks if it is detatched. Its surface is 
sticky, and the minute particles of dirt which adhere to it may 
serve as a means of conoenlment. Embryonic development is 
normal and occupies at least a week. 

The larva diiSers from those of the common European species 
in not having processes on the ventral surface towa^^ the posterior 
extremity. At first it is quite colourless, but later it assumes, 
probablv from its food, a pale-pink or greenish tinge. Its greatest 
length is about 6 mm. 

The pupa could be diBting^ished from that of such a form as 
Tanypus maculatus by the long bristles which project from the 
•dorsal surface of the last joint of the abdomen. The breathing 
trumpets are rather narrow and there are no respiratory filaments 
on the thorax. The suckers on the dorsal surface of the anterior 
segments of the same part of the body are large. The pupa clings 
to submerged objects with their aid ; but if they be detached from 
fiuch objects, it can still remain fixed by means of the bristles and 
plates on its tail. 

The adult is a typical little Midge with a pale-green body and 
thorax. In the male the latter is without markings, bat in the fe- 
male it bears longitudinal bars similar in extent and airangement 
to those which characterize Qhvronormia cvhicvlorumf It .i^, 

Vai.JlUt, AquaHc InMCiS, p. ISS. 
< Very Httle is known of the Indian Ohironomide or Midges. In van der 
Wnlp's Catalogue of the DlBiBorihed^ Diptera from BouthernAna <1890),.th« gends 

YoL II, No. 4] Notet on the Frethiouter Fatina of Itidia. 113 

lK>weyer) mnoh smaller than this species. In both sexes there 
are a number of dark cross-bars on the abdomen. 

The jonng larva is very active. It is freqaently found wan- 
dbrinff among colonies of snch Protozoa as Varticella nebtdifera and 
snch Kotif ers as the gregarions Melioertidaa. 

As the larva approaches maturity, it commences to build {or 
itself temporary shelters. These are of two kinds :^(1) a silken . 
tunnel witn its base formed of some smooth natural surface ; or (2) 
a regular (ube^ often adhering by a short stalk on its base either to 
A sniooth level surface or to some rounded object, and covered on 
the sides and back with more or less distinct projections. I cannot 
detect any difference between the larva wluch makes the tunnel 
Ahd that which makes the tube, and my captive specimens have never 
made the li^tter while under observation. I am inclined to think 
that the character of the shelter is parfcly a question of food-supply < 
and partly dube to the imminence or non-imminence of an ecdysis. 

it is easy to watch the making of a tunnel by a larva in cap- 
tivity, for it usually chooses the side of the aquarium as the base of 
its shelter. Having settled on a suitable spot, after stumping 
Along the glass in all directions for some minutes, it becomes sta- 
tionary. Then, drawing its head backwards and forwards, press^ 
ing its mouth against the glass and arching its head through the . 
water some little distance above its back and to the glass jtgain, it 
rapidly weaves the anterior part of the shelter. The threads lire 
not drawn parallel to one.another, but so arranged as to form a 
wide and irregular mesh. The larva can thrust its head through 
iiie structure at any point, but does so seldom. A*) a rule the ends 
of the shelter are not straighb but concave, as though a bite has 
been taken off them. This gives the occupant greater .freedom of 
movement. When the anterior half has been completed, the larva 
turns round suddenly in the tunnel, doubling its body and straight* ' 
«aung it again in so doing, and proceeds to spin the posterior haJf. 
Then it turns round again, and suddenly dajrting out from the en- 
trance to half its length, it pulls in, by means of its anterior lixnbs, 
a minute particle of extraneous matt^, which it dabs on to the case. 
It does this many times over, and then turns round and does the 
eame for the hinder end of its shelter. Both ends are left open. 
The elaboration of the shelter differs greatly on different occasions. 

I had frequently noticed that tunnels brought from the tank 

IVinyinM iB not recorded from Britinh India ; but several JaTaoeae species -are 
noted. The larva of one common Oriental Midge, Ohironon^uB cvhioulorum^t has 
been .found in large nnmbers in tlie Caloatta .water- works {Ind» Uut. NcU$ V, 
1008, p. 191, pi. XY, fig. 6). Another larva, belonging to the same genus, 
inhabits the tissnes of a fresh-water sponge (Spongilla earteri) in the CAloatti 
tanks. [I hope to give details of the habits of this form and of other inoo1» of 
the sponge shovtlv.-*^N, A^ 17-4-06.i I fonnd a third very abundant at the end 
ol Jannai^ in.braokish pools at Port Canning, IdOirer bengal. It lived both in 
the tissues of a second sponge (S.ZaeuatrM var.bef»yal«n«i«) Hnd among the 
mattedoolonies of a Poljzoon. In the same pools the eggs of two species 
were' common ftt the satne season.. In one the egg^^maas was shaped like a 
Leech; attached at one end ^ in the othtoit formed long strings of rather 
ixregataur f o«:in. 

114 Journal of the Anaiic Society of Bengal, [April, 1906* 

on the under surface of LimnafUhemum leaves had a Hydra fixed 
to them. This occurred in about a third of the occupied shelters 
examined. The Hydra was always in a contracted condition and 
often more or less mutilated. By keeping a larva together 
with a free Polyp in a glass of clean water, I have been able to 
discover the reason of this, having now observed the process of 
capture and entanglement in greater or less detail on eight occa- 
sions. The larva settles down at the base of the Hydra and com- 
mences to spin a tunnel. When this is partially completed, it 
passes a thr^ round the Polyp's body, which it also appears to 
bite. This causes the victim to bend down its tentacles, which the 
larva entangles with threads of silk, doing so by means of rapid, 
darting movements ; for although the stinging-cells of H orientalis 
are small, they would prove fatal to the l^va should they be shot 
out against its body, which is soft. Its head is probably too thickly 
coated with chitin to excite their discharge. Indeed, small Iarv» 
of this very species form no inconsiderable part of the food of the 
Polyp, and, so far as my observations go, they are always attacked 
in the body and swallowed in a doublcd-up position. 

When the Hydra has been firmly built into the wall of the shel- 
ters and its tentacles fastened down by their bases on the roof, the 
larva proceeds, sometimes after an interval of some hours, to eat 
the body, which it does very rapidly, leaving the tentacles, which 
still retain their vitality, in position. The meal only lasts for a 
few minutes ; after it, the larva enjoys several hours' repose, pro- 
tected by the dangerous remains of its victim. During this period 
it remains still, except for certain undulatory movements of the 
posterior part of the body, which probably aid in respiration. Then 
it leaves the shelter and goes in search of further prey. 

Its food, even when living in a tunnel, does not consist entire- 
ly of Hydra, I have watched an individual building its shelter 
near a number of Rotifers, some of which it devoured and some 
^f which it plastered on to its tunnel. 

The tubular shelters occasionally found are very much stouter 
structures than the tunnels; but are apparently made funda- 
mentally of the same materials. Structures, intermediate between 
them and the tunnels, are sometimes made. 

They are often as much as twice as long as the larvae 
and have a much greater calibre. Although they can be straight- 
ened, they are nsully bent, more or less distinctly, in the 
middle, so that they have a U or V-like form. The stalk by 
which they are fastened to external objects is situated below, at th& 
junction of the two limbs. Although the tube is too densely covered 
with particles of dirt, short lengths of some thread-like alga and 
Protozoa, — for its structure to be easily seen, it has evidently an 
extremely loose fabric, through which the larva can thrust its 
head at any point. It clings to the interior of the tube (or of the 
tunnel) by means of its posterior legs below and of the 
bunch of bristles at the posterior extremity of its dorsal sur- 
face above. The latter can be raised or depressed at ¥rill by means 
of a special muscle. Thus it can drag the tube slowly along a 

VoL II, No. 4.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, 115 

fimooth snrfaoe by means of ita forelegs. It may live in one tube 
for at least two days, during inconsiderable pnrt of which it remains 
quite stiU. During this period of quiescence it probably casts its 
skin ; but I have not been able to watch the process. 

On most tubes I have examined there have been cctlonies of 
the Protozoon Epistylis flavicans^ which is common in the tanks on 
the roots of duckweed during the winter months. A close exa- 
mination shows that these colonies are not normal ones like those 
on the i*oota ; for they appear to be rather the extremities of such 
colonies, broken off and entangled in stout silk threads, several 
being fastened together to form each group on the tube. The tubes 
which did not l&ar the Epistylis^ bore a Vorticella (probably V. 
nebtdifera) instead. I ha^e not seen the larva feeding on these 
Protozoa, but have veir little doubt that it does so, for they dis- 
appear gradually from the tnbe, and when they have disappeared 
the larva recommences its wanderingps. 

Thus it would seem that this lar^a, differing little in structure 
from its allies, has developed a very peculiar instinct, which 
enables it to obtain at once food and shelter from animals lower in 
the scale of structure than itself. Possibly the case is in some 
rospects paralleled by that of the Ampliipod Phronima, which is 
found in the empty tests of Ascidians ; but it is at once less com- 
pleit and more unusual than that of the other Crustaceans (such 
as Dorippe facehind) which carry about vrith them living Goelenter- 
ates as a protection and not as food. 

As regards other enemies of Hydra orientalis I have little 
information. I have i:epeatedly noticed that individuals confined 
together with larvae of the Dragon Fly coriagrion coromandelianus 
(which is one of the commonest species in the tanks) have dis« 
appeared. Although I have not been able to witness an attack on 
the part of the Insect in this case, it seems probable that the 
attack is made ; for the larva feeds chiefly, if not entirely, by night. 
It is evident, therefore, that the nematocysts of Hydra do not 
protect their possessor entirely from the attacks of Insects, any more 
than those of marine Goelenterates do from the attacks of fish.^ 


The food of Hydra orientalis is by no means homogeneous. 
Gladocera and Gopepods are commonly eaten, more especially the 
former; but Ostracods, and occasionally even members of these other 
groups, are merely held for a few seconds on the tentacles and 
then dropped. Rotifers and minute Oligocheete worms are also 
eaten ; but the small Turbellarians which are usually abundant in 
the tanks during winter* apparently escape attack. Perhaps the 
great part, and undoubtedly a very large part of the food consists 
of newly-hatohed Insect larvce, chiefly Dipterous and Keuropter- 
ous. Young individuals, as I have noted, of the very Ohironomid 

1 See Athworth and Annandale in Proc. Boy. 8oc, Sdin. XXV, 1904, p. S 


116 Jonnial of the Asiatic iSociety of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

which later prejs on Hydra are very freqaentlj eaten, possibly 
more frequently than any other species, and a common Ephemerid 
in its first instars failes but little better. 

Food is nsaally taken in the early mormng, before the heat of 
the son has become ^reat. This is the period when life seems to 
be generally most active in the tanks. In Calcutta, Hydra does 
not feed at night, but remains between sunset and dawn, at any 
rate when in an aquarium, with partially retracted tentacles. 

VoL U, Ko. 4] 

Notifs </» ** Pa€Mest\"* e^r. 


18. NoU$ OH '^Paekesi** and similar gatnes^ as played in tKe 
Karwi Subdirisiat^ United Provinces, — By E. de M. Hux* 


A feature which oaaoot fail to strike the most unobeervaut 
visitor to the Karwi Sabdivision is the Tillage meeting-place. 

This is nsnally famished with a nomber of rude stone benches, 
formed by a horizontal, supported on two vertical slabs. These 
are arranged ronghly either in a circular or in a square formation, 
reminding one of nothing so much as the remains at Stonehenge. 
On the sur&ce of these slabs will ofton be found scored the 
*' boards" of certain games. 

During the tour season of 1904^-6, I collected the rules of 
some of these games, so &r as I was able to ascertain them in the 
very limited time at my disposal. 

The following notes, which have no claim to be considered 
exhaustive, embody the substance of the information so obtained. 


The most familiar of these games is that known as ^^ PachesL*' 
It is played on a board marked out as in the accompanying 
diagram (Fig. 1). 










Each arm of the cross is divided into three rows of ei^ht 
squares. Of these the fifth from the end of each of the outer 
rows, and the middle square of the bottom row are marked with a 
diagonal cross to indicate that a piece on one of these squares is 
safe from capture. 

»» " 

«i » 

., 5 

i« » 

n 4 

»' » 

„ '^ 

„ 2 

»» ? 

,. 1 

9f f 

If none 

}f 1 

118 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906^ 

The game is played by four, but may equally be played by 
two, or even by three persons, each of whom has four " men," distin* 
guished by their colours or their materials. 

Each player sits opposite one arm of the cross, and his object 
is, starting from the centre of the board down the middle and up 
the left-liand row of his own arm of the cross, to move his four 
" men" all round the board, finally bringing them down the right- 
hand side and up the middle row of his own arm and landing them 
in the triangular space in the centre. 

The first to do this wins the game. 

The moves are regulated by the number of cowries which fall 
with the slit uppermost out of seven, which are thrown from the 
hand without the use of any dice-box. The following table gives 
the value of the various throws: — 

If all 7 cowries fall with the slit uppermost, the throw counts 12 



?» ?» ?» 3 



A " man ** may be placed on the board only when either 10, 
25 or 30 is thrown. 

When a '^ man " is so started, he is placed on the squai^e corres- 
ponding to the number thrown, counting down the middle and up 
the left-hand row. 

Once a "man" has been started, every throw can be utilised 
by pushing on a *' man " for a number of squares corresponding^ 
to the number thrown. 

If the square to which a " man" should be moved is occupied 
by one of the adversaries' " men," the latter is captured and must be 
removed from the board and begin its round exactly as if it had 
never been placed on the board at all. A piece is exempt from cap- 
ture while on one of the refuges marked on the board with a cross, 
or when it has turned into the middle row on his way home. 
A player may not take one of his own " men" past a refuge occupied 
by one of the adversaries' pieces. 

When a " man " reaches the middle row he cannot get "home,"^ 
unless his player happens to throw exactly the number required to- 
brin^ him there. 

For instance, to a ** man" placed on the fourth space from 
'^home," a throw of 5 or mox^ is of no use: a throw of 4 would 
bring him "home," while throws of 3 or 2 would not improve 
matters, though, if there were no other " men " on the board that 
he could move, such a throw would have to be utilised by moving 
the " man '* up accordingly. 

When a " man " reaches the last square of all, he has to wait 
till either 10, 25 or 30 is thrown. When one of these numbers ir 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Note* on " PaeheM," etc 119 

throwD, the player has to thi'ow again, and, if one of these num- 
hers is again thrown, the '* man" has to be removed and begin again 
from the beginning. 

The word for " throwing " the cowries is 'pakkdna* ; i.e., to 
"cook "them. 

The above represent what I understand to be the mles of 
the game as ordinarily played. There are, however, variations in 
the roles, some of them too complicated to be understood in the 
very short time at my disposal. For instance, I was informed in 
one village that, if in the coarse of the game, after all the pieces 
were on the board, 10, 25 or 30 were thrown, the player did not 
move, but threw again. If any of the above numbers were again 
thrown, he had to throw a third time. If they did not turn up, 
he added the amount of the second to that of the first throw and 
moved accordingly. If, at the third throw, one of the three magic 
numbers again turned up, the whole score was cancelled, but he 
had another throw. 

Should, however, either 7 or 14 turn up, then the whole score 
could be counted. In that village, if all the seven cowries fell 
with the slit uppermost, it oountod 14, and not 12 as given above. 
It is not unlikely that my original informants were wrong in this 


Another variant is known as '* Ghonpa*' or ^' Ghaunsarh." 

It is played by four persons, each having four " men," coloured 
respectively black, yellow, green and red. The two former play 
in partnership against the two latter colours. 

The board is the same as that already described, with the ex- 
ception that the refuges mentioned in tne case of '* pachesi " are 
eiuier not marked at au or are disregarded, if the board is one 
made for both games. A single piece may, and a pair may not, be 
oaptured on any square to which a hostile piece mav be moved. 

The moves are regulated by throwing three dice: not, as in 
the case of Pachesi, by cowries. These dice are of bone or ivory 
and are about 2^ inches long, marked on their long sides with the 
numbers (1), (2), (5) and (6). 

They, too, as is nsnal in this country, are thrown f i-om the 
hand, without the use of a dice-box. 

The " men," known as mard^ or goty are placed as follows:— 

On the arm of the cross occupied by the player who has 
. taken the yellow '* men," are placed two yellow *^ men" on the second 
and third sauares from the bottom of i^e middle rdw, and two 
green ''men" on the first and second squares of the left-hand row 
xvspectively. Similarly on the arm of the cross to the right of 
bim are placed two red and two yellow ''men": on the arm 
opposite his, two black and two red *'men" and on the arm to the 
. left of him, two green and two black " men." This will be more 
clearly understood from the accompanying diagram (Fig. 2) 
which shows the board set oat for the commencement of this gUme. 

120 Journal of Jthe Asiatic Society of Beiiynl, [ApriJ, 1906. 






■ . 






1 1 














— '■ 






Fig. 2. 

The first two "men," t.6., those which occupy the first two 
squareis of the left-hand row on the adversary's arm of the cross, 
always move in pairs, while the last two move singly. A 
pair may be moved only when a pair is thrown. If the dice all 
tnm np different, then only one, or possibly both of the single 
pieces may be moved for a total number of spaces corresponding 
to the total thrown. If two ont of the three dice fall alike, then 
the pair may be moved for the pair thrown and the single piece 
for the single throw. A throw may be split np and used to move 
on two or more pieces. For instance, if a 6, a 5 and a 1, are 
thrown, then each of the two single pieces- may be moved on 6 
places, or one may be moved 5 places and the other 7, and so on. 

When three " men*' come to occupy the same space, if all three 

dice turn Hp alike, then each of these three "men" can be moved 

forward for double the number of npaces shown by the dice, ».e., 

'if three sixes are thrown, then each of the three *' men" can be 

moved forward twelve spaces. 

When a " man " has reached the middle row on his way " home " 
he cannot reach "home" unless the exact number required is 
thrown. When, however, the last " man" has reached the second, 
third, or perhaps other squares in this row, the thrower is at liber- 
ty to score on two dice only, or even on one, as he may find con- 
venient. ' 

.Vol.II, No. 4.] Note* on " Paehen," etn. 181 

When a player has got aH his own piecee^ ^* home/' he uses his 
throws to help his partner. 


Another form of the game is known as " Bang/' It is played 
by two p«»ons. Of these one takes the blaok and the yellow : the 
other, the green and the red. They sit opposite eaoh other and 
each takes two arms of the board. WhiGnever colour a player 
starts with, he must get all the men of that colour " home '' 
before starting those of the other colour. 

Ahtarah Gutti. 

Far more common, however, even than Pachesi is the gamie 
known generally as ''Ahtlu:«h Gntti" and also as '*BaEi Mar," 

It is played on a board of 87 spaces, arranged as in the accom- 
panying diagfram (Fig. 3). 

Kg, a. 

122 Journal ofths Anattc Society of Bengal. [April, ld06. 

Each of the two players has 18 " men," represented, as iisxial, 
among the thriffy villagers, by pieces of louikar on the one, and of 
tiles on the other side. The middle space is left yacant, and the 
player having the first move most move a ^^ man " on to that space. 

The moves are mnch the same as those of a king in draughts, 
t.e., a piece can be moved one space at a time in any directioD, 
backwards or forwards, provided that the space to which it is 
sought to move it is vacant and is in the same rank, file or diago* 
nal as that from which it starts. Captures are made, as in 
draughts, by leaping over the piece to be captured in any direc- 
tion, provided that all three spaces are in the same straight line. 
Any number of pieces may be captured in succession in one move. 
In no part of the board is a piece safe from capture : not even in 
its own bungalow, as the triangular ezct-escences at either end of 
the board are called. 

For obvious reasons it is considered advisable to occupy the 
spaces along the edges of the board, and particularly those at 
either extremity of the horizontal diameter of the original square. 

The game is decided when one player has succeeded in cap- 
turing all his adversary's '* men." 

Kowwu Dunku 

There are several variants of this game. Of these, one, known 
as " Kowwa Dunki," is played on a board of 21 spaces, arranged 
a8 in the accompanying diagram (Fig. 4). 

Fig. 4 

Notes on ** Pachest,'' etc. 


VoL U, No. 4.] 


The same game is played at Bargarh on a slightty different 
board, as shown in the accompanying diagram (Fig 5). 

Fig. 5. 

The^ rules of both these games are the same as those of 

Ahtarah^Gntti. « , ^ , . 

Bagh ChUtu 

Yet'another variant is that known as " Bagh Gutti." 
It is played by two players on a board of 25 spaces, arranged 
as in the annexed diagram (Fig. 6). 

Fig. 6. 
On A and B ore placed two large pieces, nsnally of kankar or 
tiles. These are called 6ai7^ ("tigers"). The other pW has 
20 smaller pieces. These he places, five on each of the spaces 
numbered (1), (2). (3) and (4). 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of BengaL [April, IdQ^. 

Hii^ 4>bject 18 so to surround the '^ bagha *' aa to prevent them 
from moving in any direction: while their object is to capture all 
his •* men." 

The player with the 20 " men " iias the first move. He take& 
one piece from any of the four heaps and moves it on to any conti- 
guous space in the same rank, file or diagonal. He may move one 
space at a time in any direction, provided that the space to which 
he moves is vacant. 

The bagh then moves. He may move one space at a time 
in any direction, and captures, as in draughts, by leaping over th& 
piece to be captured. 

He can, however, take only one *' man '' at each leap, no matter 
how many men there may be on the space over which he leaps. 
He may capture any number of '^ men *' in succession. 


Another very popular game is that known as " Sujjua." 
lb is played on a board of 24 spaces, 
diagram (Fig. 7). 

as in the annexed 

Fig. 7. 

There are two players, each of whom has nine "men." The 
latter are usually represented, one the one side by pieces of kankar ; 
on the other side by pieces of brick or t ile. 

The object of each player is to get three of his own " men" in a 
row, before his adversary can succeed in doing so. 

When the game commences the board is clear and the players 
move alternately, each commencing by plncing one of his own men 
on the board in any vacant place. After the first move, the player 
may either place another "man" on the board, or may move a piece 
already ^n it one space at a time in any direction, provided that 
the space to which he w:ishes to move it is vacant. 

ThiBj^^ery closely rci^embles the old English game of "iSTine 
Men*s Morrice." 

Vol. II, No. 4] Note* on " Pacheai," etc. US 


Quite recently, on visiting a mined Ghandel temple known as 
the " Baldewa " close to the railway line, arbont two miles from the 
Karwi railway station, I found the ** board " of this game marked 
on one of the vertical sides of a slab in the wall of the innet* 
shrine. It was impossible to resist the conclusion that the game 
had been played on that stone before it had been used for the 
building of the temple. 


Another game, which appears to be more popular than its in- 
trinsic interest would seem to merit, is known as " Pachgarhwa." 

It is played by two persons, who take opposite sides of aboard 
of ten spaces, arranged as in the accompanying diagram (Fig. 8). 

Pig. 8. 

The game commences by each player placing five pieces of 
kankar or similar material on each of the five spaces on his sides 
of the board. 

There is no distinction in size, colour or material between the 
" men " of either player. 

When the board has been thus set out, the player whose turn 
it is to move takes up the five pieces from any one of his spaces 
and proceeds to work round the board from the space to the right 
of that from which he has just taken the pieces. He drops a piece 
on each space, whether of his own or his adversary's, as he 

When he has thus exhausted his five "men," he takes up the 
pieces on the sixth space and continues the process, until he hap- 
pens to deposit his last " man " on a space, the next in order to which 
IS vacant. When this occurs, he takes as many pieces as may be 
on the space immediately beyond the vacaut one. His turn thep 
is over, and his adversary proceeds to move in the same way, bat 
in the opposite direction. 

Thus the game, which is well-nigh interminable, goes on until 
all the pieces on the board are exhausted. Even then it does not 
Atop, but begins again by each player filling up as many spaces aa 
he then has multiples of five in his possession. If one placer has, 
say, three, and the other two "men over, then each has an interest 
in one pquare proportionate to the number of pieces placed by him 
on it. 

By that time things began to get complicated and I Vi^n .un- 
able to discover how, if ever, the game did end. 

126 Journal of the AHatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

Kowwa Band. 

There remains a kind of "Solitaire," known as "Kowwa 

I had great difficulty in learning the rules of this game, as the 
man who gave me the diagram had forgotten them, and the pat- 
wariy the only man in the village who knew the game at all, had 
not played it for years. 

It is played by one person on a board of ten spaceB, arranged 
as in the subjoined diagram (Fig. 9). 

Fig. 9. 

The object of the player is twofold. He has first to get all his 
nine ** men'* on the board, and then to get all but one ofE again. 
The moves allowed are as follows : — 

(1) When placing the " men" on the board, they may be moved 

from any one space to the next but one in the same 
straight line, provided that it be vacant. It is permis* 
sible to leap over an intervening '* man.*' 

(2) When removing the pieces from the board, thev are taken, 

as in draughts, by leaping over the piece to oe captured 
on to a vacant space in the same straight line. 

"Bang Mar, 

Although I have not given much time to the study of card 
games, yet there is one such game played in the subdivision, which 
deserves mention. It is known as '* Rang Mar/' 

It is played by three persons with an ordinary pack of cards. 

The two of diamonds is taken out, in order that the pack mav 
be divisible by three, an4 the cards are then dealt out to each 
player as in whist. The player who happens to hold the ace of 
ispades mnst play it, and each of the others must follow suit, if 

After this forced lead, which, of course, wins the trick, as the 
ace is, for the purposes of this game, the highest card, the leader 
may open any suit which he prefers. The game then proceeds 
very much as when "No Tnimps" are declared at bridge* 

Vol, II, No. 4.] Notes on " Pacheti," etc. 127 


Each player plays for his own hand alone, and the game is decided 
by the number of tricks scored. 

*' Points," I presume, are settled by mutual agreement before 
commencing to play. 

I asked my informant what was the penalty for a revoke. 
He did not understand this at first, but when a pack of cards wa» 
produced, I showed him how, quite by accident, of course, such a 
thingmight happen. 

He had eyidently not given the subject much thought and was 
not at firnt aware of the advantage which might be gained by such 
an accident. 

When this was brought home to him, he remarked that, if 
such a thinfiT were " detected " that trick would not be allowed to 

Vol. II, No. 4.] The HiTidu Method nf Manufacturing Spirit. 129 

19. On the Hindu Method of Manufacturing Spirit from Bice, and 
its scientific explanation, — By J. C. Ray. Oom/municated by Dr. 
P. C. Rat. 

To the student of history and to the student of science alike, 
the method of manufacturing alcoholic spirit from rice, which is 
followed in some parts of Bengal, presents many interesting 
features. The Hindus are proverbially conservative in their 
principles and actions, and any practice found described in an old 
Sanskrit author may be expected to prevail up to the present day 
•even though the circumstances may have altogether changed. 
Moreover, the manufacturing pi-ocess which is followed f ol- profit 
and found remunerative is not changed with change of empires and 
altered economic conditions. It is a fact worth repeating that drink- 
ing was not absolutely prohibited in ancient India, and that on such 
occasions as rejoicings after a victory the soldiery freely indulged 
in alcoholic liquor, though Manu, the ancient moralist and law- 
giver of India, condemns the use of surds or distilled liquors. 
Three kinds of liquor were known during his titne, viz,^ Oouri 
prepared from molasses, Mddhvi from the sweet flower of Bassia 
laiifdia^ and Faishti from rice and barley cakes. Of these three 
the last one— Paitf^ii— was reckoned as the most common. The 
surde were included under a generic term, madya, meaning every 
kind of alcoholic drink. The word Kohala occurs in Sudruta, a 
Sanskrit medical treatise at least as old as the 5th century a.d. It 
means there a particular spirit made from powdered barley. 
Another word Jagala occurs in Suiruta and in a much earlier work 
called Charak where Kohala is not found. Jatjala means a kind of 
rice-beer. It is well known that Hindu physicians were at one time 
invited to reside at Bagdad, and were court physicians during the 
Caliphate. Hindu medical works were studied and translated by 
Arabian scholars into Arabic. It is, therefore, probable that 
the Arabic word Alcohol — the same as the English word — had an 
Indian origin.^ 

From this brief historical sketch it appears that the art of 
fermenting starchy and saccharine substances was understood and 
practised in India. There is no TOason to believe that the Indian 

1 The late Prof. Monier Williams in his Sanakrit-Biif^liSh lexicon derives 
the Sanskrit word Kohala from ko and hala{?) as in the Sanskrit word kat^- 
/uiia, and gives the following meanings: — (1) speaking indistinctlj ; (2) a 
sort of spiritaons liqaor ; (3j a kind of masical instrument. These three 
meanings are more or less associated with drinking parties. Yiohaspati, an 
Indian lexicographer, derives Kohala from JTu-the earth and hala to defy — 
meaning that which makes a man defy the world. A better derivation is 
perhaps from £u earth Or earthly or bad, Haiti poison. Cf. Haldhala^hala^ 
d*f^ia« venom. Kohl in Arabic means a colly Hnm or antimony redaced to a 
fine powder^ need for the eye. The origin in, however, unknown. English 
anthers derive the word alcohol from al Arabic the and eohol from Hebrew, 
meaning ooUyrinm for the eye. But the mixed Arabic and Hebrew deriva- 
tion appears to be far-fetched. 

130 Journal of the Aiiaiic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

distillers have greatly deviated from the old lines. We may, 
therefore, take the method described below as essentially indi- 

II. Description of Method. — In Orissa, the bulk of the spirit 
consumed by the poor people is manufactured from rice. The 
following description applies particularly to the method followed 
at the Central Distillery situated at Guttack and controlled by 
Government ' ; — 

Husked rice called Atap («.e., sun-dried) is first of all softened 
in moist steam. For this purpose water is boiled in a large 
earthen vessel (hdndi) placed over a fire. Upon this hdndiy is placed 
and luted with stiff clay another having a pretty large hole at the 
bottom. The hole is covered with a piece of coarse cloth, and 
upon this rice previously washed carefully with water is laid. The 
mouth of this second Tuindi is partially covered by means of a 
wicker-work basket. The steam from boiling water below rises 
through the moist rice above and softens the grains. The steam- 
ing is usually done in the morning and takes about half an hour 
for each charge of rice. The grains swell up, but are not allowed 
to form a paste. The steamed rice is then put in a heap when 
the heat and moisture complete the softening of the grains to their 
core. Towards evening the rice is thoroughly mixed with pow- 
dered Bdkhar — a mouldy vegetable composition prepared and 
sold by a low-caste people of the hills of Orissa in the form of 
small balls about the size of walnut. The proportion of Bdkhar 
to rice is about three chhittakM of the former to half a maund of dry 
rice, ».e., about one part in 100. The rice is then placed in a 
basket for about 24 hours. During this period the temperature 
of the rice slowly rises several degrees above the air temperature. 
On one occasion I found the temperature to rise 10° F. from 84®F. 
to 94°F. The rice is now spread on an earthen platform, about two 
feet high, in the form of circular cakes about a seer (2 lbs.) in 
weight and an inch thick. In a day the temperature again rises, 
and the rice grains begin to be gradually entangled in the fila- 
ments of a mould fungus. In three or four days the grains be- 
come so far entangled that the cakes can be lifted without destroy- 
ing their shape. They are now piled up one above another and 
left in this state for another period of four or five days. During 
this the mould becomes black and each grain of rice densely coated 
with it. The cakes are now put in large earthen vats, and water 
poured in. On the following day an equal weight of fresh and 
steam-softened rice is added. The rice for this purpose is more 
fully softened than that meant for cakes, by adding a certain 
quantity of water to it during steaming. The vats are jars of un- 
glazed pottery of capacities of 32 to 40 gallons. These are half- 
buried under the earthen floor of a thatched shed. The proportion 
of water added is 20 gallons for each maund (82 lbs.) of rice caked 
and fresh (uncaked), i.e., about 2 J parts of water to one of rice. 
Previous to charging the vats they are fumigated by burning straw 

Since last year the preparation of rice-spirit has been disoontinned. 

Vol. II, Xo. 4.] The Hindu Metliod of Manufacturing Spirit 131 

in thenu The mixture of rice and water is kept in the yats for 
8 to 10 days according to season, longer time being necessary in 
winter than in snmmer. After the fermentation that takes place 
in the vats has ceased, this being ascertained by noting the cessa- 
tion of babbles of gas and clarification of the upper portion, the 
wort is distilled in earthen stills. These consist of two large jars, 
one forming the alembic and the other the receiver, their heads 
being connected by means of two tubes of straight pieces of 
bamboo. The receiver is placed in a tab and kept cool by sprink* 
ling water apon it. The fireplace consists of a rectangalar pit in 
which wood is bamed. Lately following the advice of Govern- 
ment Revenae Officers the distillers at the Central Distilleries 
have I'eplaced the pottery stills by copper ones with worms which 
caase a more rapid condensation of vapoars. 

The whole process takes 20 to 22 days. It will appear very 
pHmitive ; thoagh, judging by resalts, it is by no means nnsatia- 
factory. The average yield of spirit from a TitawK^ (82 lbs.) of 
rice at the Cattack Central Distillery is aboat 4 gallons of Proof 
spirit. The maximam yield is obtained in Janaary when it may 
rise to 4*5 gallons, and the minimom in October when it may be 
as low as 3*66 gallons. The average yield in Janaary of the last 
three years (1901-U3) was 4*28 gallons, and the same in October 3*85 
gallons, making a diJfference of 0*43 gallons. These averages have 
been strack oft from several handredjs of gallons of spirit mana- 
factored, and may be taken as normal averages. The temperature 
of fermentation is not in any way regulated by the distillers, nor 
is the general modus operandi controlled by the Superintendent 
appointed by Government. The distillers who are servants of 
absentee capitalists go by the rale of thumb and do not always 
evince much interest in secoring good profit for their masters. The 
masters, too, have no permanent interest in the manuf actare, as 
licenses to distill spirit are renewed every third year and given to 
the highest bidders. In the circumstances the servants are the 
actual manufacturers for their ever-changing Piasters, and have 
no interest in modifying or improving upon the traditional 

III. Explanation, — I am not aware if anyone has scientifi- 
cally explained the process detailed above, nor have I had any 
access to the literature of the subject. Indeed, the only special 
literature which I could consult during my investigation consisted 
of (1) the Report of the Bengal Excise Commission, 1883-84, and 
( 2) the " Brewer, Distiller and Wine Manufacturer " published by 
Churchill. The Report does not enter into the scientific aspect of 
the question, nor does it deal with the manufacture of spirit from 
rice as prevails at Cuttack. Churchill's handbook describes the 
European process which bears no resemblance to the Indian 

In the brewing process of European distilleries barley is first 
soaked in water and allowed just to germinate at a suitable tem«> 
perature. A soluble ferment or enzyme called diastase is f oimed 
in the grain. The barley is now heated at 122-212^F. in order to 

182 Joiirmd of the Anntic Society of Bengal, [April, 1906. 

«top germination. The barley thas treated is known as malt. 
Next raw material, i.e., munalted material (such as rice, potato and 
«ther substances rich in starch) is reduced to a pulp with water 
and mixed with a certain proportion of malt. The mixture is 
kept at about 140^F. for about 1-4 hours when starch is conyei*t- 
ed by diastase into dextrin and sugar (maltose). After the mix- 
ture has cooled to about 60°F. yeast is added, and the mixture 
kept until alcoholic fermentation due to yeast is at an end. The 
weak solution of alcohol thus formed is next distilled. Malted 
grain alone is sometimes used, as it is believed to yield a larger 
quantity of spirit, with greater facility and in less time. As a 
general rule a mixture of malted and unmalted grain is used in the 
proportion varying from 1 to 2 to 1 to 3, 4, even to 15. The pro- 
portion of grain to water is roughly about 1 to 4, and yeast is ad- 
ded to the mashed liquid in quantity varying from I to 1 ^ per 
cent of the mash. 

Now, in the Indian process, husked rice is used, and there is 
no possibility of germination of husked rice, and that at the tem- 
perature of 212®F. Yeast is never added to wort nor wash fresh or 
spent. All that is added to rice besides water consists of Bdkhar. 
Its importance was not properly understood, though the country 
distillers know very weU that it must be used with rice, or there 
would be no fermentation. Indeed, the rise of tempei*ature of 
steam-softened rice mixed with Bdkhar might lead one to guess 
that some sort of fermentation took place in the rice. In my pre- 
liminaiy experiments I kept for a few days steam-softened rice 
mixed with water only, and another quantity mixed with water 
and a very small quantity of wort from the distillers' vat, and 
found that there was no alcohol formed in the first case, and that 
« minute quantity was present in the second, the alcohol in this 
case probably came from the wort added. Boiled rice was mixed 
with water, and yeast from Toddy added. Bice did not dissolve 
and alcohol was not formed in any appreciable extent. So again, 
with a view to ascertain the necessity of caking, a series of trials 
were made by me on a small scale. These showed that caking of 
rice is as essential as the addition of Bdkhar, and that no caking 
takes place without BdAAar. Every distiller knows that peld of 
spirit is low when cakes are not well formed, as is sometimes the 
case. I have examined the whole process and found it to be based 
on scientific principles. 

(1) Bdkhar, — Bdkhar is a black and mouldy mixtu-e of 
powdei^ rice, barks and roots of various plants. A cold 
infusion of powdered Bdkhar in water was filtered and chemically 
.examined. It had slightly acid reaction and contained maltose. 
Starch was boiled with water into a thin solution, and a few drops 
of the infusion added to it. The starch was quickly turned into 
dextrin. On warming the mixture the starch was turned into 
maltose. Hence Bdkhar extract contains a diastase enzyme pos- 
sessing the power of converfcing starch into dextrin and maltose. 
The presence of maltose in Bdkhar is evidently due to the con- 
tersion of a portion of the starch of rice used in the pififiaration. 

Vol. U, No. 4.1 The Hindu Method of Manufuctnnitg Spint. HiS 

Under the mici'oscope, Bdkhar shows spores and a dense coat- 
ing of monld fungi interweaving fragments of barks and roots 
of plants and of powdered rice. Pills of Bdkhar were bix)ken 
into pieces and kept moist with water for a day. There was 
growth of fungi which were found mostly to be a species of Miicor. 
The hyphffi ai*e rather thin, measuring about 0*006 mm. in 
breadth. The spores are black or brown, spherical in shape, with 
asperities nil over and measui-e about 0*004 mm. in diameter. 
The mould on ripe cakes was also examined and found to be the 
same fungus {Mucor racemostis f) but with thicker hyphce. 
Sometimes Aspergillus and less often Euiotium make their 
appearance on cakes. The presence of these fungi is detrimental to 
good outturn and is regarded as accidental. 

Formerly it was thought that the fungus (Muc(yi^) grew on 
cakes from spores floating in the air, and the writer was once asked 
by an Excise officer to suggest means by which mould could be 
avoided or checked. It will be seen more clearly later on that 
it is purposely grown on rice from spores contained in Bdkhar. I 
•cannot say whence the spores are obtained. They may come with 
the barks and roots used. Probably Ba/;Aar-makers add a bit of 
old Bdkhar to fresh mixtures of rice and barks and thus keep up 
the cultui'e of the particular fungus for their trade. 

The names of the plants used and the importance of each in 
alcoholic fermentation are questions not yet thi'oughly g^one into. 
The reason is that Bdkhar-jas.'keTa keep the ingredients secret, and 
no attempt has been made to ascertain their scientific names* What- 
ever they are, there is little doubt about the general nature of the 
composition. This will appear from the long list of vegetable 
ingi^dients used in making Fdchain and appended to the Bengal 
Excise Commissioner's Report already referred to. It is said that all 
the ingp:'edients are never used at one time. Nor does it appelir 
necessary to do so. The object of having them at all in Bdkhar 
is rather difficult to understand. For the fungus can be grown 
on boiled rice by mixing with it a small quantity of ripe cake. 
Probably the barks and roots help the growth of the fungus, as we 
know how quickly mould appears on moist mixture of pounded 
barks and roots — ^more quickly and vigorously indeed than on 
boiled rice alone. It is well-known that the purer an organic 
substance is the less favourable it is for growth of moulds. 

The plants of the list may be broadly divided into four gi'oups 
According to their known general properties :— 

(t) Some possess medicinal properties, e.g., Tribulus tefrestHs 
(Gokhur), Desmodium gaugeticum (Salpdn), Vrdria 
lagopodtoid^s (Ch4kuli&), Solaimm Jaeqinnii (Kanta- 
kari), Hemidesmus indicus (Anantamul), Asparng^ 
racemosus (Satamuli), etc. 

<u) Some possess bitter principles, e,g,, Andrographis pant- 
culata (K&lmegh), Oldenlandia herhacea (Khetpeprd), 
Atadtrachta tndtca (Nim), Justicia Adhatoda (Basak), 

134 Journal of the Astatic Society of Beuyal, [April, 1906. 

(m) Some possess tannin, e.g., Terminalia Ghehula (Haritaki), 
Terminalia totnentosa (Piasal), Cassia fistula (Sondsl)^ 
Diospyros tovientosa (Kenda), etc. 

{iv) Some possess narcotic principles, e.g., Datura 
(Dhntura), Plumbago zeylanica (Chita), Strychnos 
Nux-vumica (Knchila), Oannahis sativa y Siddhi;, etc. 

The last-named ingredients are evidently addded in order 
to make weak spirit appear strong, though Dr. Warden, Chemical 
Examiner to Bengal Government, did not find in distilled spirit 
any trace of the narcotic drugs purposely mixed with wort (Bengal 
Excise Corn's Report). The deleterious drugs are meant to be 
used in Bdkhar for Pdchaun — a country beer from rice. Boiled 
rice and powdered Bdkhar are mixed together and left to ferment 
in a closed vessel. The liquid that exudes from the rice is 
Pdchawi. It is not distilled. So the narcotic drugs exert theii* 
effect, at least partially, on the consumers who are generally low- 
class aboriginal tribes. Pdchawi is a weak liquor, and cannot in- 
toxicate a man unless drunk in excess. To the low-class habitual 
consumers of cheap liquor, it is an advantage to have an infusion 
of deleterious principles mixed with the weak Pdchawi. Probably 
this was the liquor used in India in olden times, and distilled 
spirit from it or rice-cakes came later in use. Manu — the ancient 
moralist — ^speaks of Surd as the dregs of rice, <&c. Likewise Apas- 
tamba, another ancient law-giver, forbids all intoxicating drmkc^ 
and food mixed with herbs which serve for preparing intoxicating 
liquors. The use in Bdkhar of ingredients possessing bitter prin- 
ciples also tend to show that it was at first intended for beei- 
only. The bitter ingredients act like hops in English beer, pre- 
serving the beer, and giving it a bitter taste. The medicinal ingre- 
dients are added with a view to enhance the medicinal virtues of 
beer, and also to correct any ill effects of the liquor. Old Sans- 
krit writers on Hindu medicine enumerate the virtues of liqueurs 
and cordials made with particular drugs. Pdchatui literally mean& 
product of fermentation or putrefaction, and has no connection 
with Paishti'^the Surd or distilled spirit obtained from rice-cakes. 
This definition of Paishti is taken from Manu and his annotators, 
and fully applies to the rice-spirit dealt with in this paper. This 
spirit — the Indian whiskey — as well as the Indian rum from molass- 
es and saccharine flowers of Bassia, were condemned by Manu foi" 
the three higher castes, probably because the liquors were made 
strong by distillation, and perhaps also because distillation could 
only be carried out by the very low caste unclean people of dis- 
tillers (the Saundika). Manu also mentions the use of Bdkhar, 
which is called by him Kinva ( from kana, particle or powder). The 
word Bdkhar or Bdkar I would take to be a corruption of the 
Sanskrit word Baikal, meaning bark of trees. The Bengali word 
Bdkal is the same as Sanskrit Baikal and the distillers' Bdkar, the 
terminal I and r being interchangeable in Sanskritic languages. 
The more colloquial Bengali word Bdkdl, which means the neces- 
sary adjuncts of a preparation, is probably derived from Bdkal and 
is allied to the Arabic word baql meaning herbs. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] The Hindu Method of Manufactwing Spirit, 135 


(2) Caking. — To turn to the process of manofactare, we see 
that it consists of three stages, viz,, (1) forming of cakes ; (2) 
brewing in vats ; and (3) distillation. 

The first step in the forming of cakes is the moistening and 
softening of rice and mixing with Bdhhar^ The rice chosen is 
Atap, i.e., merely dried in the snn without previous steeping and 
boilmg in water while in the paddy. For it is superfluous to 
make the rice undergo the semi-softening process considered neces- 
sary in rice used for food. The rice for caking is not boiled in 
water, as that would partially dissolve the starch and not only 
oause its waste but also interfere with the growth of Muc4)r fun- 
gus exclusively. This will be seen more clearly later on. 

An examination of softened rice mixed with Bdkhar and left 
covered in a basket for a day, shows that it contains small quanti- 
ties of dextrin but no sugar. Under the microBCope, minute specks 
of Bdkhar are seen adhering to the grains which are now half dry« 
The spores of Mucor begin to germinate, and as a consequence 
temperature of the rice rises. On the second day the fungpis will 
be seen just spreading out hyphsB. On the third day there will be 
seen vigorous growth, the cakes feel warm and begin to appear 
greenish-black or black. By this time sporanges have formed. 
Some burst ; spores come out and cover the cakes. The carboniza- 
tion that takes place in the hyphsa makes the cakes turn black. 
Along with this the hyphsB become hard and brittle. The cakes 
when first laid out contain just sufficient moistare for germination 
of the Mucor spores and subsequent growth of the hyphsB. In a 
dav the grains are more dried up. This produces two effects : 
(1) any spores of fungi floating in the air and settling on the 
cakes do not get moisture enough to germinate on them ; (2) 
growth of Mucor is stunted, the filaments slender and the fungus 
comes to maturity rapidly. If rice is kept moist, there is greater 
vegetative growth of the fungus, and the grains of rice become 
•spongy with the consequence that they do not easily sink into the 
water of vats. It will be presently seen that complete immer- 
sion in water is essential for alcoholic fermentation. As a further re- 
«ult of excessive moisture, the lower grains of rice remain almost un- 
attacked by Mucor, Bacteria grow and an acid liquid exudes. These 
facts partly explain low yield of spirit in the moist months. In 
the course of the few days the cakes are left piled one upon another, 
the grains are slowly penetrated by the hyphas, as drying pi*oceeda 
from surface inwards. From this we see that very dry air is un- 
favourable for successful caking, and as a consequence a second 
minimum in yield of spirit takes place in March and April — the 
two driest months in the year. 

Fully-formed cakes, when coarsely powdered and heated with 
water at 122^ — 140° F. for about ten minutes, dissolve partiaUy. 
The solution contains dextrin, a very small proportion of sugai* 
(about 2 %), and diastase. One part of cake can convert into dex- 
trill 100 parts of starch in solution with water at 86° F. in about 
10 minutes, and 200 parts of starch at 104® F. in about 5 minutes. 
One part of cake can quickly convert into sugar 20 parts of starch 

13t> Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

solution if heated to about 200^ F These results of expenments 
conclusively prove that Mucor growing on soft and half -dry rice 
changes its albuminoid into diastase and its starch into dextrin 
and sugar. 

Hence Bdkhar may be defined as a Mucor spore ferment, and 
fully-fcH-med cake as malt. 

(3) Brewing. — Let us now turn to the changes that take 
place in vats charged with fully-formed rice-cakes and water. 
The grains of rice are disorganised and fall into pieces. The 
hyphse are more or less destroyed and bix)ken into minute frag- 
ments. Some of these fragments show the remarkable pheno- 
menon of budding. This is, however, rare. The usual case is 
that most of the spores submerged in water swell up and 
germinate, each sending out a thin filament. The brownish spores 
germinate in twenty-four hours, the more black ones take much 
longer time. The filament produced is filled with granular proto- 
plasm which soon collects into numerous minute parcels. Dividing 
septa separate the parcels into cells which multiply with great 
rapidity by budding. These cells — Mucor-TortdaB — have the power 
of se ting up alcoholic fermentation in a sugary fluid just as xeast- 
Torula. In appearance, Mucor-Torula strongly resembles Yeast-. 
Tomla, and may be easily mistaken for the latter. The only 
sure way of distinguishing between them is to grow them on 
boiled rice. Mucor-Torvla will germinate there and cover the 
rice with a luxuriant growth of cottony filaments, while Yeast- 
Tonda will not of course ^ve rise to the mould. Mucor-Tcrula 
is an elliptical or oval cell, generally 0002-0'003 mm. wide, and 
twice as long. When fully formed, it shows a round and com- 
paratively large nucleus. 

In a wort two or three days old, there are seen myriads of 
Mucor'Tortdm and of course Bacteria. As a consequence of intra- 
molecular respiration, temperature of the wort commences to rise 
about the thiid day and continues high till about the seventh. On 
the fourth day the wort looks like rice porridge, becomes acid, 
and contains about 2 per cent. Proof spirit by volume. Abont the* 
seventh day Bacteria become less numerous than before. The- 
proportion of alcohol has by this time risen to 8 per cent, as Proof 
Spirit by volume. The proportion of acid has also increased to 
about 1 "5 per cent, (as acetic acid). About the tenth day bubbling 
6f carbon dioxide ceases, and the upper portion of the wort becomes 
clear. There is dextrm, but geneiully no sugar ; and the dreg^ 
at the bottom consist of minute fragments of the cellulose testa 
of rice. The proportion of alcohol is now at its maximum, usually 
amounting to about 16 per cent, as Proof spirit by volume. 

Such is briefly the history of brewing. The diastase enzyme 
present in cakes Inings about saccharification of starch, not only 
of that present in cakes but idso of that of the fresh-boiled rice 
added to them. At no time there is much maltose in wort, show-) 
ing almost simultaneous conversion of starch into maltose and the', 
latter into alcohol. I have not followed the line of enquiry into 
any pdssible symbiotic action of the Mucor species and Bacteria; 

Yol. 11, jKo. 4.] The Hindu Method of Munufactwring Spirit. 137 

which are always foimd together in Bdkharj in (»tkes, and in wort. 
Leaving that intricate question aside, we see that the entire pro- 
cess of fermenting rice for spirit is carried on with the help of a 
Mucor; the yegetatire stage heing acooantable for saochariflcation 
of starch, and the reprodnotive stage nndier the abnormal condi- 
tion of immersion in water for the subsequent conyersion of sugar 
into alcohol. The Chinese are also said to use a species of Muoot 
in fermenting rice for spirit. The Japanese are said to use an 
Aspergillus in the fermentation of rice for $akd. It seems l^t th# 
tluHBe Asiatic rice-eating people haye taken advantage of mould 
fungi for manufacture of rice spirit. 

(4) Yield of spirit. — According to Harmstadt, 100 lbs. of 
starch yield 85 lbs. of alcohol, or 7*8 gallons of Proof spirit. 
C' The Brewer," etc. J. A. Churchill.) Rice contains 78 per cent 
of starch. Therefore, 1 maund of 82 lbs. rice may be expected 
to yield 5 gallons of Proof spirit. 

We have seen that the average yield of Proof spirit from 
82 lbs. of rice at the Cuttack Central Distillery is about 4 gallons. 
The mu^imum is obtained in January when it may be as high as 
4*5 gallons, and the minimum in October when it may be as low a» 
^'66 gallons. The following table shows the average yield of Proof 
spirit, mean temperature, and mean humidity in the different 
months of the year at Cuttack : -- 

Ayerage of the 


last three 


Sfean humidity* 
















April .«. 
































December ... ... 




[The mean temperature and humidity are taken from Blanford's *' Oil- 
matesand Weather of India" (MaomUlan)]. 

The formation of cakes and wort takes place in thatched 
sheds open at one side. There is great range of air temperature 
at Cuttack, the mean highest being 110°F., and the mean lowest 
5PF. As the temperature of fermentation in cakes and in worts is 
not in any way regulated, it is absurd to expect the same yield in 
every month of the year. The yield, however, does not vary with 

188 Journal of the Anatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

the air temperature alone. It yaries also with the humidity of 
the air, as will be seen from the table. 

It will be seen that pretty low temperature and low humidity 
are fayourable for good outturn, while high percentage of mois- 
ture in the atmosphere is decidedly unfavourable. There is, how- 
ever, another potent factor which determines yield. The rice is 
subject to the attack of weevils, while it is spread out to cake. 
The loss in weight is not inconsiderable in the hot and moist 
months when the grains are most attacked. In winter weevils are 
generally fewer, and in windy days may be almost absent. The 
Toss in weight due to the ravages of weevils has not been estima- 
ted ; but judging from their number and the nature of attacked 
grains, it must be pronounced heavy. 

Besides the losses due to defective fermentation and ravages 
of weevils, a certain proportion of alcohol is always lost with the 
spent wash. The proportion varies within certain wide limits. 
Sometimes the distillers stop distillation at an early stage when 
only about -^th of the wort has been collected as distillate. I am 
aware that, if distillation be carried on to remove the last drop of 
alcohol contained in a wort, the spirit becomes very rich in fusel 
oil and unfit for human consumption. The fact, however, remains 
that a certain quantity of alcohol is wasted with the spent wash. 
I distilled small quantities of wort ripe for distillation and also 
quantities of spent wash, and found that 0*3 to 0'5 gallons of Proof 
spirit for every 82 lbs. of rice fermented are usually lost. Out of 
five samples examined I found, in one case, that the spent wash 
contained only a minute quantity of alcohol. Here are some of 
the results : — 

(1) Wort examined on the 12th day {3rd May 1904) and conei- 

deredfU for dtettUation. — A small quantity was distilled, 
and it showed 11 per cent. Proof spirit. The total 
volume of the wort formed from 82 lbs. of rice was 26| 
gallons. Hence it could yield, if all the alcohol were 
drawn off, 3*92 gallons Proof spirit. The actual quan- 
tity drawn at the distillery was 3*6 gallons Proof spirit. 
A rough chemical examination of the wash showea the 
presence of both sugar and starch in it. 

(2) Wort ready to he distilled at the distillery on lOtk May 

1904. — A small quantity distilled by me on the same 
day showed 16*6 per cent. Proof spirit, which meant 4*37 
gallons Proof spirit. The actual quantity drawn at the 
distillery was 3*92 gaUons Proof spirit. Loss 0*45 
gallons. The number of gallons of distillate collected 
at the distillery was only 5*4 out of 26 gallons of wort, 
i.e., nearly -^th). Chemical examination of the wash 
showed presence of starch and dextrin in solution, but 
no sugar. 

(3) Wart ripe for distillation. — Cakes and rice with water 

put in vat on 11th and 12th May 1904. A small 
quantity was distilled by me on 25th May 1904, and 

Vol. II, No, 4.] The Hindu Method of Manufacturing Spirit. 139 

showed 4'05 gallons Proof spirit. Tlie actual quantity 
collected at tlie distillery waa 5| gallons out of 26f 
gallons of wort and gave 3*81 gallons Proof spirit. 
Hence loss 0*24 gallons Proof spirit. 
(4) Spent wash from tlie distillery . — One hundred and sixty 
four lbs. of rice (2 maunds) gave 53 gallons of wash. 
Distilled at the distillery on 24th May 1904. Distillate 
6J gallons 5 U.P , and 6 gallons 47 U.P. Total distil- 
late 11^ gallons = 7,V P^^ ^^ ^^® wort. Actual yield 8*83 
gallons il^-oof spirit. For 82 lbs. of rice 4*415 gallons 
Proof spirit." A very satisfactory yield. A small 
quantity of the spent wash distilled by me gave only 
a minute quantity of alcohol. 

From results such as these, it appears that if the last trace of 
alcohol present in a wash were collected, the average yield from 
82 lbs. of rice fermented in the usual way would not exceed 4' 5 
gallons Proof spirit. 

There is, however, another factor that determines the total 
yield of alcohol. It is well known that acid fermentation of woii 
takes away a portion of available sugar from it and thereby 
causes some loss of alcohol. I have not had opportunities of com- 
paring the proportion of acid formed in different seasons of the 
year. Indeed, most of the experiments on which my conclusions 
are based, were carried out in the two hot months of April and May 
of this year (1904), when the maximum air temperature, varying 
between 105** — 108® F., was very favourable for acid fermentation. 
The following figures will, however, show the relation between the 
proportion of acid and alcohol in wort and spent wash. 

1. Wort. Vat charged on llth atid I2th May 1904. Wort ex- 

amined on 26th May 1904— 

(a) Acid (as acetic acid) ... ... 2-38470 

(&) A small quantity of the wort distilled, and the distil- 
late made up with water to original volume — 

Acid ... ... 0-037o 

(c) The woi-t could yield 4-05 gallons P. S. for 82 lbs. of 

2. Wort kept a month in a bottle after it had been pronounced ripe 

for distillation — 

Acid ... ... 2-68®/o 

3. Wort prepared on I6th May 1904. Examined on the ninth day 

{2bth May 1904) when it was not yet ripe — 

Acid ... ... l-647o 

4. Spent wash (referred to above) of a wort of which -^ were drawn, 

yielding 4*415 gallons P. S, on 24:th May -1904. 

(a) Examined on 25th May 1904 — 

Acid ... ... 2-327o 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

[April, 1906; 

Therefore in the original wort of 26 J gallons — 


... 1'8167» 

(h) The spent wash distilled and the 
with water to original^ volume— - 

distillate made up 
... 00287o 

Spirit diHilled from wort : age seventh day, 
loith water to the volums of wort — 

Distillate made up 

(a) Proof spirit 
(h) Acid ... 

,.. 8-757o 
... 0'012^U 


6. Wort ripe for distillation. Distilled and the distillate m/ide up 

with water to the volume of wort — 

(o) Proof spirit ... ... ... 11% 

(6) Acid ... ... ... ... 0O24T^ 

7. Wort similar to above. In the distillate — 

(a) Proof spirit ... ... ... 16 57^ 

(h) Acid .., ... ... ... 0'0247* 

8. Spent wash from wort 26| galUmSy of which 5| gallons htxd been' 

drawn away containing 3*87 gallons P.S, Spent wash examf^ 
ined on 4dh June 1904— 

(a) Acid ... ... ... .., 2-96^/o 

(6) Sngar (as dextrorse) ... ... 1*257^ 

(c) Acid in wort, abont ... ... 2-347o 

9. SpefU wash from wort which had yielded 4 gallons P,S. Ss^- 

amined two days after — 

(a) Acid ... ... ... ... 3-9°;, 

(6) Acid in the wort ... ... ... 3*17© 

10. Spent wash from wort which had yielded 3*7 gallons P,S. Ex- 

amined one day after — 

(a) Acid ... ... ... ... 4-8173 

(6) Acid in the wort ... ... ... 3-87o 

From these results it appears (1) that wort fi.t for distillation 
contains from If to 3-47o of acid (as acetic acid) ; (2) that the 
acid fermentation takes place more rapidly during the easier • 
stages of alcoholic fermentation ; (3) that the production of acid 
is rather slow after it has reached a certain limit ; (4) that only 
about 0'0247o of ^^^ acid of the wort is drawn away with the 
spirit even when distillation has been carried on to collect the last > 
portion of alcohol ; (5) and that spent wash, if distilled, would 
give only about 0O3 or p-047o of acid to the distillate. 

The third inference is of great importance to the distillers, wha 
know from experience that yield of spirit is not perceptibly dim* 
inished if distillation of wort is put off for a few days. 

Now, assuming that a ripe wort contains l|7o o^ ^^ (acetic), 
and that the production of the acid could be prevented and the 

Vol. II, No. 4] The Hindu Method of Manufacturing Spirit. 141 

imgar used up could be tamed into alcohol, we see that this per- 
oentage of acid means a loss of about 0'78 gallons of Proof spirit. 
In this calc1^ation, 1 lb. of acetic acid has been taken equivalent U> 
G'76 lb. of alcohol or 0*17 gallons of P. 8. One per cent, of acetic 
acid in 26| gallons of wort would therefore roughly mean 2*85 lbs. 
of acid, or 0*5 gallons of P.S. This g^yes us an idea of the pro- 
bable loss of alcohol in wort. Of course the formation of acid 
does not necessarily mean actual transformation of alcohol into 
acid. For convenience of estimation the total acid is regarded a» 
acetic acid. We know that there are various kinds of acids formed, 
some of which are derived directly from rice, that is, its starch 
and sugar. We see, however, that if the loss as acid could be pre- 
vented, and the alcohol collected from spent wash, the average 
yield of alcohol per 82 lbs. of rice would be about 5 gallons of 


ly . Suggestions. — The study of rice fermentation enables us 
to suggest a few possible improvements in the method which is 
followed rather blindly, and to guard against defective fermenta- 
tion which is not an unusual occurrence. 

(i) We have seen how damp air affects caking by vigorous 
growth of Mucor and of other undesirable organisms drawing 
m>m rice their food but giving no return. It appears that the 
diastase enzyme is formed in cakes when the vegetative growth of 
the fungus is retarded owing to insufficient moisture. In my 
experiments I found that vigorous growth did not yield satis&c- 
tory result* In plenty of an organic substance, such as rice, in 
presence of water, Mucor induces putrefactive changes. The 
object of cakii^ being understood, the spores of Mucor are to be 
given just sufficient moisture to germinate in the rice which is 
then to dry up slowly in order that the hyphe may more and mor» 
penetrate into the grains in search of moisture. An attempt 
should therefore be made in wet months to keep the air of caking 
sheds pretty dry by artificial heating. 

(ii) So again rapid drying of cakes in dry months is unde- 
sirable. This mav be checked {1) by sprinkling water on ric» 
when it is first laid out to cake ; and (2) by placing large tubs of 
water in caking sheds. Peiiiaps a wet and dry bulb thermometer, 
hung up in the sheds, will prove a useful adjunct. 

(iii) Better outturn of spirit in cold months is due to several . 
causes^ the chief of which are low temperature retarding acid 
fermentation, and comparative absence of weevils. Practically 
nothing but thorough cieanlineBS of vats and sheds can prevent 
putrefaction. The vats should be more carefully washed and. 
ruminated than they are done at present. The cakmg sheds can- 
not be kept closed, as absence of plenty of light prevents rapid 
maturing and carbonization of M!ucor so essential in successful 
caking. To check putrefactive chan^ of wort, a more effectual 
method will perhaps be the intix)dnction of mashing as practised 
in Europe. 

(iv) Thorough cleanliness is also a remedy a^inst attack of 
weevils. The difficulty of getting rid of the pest is enhanced by 

142 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906 

the fact that caking sheds are never free from rice. Perhaps the 
best remedy is to have two or three caking sheds at considerable 
-distances from one another and to use them alternately. 

(v) The proportion of water added is 20 gallons for every 
82 lbs. of malted and nnmalted rice, i.e., about 2^ parts of water to 
one of rice. The researches of Dr. Charles Graham show how tem- 
perature, relative proportion of water to malt, of malted and un- 
malted grain, and time of mashing influence the composition of 
resulting wort. The results obtained by him may not be true 
when MtLCor ferment is used, especially when there is possibility 
of symbiotic action between Mucor and Bacteria. Trials with a 
view to find the best proportion of water to rice can be made only 
.^t a distillery. 

(vi) Spent wash is at present thrown away and sometimes 
left in tanks for use as food for cattle. If there is much dextrin 
(as when the yield of spirit has been low), the spent wash may be 
•diluted with water and yeast or wort added to recover a fresh 
portion of alcohol for use, say, in making varnish. Or acetous 
fermentation may be set up for preparation of acetates such as of 
iron or copper. 

(vii) The primitive form of fireplace in distilleries occasions 
much waste of fuel. The simple expedient of a grating will consi- 
derably prevent this waste, and the waste heat of one fireplace 
may be utilised to boil wort of an adjacent still producing richer 
spirit at less cost, or to redistill weak spirit to make it strong. 

(viii) As Bdkhar is the ferment used, it is necessary to 
ascertain its quality before use. Sometimes caking is defective on 
^Mjcount of bad Bdkhar, When such is the case the distillers throw 
^ quantity of Bdkhar into their fermenting vats. This introduces 
Mucor spores and remedies the evil to a certain extent, but the 
•outturn of spirit is always below the normal, since bad malting 
cannot be cured in this way. From nppearance experienced distil- 
lers judge of the quality of Bdkhar, but sometimes they make mis- 
takes which cannot be found out until too late. It is, therefoi^e, 
desirable to test the fermenting quality of every fresh batch of 
Bdkhar pills. For this bits of the Bdkhar may be powdered and 
mixed with small quantities of boiled rice. From growth of the 
fungus the quality of the Bdkhar may be easily judged. Or the 
powdered Bdkhar may be kept moist with water for a day or two 
and then examined under a microscope. There will be enough 
Mucor spores and hyphse seen from which the proportion of the 
ferment spores may be judged. For this a low power microscope 
will suffice. 

While concluding this paper I have great pleasure in acknow- 
ledging my indebtedness to Mr. C. C. Mitra, Excise Deputy Collec- 
tor, and to Mr. A. N. Sen, Superintendent of the Centred Distillery, 
-Cuttack, for kindly supplying me with materials used in ferment- 
ing rice, and with much valuable information. ' 

1 MoBt of the experiments desoribed in this paper were carried oat in 
1904. A few relating to Mucor-TorulsB were done last yenr. 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Silver Dioxide and Silver Feroxynitrate. 14J5 


20. Silver Dioxide aiid Silver Peioxynitrate — By E. R. Watson^ 
B.A. (Cantab.), B.Sc. (Lond.), Offg. Professor of Chemistry, Civil 
Engineering CollegCy Sihpur, 

In 1814 UiUer^Qehlens Neues Joum. 3, p. 561, 1804) obtained 
a black crystalline substance at the anode dnring the electrolysis of 
an aqueous solution of silver nitrate, which he i^garded as silver 
dioxide, Agg O^ Further investigation of this product, however, 
showed that it certainly was not pure silver dioxide. It was found 
always to contain nitrogen. By some investigators it was 
regarded as silver dioxide which mechanically but pei-sistently 
retained silver nitrate {Wiedemanns Elektncitdt^ II, p. 509). 
However, the majority of chemists who examined this product 
came to the conclusion that it was a definite molecular compound 
of silver nitrate and some peroxide of silver, and yet the results 
obtained were singularly inconsistent, and each investigation 
resulted in the proposal of a new formula for this supposed mole- 
cular compouncL By Fischer and by Gmelin and Mahla it was 
regarded as a molecular compound of silver dioxide and silver 
nitrate with water of crystallisation, but they disagreed as to the 

4AgO.AgNO».HjjO (Fischer in Jbttm Prakt, Chem.,33, p. 237). 

lOAgO.2AglfO3.HjO (Gmelin and Mahla in Liebigs Ann. 
Chem., Leipzig 83, 289). 

Berthelot considered the substance as a molecular compound 
of silver nitrate and a peroxide AggOg, and assigned the formula 
4Ag2O8.2AgNO3.H2O (Dammer, Anorganiscke Chemie, II. 2, 771). 

Sulo gave to the substance the empirical formula Ag7 NOj„ 
and regarded it as a curious molecular compound of silver nitrate, 
silver dioxide and oxygen AgNOg.SAgjOg.Og (Zeitsckr. Anorg. 
Chem. 12, 89). 

Mulder and Haringa (i?ec. Trav. Chim., Leiden, 16, 1., p. 236) 
agreed with Sulc as to the empirical formula Ag,NO,i ^^* 
preferred to regard the substance as a molecular compound of 
silver dioxide and silver pemitrate, the silver salt of a hypothe- 
cal acid, pemitric acid, and they wrote the formula as 

Tanatar also agreed (Zeitschr. Anorg. Chem,, 28, p. 331) that 
the formula Agi; NO], expressed empirically the composition of the 
compound, but gave the constitutional formula AgN03.2AgoOx. 

An examination of these records left the mind in consiaerable 
doubt as to the nature of this electrolytic product. In the first 
place, even the empirical formulae proposed exhibit very consider- 
able discrepancies, which suggested that probably the difEerent 
investigators had not analysed the same substance and that this 
anodic product might be, not a simple substance, but a mixture 
and that the proportions of the various components of the mixture 
were altered by slight changes in the conditions under which the 
electrolysis was brought about. 

It must be remembered that this electrolysis of silver nitrate 

144 Journal of the Asiatic S*»ciety of Bengal. [April, 1906» 

fiolntion is the only method by which a polyvalent silver compound 
<;an be obtained in any quantity. Other methods have been 
described for the preparation of silver dioxide. Wohler states 
that he obtained silver dioxide as a black crust on a silver anode 
during the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid {Ltebiys Ann. (Jhem.^ 
Leipzig, 146^ p. 263), but the method gives an exceedingly poor 
yield, and it is difficult to obtain sufficient even for analysis. 
Schiel has described the preparation of silver dioxide by the 
Action of ozone on normal silver oxide, AggO (Liehigs Ann, Chefn,y 
Leipgig, 132,^.322); and Berthelot has given reasons for the 
supposition that an oxide, Ag^O^, is formed on the addition of 
alkali to a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and silver nitrate, but has 
never isolated the compound. But the descHptions of silver 
peroxide which are to be found in the text- books are all deiived 
from the investigation of the product formed at the anode during 
the electrolysis of silver nitrate solution (Fischer, loc. dt. ; Gmelin 
And Mahla, loc, dt. ; Wallquist in Jonm. Prah-t. Chem , 31, p. 179; 
Grotthus, in Gilbert Ann. 61, 1819, p. 60 ; Bottger ZeiUchrift fur 
Chemie 1870, 82 and Berichte 1873, 1396). The whole question 
of the valency exhibited by silver in its per-oompounds appeared, 
therefore, subject to doubt. It appeared probable that the 
dioxide of silver, Aga02, had never been obtained, and a whole 
series of fottnulae, viz., AggOg, Ag^O^, Ag^Og, AgjoO^, Ag,20,i, 
AgioOjs *^^ ^E\fin ^^ equal claim to represent the valency of 
silver in its per-compounds. 

Black powders are obtained at the anode during the electro- 
lysis of aqueous solutions of other soluble silver salts, and these 
products seem, in many respects, similar to that obtained from 
silver nitrate. They have been investigated by Mulder and Tanataz*, 
and, apparently, to these substances also, it is necessary to assign 
quite complicated formulae. 

For the product of the electrolysis of aqueous silver sulphate 
solution Mulder {Bee. Trav. Chim., Leiden, 18, p. 91 ; 19. p. 116) 
proposed the formula 2Ag^SO4.5AgjjO2.60 which must be con- 
sidered as deriving from the oxide Agi^O., ; the electrolysis of 
silver acetate solution gave a product to which he assigned the 
indefinite formulae (AggOj). y (AgO.OC.CHg ) zO. 

Tanatar obtained from silver fluoride a substance to which he 
assigned the formula ^AgjO^.^AgF. deriving from the oxide 
Ag8o^86- ^^ washing with hot water this was decomposed and 
there remained a compound 2Ags04.AgF. 

From these considerations I was led to examine in tbe first 
place the composition of the product obtained during the electro- 
lysis of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate in order to see whether 
the product may be regarded as a definite chemical compound, or 
US a mixture in which the proportion of the constituents varied 
with the conditions under which the electrolysis was effected. I 
was at first unable to obtain concordant i^esults, but soon found 
that this was due to a defect in the method of handling the 
product. This will not stand washing with warm water or contact 
with filter^paper or drying in the steam^oven, but if it be washed 

•Vol. LI, No, 4.] Stiver Dioxide and Silver Peroxy nitrate, 145 

by decantation with oold water, and be dried at the ordinary 
temperature in a desiccator oyer soda-lime, then perfectly consistent 
results may be obtained. This was already obserred by Sole 
(loc. oit,), I repeated the work of Siilc, reproducing all the con- 
ditions as perfectly as possible, and was able to obtain a product 
in all respects similar to that described by him. I then yarded 
the conditions of electrolysis, viz,, the current-concentration and 
density and also the solution-strength, and examined a number of 
products obtained under different conditions. I found that in all 
cases the product was the same and identical with the compound 
described by Sulc and which has been termed by Tanatar * silyer 
peroxynitrate.* This disposed of the possibility that the product 
was a mixture and in conjunction with the uniform crystalline 
appearance of the substance satisfied me that there was produced 
a definite chemical compound of which the composition could be 
satisfactorily represented by the empirical formula Ag7N0j|. 
The results of the earlier investigators Fischer, Mahla and 
Berthelot, and the divergence of their analytical results from those 
of S^lc, Mulder and Tanatar must be explained by the supposition 
that their method of handling the product before analysis had 
caused its partial decomposition. 

Silver peroxynitrate, when heated to a temperature of about 
150°, suddenly evolves oxygen, and there is left about 91*5 per cent, 
of a black residue. Sulc has investigated this reaction carefully 
and has shown that it may be satisfactorily represented by the 
equation — 

2Ag7NOu = 2AgN08 + ^AggO + SOg. 

On the further application of heat, a certain amount of brown 
fumes are evolved and there is left pure white silver — 

2AgN08 = 2Ag -h 2N0a + Oa 
6Agfi m 12Ag + 30^ 

This behaviour, when heated, is of importance when consider- 
ing the structural formula to be assigned to the compound. It 
shows that in some way one atom of silver is differentiated from 
the other six. This is shown both in the formula suggested by 
Sulc, VIZ. — 

(a) AgNOj. SAgA^Og 

and in that ascribed to the compound by Mulder and Haringa, 

(6) AgNO,. SAgfi, 

To both of these f ormulsB, however, there seem oonsiderable 

That of SAlo rests also on the behaviour of the substance when 
treated with aqueous ammonia {Z. Anorg. Ohem., 24, 305), in which 
reagent it goes into solution with the evolution of nitrogen, but 
bol£ the analytical data and the argument based thereon seem 
open to objection. He supposes that it is only the Ag^ 0^ part of 

146 Jofu^nal of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

the molecule which i^eacts with the ammonia acoording to the 
equation — 

SAggOg + 2NH3 = SAggO + 3H2O + N^. 

In the fii*st place this assumes a knowledge of the behaviour 
of silver dioxide with ammonia — a knowledge which SMc had not 
derived from experience as he had found himself unable to pre- 
pai*e this dioxide of silver ; and in the second place it is difficult to 
imagine what would be, on this hypothesis, the composition of the 
compound or compounds which remain in solution in the ammo- 
nia. I have prepared the pure dioxide of silver and I find that it 
does not react with ammonia according to the equation — 

SAggO^ + 2NH8 m SAggO + 3HgO + Nj. 


I have not been able to confirm Sale's analytical figures for 
the reaction of the perox3mitrate with ammonia, and until the 
nature of the other products of the reaction has been examined, it 
appears hazardous to draw any conclusions from this reaction. 

According to the formula (6) suggested by Mulder and 
Haringa, the substance must be regarded as a basic salt, either of 
Ag^O. GAgi^Og and the hypothetical acid HNO5 ^ which nitro- 
gen is nonovalent, or of ^gfi^ and the hypothetical acid HgNOg 
in which nitrogen is octovalent, neither of which appear d priori 

Other formulae which might be suggested to elucidate the 
constitution of this compound are — 

(c) Ag, (NO,) O,. 

This is, to a cei'tain extent, identical with that suggested by 

id) Ag7 (NOJ 0,. 

According to this formula the substance is regarded as a 
basic salt of the hypothetical acid HNO^ in which nitrogen is 

It is important to notice what valency must be assigned to 
silver according to these different views. 

(a) AgNO3.3Ag2O2.O2; derives from the oxide AgjO, 3Ag 2O2, 
O2 or Ag,^ O17. 

(h) AgN05,3Ag20s» deriving from the oxide Ag20, GAggOg 
= Agi^0,8 or from Ag20g. 

(c) Similar in this respect to (a) deriving from Agi^Oj^. 

(d) Deriving from the oxide Ag^Oig. 

It must be regarded as an d priori objection that it is neces- 
sary to assume that the compound derives from such complicated 
oxides as Ag]^0)Q or Agi^Oig or A^^Jd^^, This a priori objection 
would not apply to the formula yAggOgjNgO^ = Agi^NgOgj, 
which is somewhat similar to the formula Ag.jNO|i hitherto 
assigned. However, an examination of the analytical results, . both 

Vol. II, No. 4.] Silver Dioxide and Silver Peroxynitrafe, 147 

of Stdc and of my own work, leave no doubt that the sxibstance 
mnst be represented as Ag7N0|i and not hj the more tempting 
formnla Ag^^ffl^i. 

I have examined the behaviour of the electrolytic product 
when treated with water. Even at the ordinary temperature of 
the laboratory (27® to 32® ) a reaction slowly occurs with the 
evolution of oxygen. This reaction occurs more readilv on boiling, 
and is complete in less than an hour. Oxygen is evolved, part of 
the silver goes into solution and there remains a black substance 
which I have examined carefully and which is pure nlver dioxide 
AggOg probably obtained pure for the first time. The course of 
the r^kction is represented by the equation — 

Ag^NOa = AgNOj + SAggOg + 0^. 

The dioxide of silver. — The insoluble substance which remains 
after long boiling with water of the peroxynitrate is undoubtedly 
pure silver dioxide, Ag20o. This is shown by — 

(1) the percentage of silver which it contains ; 

(2) the fact that on heating, oxygen only is evolved and that 
in amount required by the dioxide, Ag202, and there remains 
behind pure silver ; 

(3) the fact that on treatment with warm dilute sulphuric 
acid, the substance dissolves with the evolution of the amount of 
oxygen required by the equation — 

SAgjOjj + 2H2SO^ « 2Ag2S04 -f 2H2O + Og. 

It is a greyish-black powder of Sp. G. 7*44 approx. which majr 
be heated to iO(y C without change. At a higher temperature it 
evolves oxygen and leaves silver. 

The behaviour of the dioxide with ammonia is most curious. 
It dissolves in this reagent with the evolution of nitrogen, but in 
amount required by the equation — 

eAgjOjj + 2NH8 = Njj 4- 3Hj,0 + 3Ag408 

and not, as would have been expected, in accordance with the 

SAggOjj + 2NH8 *» Ng + 3H2O + SAgfi. 

It would be desirable to investigate the nature of the product 
which goes into solution in the ammonia. 

Soluhle silver per-saUs, — Both the peroxynitrate and the dioxide 
of silver, also the peroxysulphate produced by the electrolysis of 
aqueous silver sulphate solution^ dissolve in cold, strong nitnc acid 
wiili the production of a most intense brown*oolored solution, and 
in cold, strong sulphuric acid with an olive-ffreen color. No doubt 
these colors are due to the formation of silver per-salts. There 
seems no doubt that the same salts are formed from the peroxy- 
xutrate as from the dioxide, as the oolors and absorption spectra 
of thft solutions obtained from the two substances are identical. 

148 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

^_. The89 colored salts gradually deoompose at the ordmarj 
temperature and more quickly^ on heating or on adding water, and 
there remain in solution just the ordinary colorless silver salts, m., 
silver nitrate* from the nitric acid solution and silver sulphate 
from the sulphuric acid solution. Up to the present, attempts to 
isolate these per-salts have been uniformly unsuooessful. During 
the decomposition of these solutions a certain amount of gas 
evolution occurs. This gas is no doubt oxysen. There is not 
formed any hydrogen peroxide during the decomposition* An 
attempt was made to study the rate of decomposition of the nitric 
acid solution by measuring the depth of color of the solution from 
time to time. It appears that the rate of decomposition of the 
colored compound is proportional to the concentration of this 
substance in the ftolutioli. Bxpressed in symbols 

dt = '^^ 

where x =» concentration of the colored compound in the solution 

t s time 
k = a constant 
or t = A lg«x 4- B 

where A and B are constants. 

These observations are not in agreement with the supposition 
that the colored compound has the simple formula Ag(NO^\ 
which . would naturally be first assigned to it. The f ormnla 
[AgCNOg)^]^ or Ag^CNOj)^ satisfies the requirement that the 
substance shall decompose according to a unimolecular reaction 
viz. — 

Ag4(N08)g + iUfi = 4AgN0| + 4HN08 + Og. 

This requirement is also satisfied by Ag^CNOJg decomposing 
thus: — 

Aga(N0,)8 = 2AgN08 + 0,. 

The question of the constitution of the soluble colored com* 

B, hi 

pound is, however, still under investigation. 


Preparation of Silver peraotyniirate by ehc^lynn of aqueous 
silver nitrate solution, — In Expt. I, the silver nitrate solution was 
contained in a platinum dish surrounded by ice and water. The 
dish served as the kathode, whilst the anode was a square piece of 
platinum f oiL In Expts. II, III and lY when stronffer ourrenta 
were employed, the perozynitrate at the anode and the silver at 
the kathode formed m needles which grew to a great length, a&d it 
was necessary to use a porous cell to separate the products of th# 
two ^trodes. Th« silver nii^^ate was contained in a smaQ b^i^er 

Vol. li, No. 4.] 

Stiver Dioxide and Stiver Peroxyniirate. 149 

surrounded b^ ice and water, and the electrodes were rectangular 
pieces of platinum foil 4cni. x 2cm. the kathode being snrromided 
by a porons cell. In E x p t. I, the current was continued for two 
hours. In Expts. II, ULand IV only for half an hour. In all 
cases the anodic product easily separated from the platinum foil, 
and was washed with cold distilled water by decantation and dried 
at the ordinary temperature over soda-lime in a desiccator. 

The various samples of silver peroxynitrate were all analysed 
in the same way. A weighed quantity was heated veiry gently in 
a small round flask until the first stonny gas evolution occurred 
The opei-ation was performed in a flask because in a crucible it was 
diffldnit to avoid loss when the sudden gas-evolution occurred. 
The black residue was, after weighing, transfeiTed as completely 
as possible to a porcelain crucible and gently heated until it 
turned completely white, t.e., was reduced completely to metallic 

Sample /.— ^,3133 gms. gave 0*2861, gms. i^sidue after gentle 

ignition, and 0*2499 gms. silver. 
Saviple 17.— 0*4772 gms. gave 0*4368 gms. i^esidue after gentle 

ignition, and 0*3801 gms. silver. 
Sarnie II L — 0*4365 gnis. gave 0*3989 gms. residue after gentle 

ignition and 0*3472 gms. silver. 
Sample IF. — (a) 0*4915 gms. gave 0*4507 gms. residue aft^i' 

gentle ignition, and 0'3931 gms. silver. 
(6) 0*^64 gms. gave 0*4009 gms. residue after gentle igni* 

tion, and 0*3497 gms, silver. 




strength of 






amperes per 

Per oent. 
residae after 
gentle igni- 

Per oent. 



- Ill 









(a) 01.70 

(b) 91.88 

79 66 


lireqaires 01.66 


. These figures show clearly that the composition of the anodic 
product is independent of the concentration of the silver nitrate 
solution and of the strength and density of the current. The 

froduct was, in all cases, uniformly crystalline in octahedra : in 
the crystals were separate' or in small irregular aggregates. In 
11, III and ly,. the octahedral crystals were regpilarly arranged 
into needle-like aggregates. It therefore appears that the product 
is not a mixture but a definite chemical compound. 

l50 Journal of the Anqitic Society of Bengal. [April, 1906. 

Action of boiling water on silver peroxynitrate. — For this 
and subsequent experiments, the peroxynitrate was prepared 
as in Expt. Ill in the previous pai-agraph. With one cell, 
about 18 gms. could be prepared in one opei'ation of 30 minutes. 
A weighed quantity of the substance was boiled with excess of 
distilled water in a beaker for 1| hours, the water being replaced 
as required. The insoluble portion was filtered off, washed with 
hot distiUed water, dissolved in hot dilute nitric acid, and the 
silver in this solution estimated hj precipitating and weighing 
as silver chloride. 

The silver in the filtrate was also estimated in the same wav. 

0*6557 gms. gave 0*5968 gms. silver chloride from the insoluble 
residue : insol. Ag = 68*60 per cent. 

0'6842 gms. gave 0*6186 gms. silver chlonde from the insoluble 
residue ; and 01015 gms. silver chloride from the filtrate ; insol. 
Ag = 68*05 per cent. ; soluble Ag = 11*17 per cent. 

Ag7N0ii requires insol. Ag = 6849 ; soluble Ag = 11*42 per 

In another experiment, the gas evolved during the reaction 
was collected and was recognised as pure oxygen from the fact 
that it was completely absorbed by alkaline pyrogallol solution. 
For collecting the gas the following apparatus was employed : — 
A flask of about 300 cc. capacity was fitted with a two-holed cork. 
In the one hole was fitted a delivery-tube with a stop-cock, and 
in the other a dropping-funnel with a short, wide delivering-tube. 
The flask was half -filled with distilled water, and boiled vigorously 
to dispel all air from the flask and water. The flame was then 
withdrawn from the flask and at the same tintie the stop-oock on 
the delivery tube was closed. A quantity of the peroxynitrate was 
then carefully introduced into the flask through the dropping- 
funnel, having been first carefully covered with water to prevent 
the introduction of air into the flask at the same time. The flask 
was then again heated, the stop-oock on the delivery-tube opened, 
and the oxygen, liberated from the reaction, was collected over 

The diooside of silver, Ag^O^. — The insoluble residue, which re- 
mains after prolonged boiung of the peroxynitrate with water, 
is pure silver dioxide, Ag202. It is washed by decantation with 
hot water and may be dried either at the ordinary temperature 
over soda^lime in a desiccator or in the steam-oven. It is a dull or 
greyish-black powder. Two determinations of the specific gravity, 
witn about 2 gms. of the substance in a specific gravity bottle, 
gave 7*46 and 7*42 respectively. The value may therefore be 
taken a« approximately 7*44. On heating, the substance quietly 
decomposes with the evolution of oxygen, and metallic silver re- 
mains, Agj^Og s 2Ag + Og. 

The pei*centage of silver in the compound has been deter- 
mined by heating a weighed quantity and weighing the residual 

SuTtwle Z— 0*7447 gms. gave 0*6475 gms. residual Ag: Ag =» 
8o'94 per cent. 

VoL n, No. 4.] SUver Dumde and Silver PeroxywUraie. ISl 


Sample IT.— 0*3612 gms. gave 0*3138 gms. residnal Ag: Ag « 
86- 88 per cent. 

The percentage of silver in the second sample was also deter- 
mined by dissolving in warm dilate nitric acid, precipitating and 
weighing as silver chloride. 

0-3663 gms. gave 0*4232 gms. Ag Gl : Ag« 86*94 per cent. 

Ag202 requires Ag=8711 per cent. 

The total oxygen in the compound has been determined by heat- 
ing in a combustion tube in a current of carbon dioxide, and collect- 
ing the liberated gas over strong aqueous potash. This gas was 
recognised as oxygen from its complete absorption by alkaline 
pyrogallol solution. 


3-0842 gms. gave 8*8 cc oxygen at 27^ C and 757*5 mm. pres- 
sure ; St 13*07 per cent. 

AggOjt requires s 12*89 per cent. 

2%e solution of stiver dioxide in hot dilute sulphuric acid. — The 
dioxide dissolves readily with the liberation of oxygen in accord- 
ance with the equation — 

2Ag80jj + 2HgS04 = 2AgjjS04 -I- 2Tlfi + Og. 

The estimation of the oxygen evolved was carried out in the 
apparatus previously used for examining the gas evolved on boil- 
ing the silver peroxynitrate with water. The flask was half-filled 
with dilute sulphuric acid and boiled until all air was expelled. 
The flame was then withdrawn from the flask, the stop-cock on 
the delivexy-tube closed, and a weighed quantity of the dioxide 
introduced through the dropping-funnel. The flask was then again 
heated, thedeliveiy-tube stop-cock reopened, and the oxygen collect- 
ed over water. That this gas was oxygen was shown by its 
solution in alkaline pyrogaUol solution. 

0*2745 gms. gave 13*7 cc oxygen at 26'' G and 757*5 mm. pres- 
sure ; = 6*30 per cent. 

1 atom of oxygen in Ag^Og » 6-45 per cent. 

The solution of silver dioxide in aqueous ammonia solution, — 
The oxide dissolves with the formation of a colorless solution and 
the liberation of nitrogen. The nitrogen liberated in this reaction 
was estimated in an apparatus simihur in principle to that de- 
scribed by SMc {Zeitschr. Anorg, Ohem,, 24, p. 305). The substance 
was placed in a flask fitted with deli very- tube and a dropping-funnel, 
with delivering-tube reaching to the bottom of the flask and ending 
in a capillary. The whole apparatus was completey filled wit£ 
water and then strong aqueous ammonia was gradually introduced 
from the dropping-funnel. The nitrogen liberated was collected 
over water. At the end of the reaction, any gas remaining in the 
apparatus was driven out by water. The solution was effected 
at the ordinary temperature. 

0-4158 gms. gave 73 cc niti-ogen at 28** G and 762*5 mm. pres- 
49ure; N=l*92 per cent. 

0*4255 gms. gave 7*4 cc nitrogen at 28** C and 762*5 mm, pres- 
sure \ No* 1'91 per cent. 

152 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [April, 1906. 

G'5770 gms. gave lO'l cc nitrogen at 28® C and 762*5 mm. 
pressure ; N = 1*92 per cent. 

These figures indicate that only oub quarter of the oxjeen 
contained in the dioxide reacts with ammonia with the formution 
of water and nitrogen, according to the equation — 

eAggOg + 2NH8 = 3Ag408 + 3HjO + K 

and then the Ag^Og reacts with a further quantity of ammo- 
nia without the liberation of any gas toproduce a soluble com- 
pound, perhaps of the form m Ag^Og, n NHg. 

According to this equation, AggO^ would cause the evolution 
of 1'88 per cent, of niti'ogen. 

It is usually stated in the text-books that silver dioxide reacts 
with ammonia according to the equation — 

SAggOg + 2NH8 = SAggO -I- SH^O -f N^. 

This, apparently, is based on the investigation of silver peroxy- 
nitrate by Bottger (loc. cit.). 

It would be desirable to investigate the soluble compound 
formed in this reaction, as it appears that in this compound also 
the silver must exhibit a valency greater than unity. 

The solution of silver dioxide in strong nitric add, — ^The dioxide 
dissolves in cold, strong nitric acid with the production of an in- 
tense brown-colored solution. 

The absorption spectrum shows continuous absorption in all 

?)art8 of the spectrum except in the red of smaller wave- 
en^h, the yellow and the green. The color of the solution is 
colder than that of iodine in alcohol or of ammonio-citrate of iron 
in water, and appears to be best matched by an oxidised solution 
of alkaline pyrogallol. 0-1 gm. of the oxide gave a very dark, almost 
opaque color to 10 cc of strong nitric aciA The substance could 
not be precipitated by either alcohol or ether, as both these sub* 
stances immediately destroyed the color of the solution. With 
dilute nitric acid the color of the solution obtained was never very 
intense, showing that only a ti^ace of the colored compound was 
formed under these conditions. The color of the solution gra- 
dually fades on standing even at the ordinary temperature (27®- 
30® C), and much more quickly on wanning. The color disappeared 
at leaert 3,000 to 4,000 times more rapidly at 100® C than at the 
ordinary temperature. On the first addition of concentrated nitric 
acid to the peroxide, there is considerable gas evolution, and during 
the fading of the color of the solution there is a very slight evo- 
lution of gas. The fading of the color was accelerated when the 
free surface of the solution was increased. For this reason the 
attempt to isolate the substance by rapidly evapoi*ating the solu- 
tion over soda-lime in a vacuum at the ordinaiy temperature was 

The rate at which the colored compound decomposed waS 
Itudied by keeping a test-tube containing the, solution surrounded 
by a beaker of water to keep the temperature steady, and noting 

Vol. II, Tfo. 4.1 Stiver Diforidf ami Sther Perorynih-ate. 158 


th« time when the color appeared equal in intensity to that of one 
of a aeries of standard solntions of ammonio-citrate of iron con- 
tained in similar test- tabes. There was some difficolty in that the 
anunonio-citrate of iron solutions had a wanner brown color than 
that of the solution nnder investigation. One set of observations 
is given in tlie following table : — 


of ftmnoDio- 


oitrate o f 


iron mfttoh 


















Temp. 3P C. 
Strength of nitric acid Sp. G. 1'357 at 85® F. 

'•' 1 






yarUimic Cum 



1 1 t 
















154 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal, [April, 1906. 

The curve (diagram) is plotted from this table, and for com- 
parison there is also drawn the logarithmic curve 


A and B having been chosen so that the two curves shall be 
coincident at t=l'5 mins. and t = 12'5 mins. respectively. 
The agreement is fairly good. The curves 

t-A + B. 



all give much worse agreement. 

This result is not in accordance with the simple supposition 
that the colored compound is Ag(NO^)f^ but cotud be explained 
by the supposition that this salt has the formula Ag^(NOg)^ and 
decomposes according to the equation — 

Ag^CNOj), + 2H80 = 4AgNOs + 4HN0g + Og. 

The formula Agi(S0^)2 is also possible — 
AgaCNO^), = 2AgN0g + O^. 

A similar brown-colored solution was also obtained by the 
addition of strong nitric acid to the peroxynitrate; also from the 
peroxysulphate obtained bv the electrolysis of aqueous silver sul- 
phate solution, and from the black crust obtained in small quantity 
by the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid solution with silver 
anode (Wohler. Liehig's Ann. OW., 146, 263). In cold, strong 
sulphuric acid, these substances dissolve to produce an olive-green 
solution. The absorption specij^m of this solution is very similar 
to that of the nitric acid solution, except that a little more of the 
red end of the spectrum is absorbed and less of the green. 

VoL II, No. 4.] Notes on the Sikandar Natna of Nixdmi. 155 


21. Note on the SIKANDAB KAMA of NJZImL By Libut.- 
CoL. D. C, Phillott, Steretary to the Board of Examines, 

In the story * of Alexander going on a secret embassy to 
Naushaba occur the lines : — 


a> A— Jb Ijla. r;»A-iiU) , \ jyB Jim * I*— ij*l ^jj^ 

It seems to have escaped translators that by the expression, 
" slippery cnp " the anther refers to the pit of the ant lion.* (One 
ant lion with three saliva glands of the sheep given daily to a fal- 
con in a fold of meat, is supposed by Turkish falconers to be a 
remedy for slow moulting.) 

I am indebted to Dr. Annandale, Deputy Superintendent of 
the JudiRn Museom, for the following note on the ant lion : — 

" Ant lions are the young of a group of insects (Mymeleonidee), 
" which somewhat resemble dragon flies in appearance but hare con- 
" spicuons, clubbed antennae and relatiyely larger and more dia- 
'' phanous wings. They are common in all sandy localities in the 
" East, and a considerable number of specimens of two kinds were 
*' brought from SUtOn by the collector attached to the recent arbitra- 
'' tion commission. The pitfall of the ant lion is made in the foUow- 
** ing way : Moving backwards, as it always does, the insect digs a 
" circular fnrrow with its body. The sand thus excavated is pl^oed 
" on the large flattened head by means of the legs and is jerked out 
*' of the way. Other concentric fnrrows are then made in a similar 
" manner, within the first, until a conical depression has been formed 
** and the ant lion buries itself at the bottom, only its formidable 
'' toothed mandibles remaining exposed. When an ant or other 
*' insect strays over the edge of the pit the loose sand slips away un- 
** der its feet, and the ant lion further increases its difficulties by jork- 
*' ing loose sand at it, until it sinks and is devoured. After living 
" in this way for a certain period, the ant lion spins a cocoon of silk, 
'* with which it incorporates grains of sand, and pupates at the hot- 
" tom of its pit, whence it issues in due course as a winged and sexu- 
" ally mature insect." 

I Line 3, page 75, Bombay lithn. edition, dated A..H. 1266. 
s In some Indian editions the reading is li^jiwrti^ 
S Modern Persians call the ant lion »hir-i mUr. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal, 157 

22. Sanskrit Literature in Bengal during the Sena rule. — By 
MoMMOHAN Ghakrayarti, M.A., B.L., M.B.A.S. 

Under the last three Sena kings the study of Sanskrit in 
Bengal received a great impnlse. The 

P^riSi orsgffit P«?¥,r^ r^ *^*«"7 history of the pema. 
£1 Bengal. ^® known and less understood. But 

some of the main causes may be dimlj 
guessed at. 

During the eleventh and twelfth centuries a general revival 
of Sanskrit learning is noticeable in Hin- 
^^^*%i A A <i^8tan. The courts of Ka^mir, Eanauj, 

Kenewl Bev^ai ci ^^^'^ *^^ T>hsiTsi were influential centres 
Sanskrit in Hindu- ^^ scholars and Brahminical schools* 
Stan. Mithila and Kalioga courts were also not 

much behind them. Papdits and their 
students ti^avelled in numbers from one court to another, from 
one tol to the other. All this encouraged the study of Sanskrit 
in Bengal, where it had been not much attended to up to that 
time, presumably on account of Buddhistic influences. 

Furthermore, the different parts of Bengal, such as Suhma, 
2 Thetftste and ^"^^^^ Varendra and Racjha were united 
the liberality of ^°^®^ ^"^^ ^"^® ^J Vijayasena and his two 
the later Sena successors. The union of so many fertile 
kings. tracts added wealth and splendour to 

the Bengal courts and permitted liberal 
endowments and gifts on the part of their kingn. The available 
references, though very scanty, sufficiently indicate the taste and 
the liberality of the later Sena kings. Ballalasena, Lak^ma^a- 
sena, Ee&avasena, and Madhavasena (probably of the royal family) 
themselves composed verses and compiled other works with the 
help of court pandits. Of Lak^ma^asena's liberality the faha- 
(ifit'i'Ndsiri recorded: — "The least gift he. used to bestow was 
a lak ol kauris.** (Raverty's translation, p. 556.) The poet 
Dhoyika speaks of having received gifts of elephants and golden- 
handled fly- whiskers (the Pavana-dntam, Terse 101). The Sena 
kings called themselves Parama-vaii^nava; and, piobably, it might 
haye been a part of their policy to encourage Bdihma^i^ and 
Sanskrit studies in contradistinction to the Buddhistic tendency 
of their neighbours the Pala kings. 

In consequence a band of Sanskrit writers flourished in 
the latter part of the Sena rule. Many fols also seem to have 
been established in, and near Nudiah, the capital. To these tols 
may be reasonably traced the origin of the well-known Navadvip 
school, which has survived to this day and which produced in 
the 15th and 16th centuries a remarkable group of Naiy&jikas 
and Smrti writers. In the Sena period, however, the authora 
confined themselves chiefly to rituals and poetry, the two sub* 
jects in which the kings took special interest. ^ - 

158 Journal of the Atiattc Society of Bengal.. [May, 1906. | 

I now add a few remarks on these writers, taking them | 

alphabetically : — ! 


Guru of Ballalasena. The king compiled the dfina$ligara 
Anivniidha the ** ^" instance. Said to have been famous 
^AJ^iraaaa , rne ^ VSrendra land.^ None of his works 
has yet been discovered. But that he 
composed works on rituals is inferrable from the statement 
of dopala Bhatta, the disciple of Caitauja. In the Sat-kriyO- 
sdra-dipaka^ a ritual work for Vaippavas, Oopala Bhaftft sajs that 
he compiled it after consulting the works of Aniruddha, Bhima 
Bhatta, Oovindananda, NSraya^a Bhatta, Bhavadeva and others.* 
Mittra*s " Notices *' mention two ritual works of one Maha- 
mahopadhyaya Aniruddha Bhatta, viz.^ the ^uddhi-viveka (No. 
299, II, 338) and the RaraLatd, (No. 1001, II, .372). Aniruddha 
and the Hnralaid have been referred in the Sttddht-KaumTidi of 
Oovindananda Kavikankanftcaryva of the second quarter of the 
16th century (Bibl. Ed., pp. 132 1 30, 31, 33, 52, 87). 

ft^ '^ng^^B j^ P ^ *! »ft^^^ < WKV^ «^rf5i I (?) 

5CTT^^ i?lmraifiMa<HnfiiMl 51: I [i 1] 

^ftPWRifN^ (?) ^mfin^ ft W^fTOfil I [• 1] 

The Dinasigara, H. ?• Sistri's " Notices,*' seoond serieB, Vol. I., p. 170. 

ipn v i mftn J K»i ^?tiwf^ m wn i 

The SaUkriya-iira-^piki, " Notices," teoond aariM, L 897, 

VoL II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal, 159 

(11) ISANA. 

Elder brother of Halajndha. No MS. of his work has as yet 

oome to light. But Halftyadha in his in- 

16&iia» writer on troduction to the Brd.hmana'Marwasva says 

^^^^' that I^ana wrote a Paddhati or manual on 

rites relating to the Sh^kas of Brahmapas.^ 


Mentioned by Oovardhan-aoarya in the AryH'sapta^iatt, as 
having revised that poem.* He calls 
PMt!^Pil ' of gK ^^ay^-^* *"d Balabhadra Haya'SodarahhyHih, 
YBx6h9;£L. which may mean twin-pnpils of his or 

pupils who are brothers. Is he identical 
with the Udayaiia who composed the prasn$ti of Meghe6vara 
temple, Bhuvane^vara, Orissa P * The time of the inscription 
falls in the last decade of the twelfth century,^ which is the 
probable time of Oovardhana's pupil. 


The only complete piece of his as yet known is the 

prahasti in the Deopara inscription of 

the iDo5; "** Vijayasei.a (Ep. Tnd. I. 307-311). Stray 

^ * verses of his are, however, quoted in the 

4tnthoIogies. No less than ninety-two stanzas have been quoted 
under UmSpati or Umapatidhara in ffrldharadasa's Sukti-karn- 
dmrta,* twelve stanzas under Umapatidhara in Jalhana's Suhhligita' 
muktOvali, and two under that name in the SOrHgadhara-paddhatt^ 

The Brdhma^a-iarvvaiOt Printed edition, Galoatta, first half of Terse 24. 

^l^ft:^ ifttw{iH>l OTTTftim Pi4S^«^ I •t«,i 

J.iL.8.B., LXVI, p. 28; Bp. Ind., YI., p. 202 ; first half of verse 88. 

* For the time of the inscription see my artide, J.A.8.B. LXXII, 1008, 
p. 20. 

. s As the anthologies will be frequently referred to, their names :are 
abbreviated as follows : — 

(a) Sridharadisa's 9i&tt.(in two plaoes oaUed Saduktu) kan^^mftt^^ 
8.K. The pagfaigs are from the MS., Asiatic Society, Bengal (A). The 
«iiW0 Uetion€9 are from a BIS. of the Sanskrit College Library (8), and OM 
<i the Serampore College Library (8r.). 

160 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [May, 1906. 

He has been identified with one Umapati Upadhyaya, author of the 
Pdrij&ta'haranO'nntaka (R. L. Mitra, Notices of Sanskrit MSS., 
v., p. 205), but, I think, on insufficient grounds, as the latter 
flourished under a difEerent king, Hindupati Hariharadeva, after 
the Tavana rule ( Do., V., p. 206). 

'Ihe anterior time of umapatidhara is fixed by his composi- 
tion of Vijayasena prasasti, Thie poster!- 
His time. or limit is fixed by his mention in the 8 K. 

(a.d. 1206), and by the mention of his name 
in the CUta-govinda, Sarga I, verse 4. He probably lived in the 
reign of Lak^ma^apena, as S^ridhamdasa quotes a verse of his 
lauding his father Vatndasa, the friend and chief officer of that 
king.i KoQghly speaking, lie flourished in the third quarter of 
the twelfth century. 

Of the verses quoted in the S.K.,^ I find four are taken from 
the Deopara prasasti, viz., verse 7 of the 
His verses. inscription l^K,, III. 494, fol. 139a), 

verse 23 (III. 17-5, fol. 126a), verse 24, 
(III. 5-5, fol. 1206), and verse 30 (III. 17'4, fol. 1256); while the 
familiar hymn to the god Ga^esa {Devendra-mauli'Tnandara) is 
attributed to Umapatidhara (I. 295, fol. 16a). The YBTBe chinte 
Brahma-^ro, which in S.P. is ascribed to Dhoyi (No. 1161), is in 
^.Z^, referred to this poet probably more correctly (IV. 2*2, 
fol. 1426) ; on the other hand the verse priyayfih pratyusej which 
in the 8,M. (foL 73) is put under Umapatidhara, is ascribed in 
the iSf.Z. to Dhoylka (II. 135-3, fol. 996) ; and similarly Karahha*' 
ra6Aa«/?, whicli in N.7. is credited to Bhallata (No. 669) is put 
under Umapatidhara in 8.M. (fol. 42a). In the 8.M. fol. 416, 
Karahha-dayite is credited to Umapatidhara, while in 8,V. and 
flf.P., two verses with the same initial words are found (Nos.. 

(b)Jalhnna'B 8ubhdfita-muktdvalt-8,M. 'Dr. R 6. Bhan^&rkar, Report 
on the Searoli for Sanskrifc MSS. in tiie Bombaj PresideDcy, 1897, pp. I-LIY). 

(c) Yallabhadasn's Buhhdfit'dvaliS.V. (Peterson's Edition, Bombay 
Sanskrit Series). 

(d) Sdrngadhara-paddhati—a.P. (Pelerson's Edition, B. S. S.) 

v. 75*4, Sr. pp. 440-1 (omitted in A). 

* The verses in the a.K, nre given below :— 

I. 64, I. 11-3-4, T. 12-4, I. 18'2, I. 22 1, 1. 3s6-4. 1. 29-6, I. 37 2, I. 43-6,- 
1. 62-4, 1. 56 8-4, I. 67-3, I 611. I. 672, I. 72 4, I 731. I »0 4; H. 8-6^ 
II. 11-2. II. 12-2, II. 16-3-4. II. 201.2, II. 24-6. II. 36 5. II. 48 4, II. 68-6„ 

II. 64-2. II. 814.5, II. 94 2, II. 1021, II.. 106-5. II. 107 2-3, II, 109-2; 
11.116-2-3,11. 117-2, II. 125 4, II. 144'3.4, II. 1481, II. 1541; III. l-4, 

III. 6-6. III. 17 3.5, III 20-4, III. 26 4, III 33 1. III. 404, III. 43-6» 

III. 49-3.4; IV. 2-2, IV. 3 4, IV. 42, IV. 6-6, IV. 204, IV. 214, IV. 26-6, 

IV. 27-6, rV. 80-6, IV. 41'6, IV. 46 6. IV. 48 2, IV. 62-3.6, IV. 644, IV. 66-4, 

IV. 68-4, IV. 59-3.4, IV 688. IV 703, IV. 72 2; V. 18-8, V. 16 1, V. 18-8.4,. 

V. 291, V. 618, V. 70 3, V. 73-3, V. 76 4. . ' 

.YoL II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 161 

666 and 667 of fif.F., and 960 and 953 of 8JP,, 960 being claimed 
as Bhagavata Vydsasya). One verse, tendkhUnij is fonnd nnder 
IJmapatidhara both in 8.K. (V. 13*3) and in tbe 8.M. (fol. 
1846). 8. P. quotes two more verses nnder this poet (Nos. 753, 

Thus, ezclading tbe Deopara praiasti^ we get one hundred 
more verses of Umapatidbara. All of them are not of equal 
merit. Two criticisms are, however, available, one by the poet 
himself, and one bj Jajadeva. In the Deopara prahasti, verse 35, 
Umapatidbara calls himself as "the poet whose understanding 
has been purified bj the study of words and their meanings.? 
In the Gtta-gavinda, it is remarked : — Vdcak pallavayaty=UmSpati' 
dhara^ or Umapatidbara sprouts words (t.e., lengthens verses by 
additioti of adjectives, Ac). Four verses of his cited below 
supply some historical facts. The first three refer to some 
unknown king (probably some Sena kiug) in connection with 
Priigjyotis-endra, with KdH-janapadnh^ and with Mleccha-narmi- 
dra ; the fourth mentions liberal gifts to a poet for a work named 
CandracQda^carita by a king Ga^iUcya-candra. 

(1) iwMiRnrw^^giciiinjf^fT ?)5ft^ff ^%^- 
^ wjpinrdii«i{ii4BrNiir<4id in^ in^i^^ n 

III. 20-4, fol. 127a^ 
(2) TTJTT ^T^^TiTp'l^^[ftra %?f^^ 

III. 26^4, fol. 1296.. 
(8) ^ ^Nft^ ^T^ H^?ft ^T^^ 4^^- 

t% |wfH 'W oftifft^wTTTyni^ip:: (?) 

v. 18 8, fol 178a.. 

162 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

V. 29-1, fol. 1826. 


In the 8»K. six verses appear under Srimat-Eetovasenadeva 
— ^ fth *^^ ^^® under Ketova.^ They are appa- 

JU)yal poet!^** rently one and the same man. Ee^avasena- 

deva probably belongs to the Sena royal 
fimiily, and one verse of his (I. 54. 5) agrees in a general way 
with a verse of Lak^mapasenadeva and of Jayadeva {s.v, Jaya- 
rdeva). Another verse of his is quoted here : — 

1. •fqf%1f-A. & S. III. 62-3, fbl. 1405, 


Author of the Iryd'Sapta-idti. In the 8.V. (fol. 1275) and 

« ^x. ^1. *^© ^-P' (No- ^^)^ i*8 verse 6ft (anya-mukhe 

J^ofS^poet!*' iJ^ttrvffcia), is quoted .under Goyardhana. . In 

^* * the 5.X". six new verses,' and in the 8,P, 

•one new verse (No. 3400) are quoted under this name. 

The XryS-aapta'Sati consists of 54 introductory stanzas, 696 
_.. ? • stanzAs in the main body arranged alpha- 

:Aati. •^'y*"**P'^' betically a to ksa, and six concluding 
stanzas — in all 755, all in the JryU metre. 
It was composed evidently in imitation of Hala's Odthd-sapta-iati 
in Pr&lqrta and like its model is thoroughly amatory. The stanzas 
justify the remark in the OUa-^govinda that the elegant works of 
Ac&rya Oovardhana were distinguished by the erotic sentiment 

(SrngSr-ottarci-gatprameya'racTianair^icSrya-Oovardhan^ sarga I, 
verse 4). 

The posterior limit of the poet*s time is approximately fixed 
by the above reference in the Gita-govinday and the anterior limit 
by the verse 39 of the poem, in which he acknowledged a king of 

-^ ' 

1 fif jr.— I. 54-5, 1. 65-2. 1. 72-65 IH. 40*I, III. 52-8-4; ander KeSava, 
J. 89 a . . , . 

« Venwe in S.-ff.— it 8-4, ll. 80-5, II. i03'l, II. 142 5, II. 146-5; V. 12*4. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Santhrit Literafure in Bengal. 163: 


the Sena family as his patron.^ Tradition names Lak9ma9a8ena as- 
the king in whose court he flourished. His time may be thus 
approximately put in the fourth quarter of the 12th century. The- 
poem was revised by his pupils TJdayana and Balabhadra («.v.). 
Fire commentaries on it are as yet known, viz. (I) Ananta 
Pa^^i^'s Vya1^g^rtha'dipana, {2) Gk>kulacandra's Ranka-candrikH 
and the fikSa of OaAgarama, Nfirftya^a, and Vi&ye&Tara {vide 
Aufrecht's catalogus caicdogorum, ) 

Of the six rerses in the 8,K. not to be found in the 2ryU-^ 

His other verses, •^l'*^-'"^*' ^^« ^ g^^®" ^^ ^ «««Pl« ^- 

II. 80-6, fol. 78a^ 


One verse is quoted in the S,K. under thin name. He is 
probably to be identified with Sara^ {s.v,). 


Author of the Ottagovinda. Little is known about him,. 
Jayadeva* the and that little mostly traditional and con- 
lyrioal poet. flicting. 

One tradition puts hiin in Tirhut. About it Colebrooke 

wrote : — 

of^ho^*^^*^^^" " Jayadeva is by the Mcdthilas said to 

" be their couiitryman. In Tirhoofc, a town 

" on the Belan river near Jenjharpur, bears the name of Kenddiy 

'* supposed to be the same asKend&li kilva sic vilva is a family 

" of Maithili Brabmanas." 

Beyond the similarity in the name, nothing else has been found 
to support it. The tradition may have originated by confounding 
the Otta-govinda-kSra with a later vernacular poet, Jaideb. The 
latter flourished in Mithila, by about 1400 ad. (J.AS.B. 1888, 

S. 12); and Dr. Grierson extracted one Hindi song of his in the 
.A,S.B. 1884, p. 88. 

A second tradition claims him as of On'ssa (see Gandradatta*s 

.... Sanskrit tihaktamdld, cargas 89 to 41). 

— of oSSmJ' ^^ According to it, Jayadeva was born in the 

village Binduvilva near Jagannathapnri 

- . - 

164 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. " [May, I9O6. 

in XJtkala, that he married Padmavatl, that he composed the 
Qitagovinda with the line smara-garala-khandaviani written by 
Lord Er9na in the gnise of the poet (chapter 39) ^ ; that the king 
of Orissa oompossed another Qitagovinda which Lord Jagannatha 
rejected in favonr of Jaydeva's with some miracles indicating the 
Lord's favours to him and his wife (clu 40) ; that Jayadeva was. 
once robbed and had his hands and feet lopped off but that the limbs 
were miracnlonsly restored ; that in his old age he wished to have, 
a bath in the Qanges, and the river goddess appeai-ed before liim 
in her watery form (ch. 41). 

This tradition is not old and seems to have j ambled together 

ObJeotions facts of different periods. The Sanskrit 

Bhahtamdla was evidently based on the 

Hindi Bhakfamal of Nabhadasa, as edited and rewritten by Nara- 

yaQadfisa in the reign of Shahjehin, a.d. 1628-1658 (Orierson, 

Mod. Ver. Lit. Hind., J.A.S.B. 1888, p. 27). The tradition 

cannot thus be traced back beyond the seventeenth century, and 

requires strong corroboration before it can be accepted as a 

narration of events taking place in the twelfth century. On the 

other hand it appears to confound the OUagovinda-k&ra with a 

Jayadeva who flourished in the court of an Utkala king (vide 

Alahkdra'Sekhara*), and to tag to it the fact of an Ahhinava'Gita' 

■gamnda, which was composed by an Utkala king Purui^ottamadeva 

Gajapati, a.d. 1470-1497 (H. P. Sastri's Report, 1895^1900, p. 17). 

^^twwf ft'ft 'fT^ f^^^ ^ftr wr: I 
••• *•• ••• ••• ••• 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 166 

A third tradition refers him to Bengal, describes him 

Third tradition— ^^ * ^®™® ' ^ * Pa^^it in the court of 
of BraSiS. Lak^mapasena, and locates his home in, the 

village Eenduli^ District Birbhnm. 
. This tradition appears to be the most reliable of the three. It 
_. . is accepted in all the existing commentaries 

liable. '^ 'on the Gitagovinda. In the oldest known 

commentary, the Basika-pnyH of Enmbha- 
kari^, under verse 4, sarga I, it is noted : — Iti sat-paniM-Btasya 
rHjno-LaksmiS^asenasya prasiddhH iti ru^hih. Of the king Enm- 
bhakar^a of Medapat (Mewa4) various inscriptions have been found - 
ranging from a.d. 1438 to 1459. So the tradition was current at 
least in the first half of the fifteenth century.. The verse 4 itself 
^ves Jayadeva's name with Umapatidhara, Sara^a, Grovardhana 
and Dhoyi,* all of whom are Bengal poets probably contempo- 
raries of the king Lak^mapasena ; and this juxtaposition is best 
-explainable on the supposition of Jayadeva too being a Bengal 
<x)ntemporary. Furthermore, the stanza 1, sarga I of the CHta- 
govinda^ is found echoed in versification and meaning in a verse of 
Lak^ma^asena and one of Kesavasena ^ ; and this similarity dis- 
tinctly indicates a connexion of the poet with the Sena royal family. 

The Alahkdra-Bekhara of Kesava Misra, Nir. Sag. Pr., p. 17. 

This work is not older thaa the 16th century a.d. The aathor lived in 
the ooart of Manikyaohandra, and a king bearing that name began to rule 
in Kangra in a.d. 1563 (A.S.R, Y. 160). 

Said to have been inscribed over the door of the king's sabha-hall. 

166 Journal of the AncUic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

Some of the MSS. have a verse towards the end (the last but 
» J » « 1 *^® ^^ *^® twelfth sarga), in which Jaya- 
ly ?a^te ^®^*'* father is named Bhojadeva, mother 

' Rama (variants B&ma, Radhft), and his 

friends Para6ara and others.^ This passage is doubtful, as it is not 
found in many of the older texts and in older commentaries like the 
Bank€t»priy&. In two MSS. of the Indian Government OoUeetion, 
Calcutta, copied in Saka 1697 and 1698 (Nos. 3867 and 3868 
respectively) the line is omitted in the texts but commented on in. 
the fikSs ; at the same time it exists in the oldest MS. known, th& 
Nepal MS. dated a.d. 1494. 

The traditions name Jayadeva's wife as Padmavati ; and the 

•^l£.^ verse 2, sarga I, and verse 8, sarga X, seem to- 

support this view.* Bat a different reading 

«HU««**HII^ 1W«^ %^TflT fWT^t 

5.Jr., I. 66-2, fol. 275. 

• •#'R[1W — Sr. 

^mpn^ wit^ ^fmsi ^ ft^^ireiT 

a^., I. 64*6, fol. 27b. 

M*l WcTl^^'n^OTtrilil^ I First half, I. 2. 
Wf*r^«R^neTW*'cTiI l Second half, X. 8. 
wPniK^ infill* I ^ Jht. 

YoL II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal, 167 

of X. 8 omits Padmdvatvramana ; and the latter reading, while 
BQpported by old fikdB like the Aanka-friyd, is preferable accord^ 
inff to Tersifieation rules. As regards I. 2, the same commentary 
r^ers to the tradition and rejects it XPadrndvati tasya kalatram^ 
eke vadanH yat-tan-na vicSroeSru). 

According to the commentators, Jayadeva's home is indicated 
•ongne "* *^® second line of III. 10.^ The maa» 

■^^ * is yariously read as TinduvUva {vide the 

Baatka-friyd) KinduvUva, KtnduviUa, KenduMla, Kendubihmy 
SindubUva, It is identified with Kendnli, District Birbhnm, 
Bengal, on the north bank of the river Ajaya. An annnal fair la 
held there on the last day of Magha in Jayadeva's memory. 

In the 8.K,, two verses of the Qitagovinda are qnoied 
under Jayadera, viz^y XI. 11, Jaya-ifi"- 
The time of the vinyastair'' (I. 59-4, fol. 296) and VI, 11^ 
Gltagovlnda. A^ge^v^ahharanafik (H. 37-4, foL 606). The 

poem must therefore have been composed before a.d. 1206. 
by the mention of Dhoyi and other poets in I. 4, it could noi 
likely have been written earlier than the rule of Lak^ma^^asena* 
Its time therefore approximately falls in the fourth quarter of the 
twelfth century. Its verses are quoted (under Jayadeva) four timea 
in the S.F., and 21 times in the S.P.* The verse I (3) 11,. 
Unmilan'madhu-gandhd^ is quoted (without the author^s name) in 
the rhetorical work srlhttya-darpana, as an example of the allitera-^ 
tion f^t-flnuprdsa (X. 4).' 

• irv^w. ■* fti^ft'W, 4c. 

2 5.F.— No8. 1818-4, 1867» 1618; ^.P.^Nofl. 80, 8880, 8481, 8460^^ 
8481-2, 8498-8600, 8502, 3648-8550, 8609, 8617, 8668, 8681, 8686-7, 8820. 

8 In the Appendix to my article on " The Bastern Ganga Kings oi Orisaa'* 
«« **v a.v^« (J.A.S.B. LXXII, 1908, p. 146) I came to the con* 

^^^^aeoftHeBSMtya- elusion that the Mhityordarpai^a was nn Oriya 
' * work, and that its author Yisvanatha flourished 

prohablj not later than the beginning of the 14th century. Since then I 
have seen certain extracts from the same tuthor's Kdvyaprakdia'darpa^ iui 
the late Y. R. Jhalkikara'a edition of the KdvyapralUUa (Bom, Sans. Ser., 
introd. pp. 8(^1). They confirm my conolosions ; a.^., this ^t'H says under- 
6th ulliisa-^ wiiparityam rucim-kurv-iti pd^hal^^ atra ciMcu-padam JTatmtr-iidf • 
hhd^dydm'Oilila'artha'hodhdkafk Utkal-ddi-hhd^dyim ' d^r^-ba^^jkadrava ' ity- 
ddi. The reference to a colloquial Oriyi word (still in use) shows him to 
be an Opyii. Furthermore he mentions therein his SaMtya-darpai^ (2nd 
and 10th ull&sas), Candrakald-ndfikd (8th ullisa) and a new work mama 
Narawhha'vijaye (6th nllasa). The name of the last work indicates that he 
flourished under the king Narasimha. As his father^ Candrasekhara, com* 
posed a verse in honour of Bh&nudeva, this Narsimha cannot be earlier thaik 
Naranmha II. » and cannot be much later as Yis^aBitha'iB grandfather'a 
yennger brother, Ca^i^ulasa, wrote his KdvyapfdhdiO'dipikd (quoted in it- 
dsv^ptuna) probably in the 18thoeiitiiz7. NaMriihhadeva 11. ruled Qriiaa 
between a.d. 1278-9—1806-6 (J.A^.B. LXXXL, 1901^ p. 88f). 

168 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

' ' No other work of this Jayadeva has yet been found. In some 
of the Gitagovinda MSS. eight stanzas are 

Other poems of g^^j^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^er the heading QangO^ 
Jayaoeva. stava-prahandKah whose last line runs; 

hhanantam^=iha sSdaram dhira-Jayadeva-kavi,° In the 8.K. a 
^etse is qnoted nnder JayadevH referring to Qaud-endra. There 
are at least two other Jayadevas, Sanskrit poets* earlier than 
the J 3th century ; but none of them is known to have any concern 
iwith Oau4&ndra, Is this verse then taken from some unknown 
poem of the OUagovinda-kHra ? In the 8 K, besides this verse ^ 
(tod the two taken from the Oitagovinda), 28 more are quoted 
under the name Jayadeva ; they cannot be traced in the Prasanna* 
BOghava of the dramatist Jayadeva, or the candr-Oloka of the 
rh^toriciap Jayadeva. Possibly some of them may be from an 
pnknown poem of our Bengal Jayadeva 

No poem was more popular in India than the Oita-govinda, 

The Popularity Numerous MSS. of it lie scattered in difEer* 
of the G!ta«goyiQ- ent parts of India from Kasmlr and Nepal 
da. downwards. The search for Sanskrit MSS. 

has brouffht to light no less than thirty-seven commentaries 
(Aufrechrs Oat. Catalog,) ; and the earliest known the Basika-- 
priyd goes back to the middle of the fifteenth centuxy with the 
powerful king Kumbhakar^a himself as the commentator. The 
poem has been imitated in works like the RUma-gita-govinda^ 
Ahhinava-glta-govinda and others. It has been several times trans- 
lated in the vernaculars, Bengali, Oriya and Hindi. It ranks 
among the quasi-sacred works of the Vai^^vas ; and its songs were 
repeatedly sung by Caitanya and his followers in their processions. 
A remarkable testimony to its populaiity is borne out by 

Afl teatifted "bv inscriptions. Inan Oriya inscription of Pari 
inBcriptiona. dated 17th July, a.d. 1499, the king Pratapa- 

rudradeva ordered that the dancing girls 
and the Vai^pava singers should learn and sing only the songs of 
the QitoQovinda^ and should not learn or sing any other songs 
before Loids Jagannatha and Balarama (J.A.S.B., LXII, 1893, 
pp. 96-7). In another inscription dated 29th June, A.D. 1292,* 

xriirfvf^finnirqTiwwert f ^tftrg^i^^ n ^??^^r^ i 

8.K., III. 11-5, fol. 128a. 

The reader will note the alliterations in each line. 

« This icsoriptiOD, as yet nnedited, was found on a stone recovered 
at AnivSda, old Patan, Kadi Division, Barods, from a tank which was being 
excavated in Samvat 1956 as a famine work. The date runs in the orif^nal 
as follows :— Sai^vot t8^ varfe A^a^a i%di 18 raviv-Mdyeha Brimad^ 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Bansjerit Literature in Bengal, 169 

[N.8.-] ... 

tlie verse I. (pra° 1). 12, vedSn-uddharate, is qnoted intheverj 
beginning as the invocation stanza of the prakasti, Snch an honour 
shows that the work had already within a century become quasi- 

The Oitagovinda has been many times printed, but the only 
good edition available is that from the Nirpaya-sagara Press, 
Bombay. Lassen's edition (1836) is ont of print. A critical 
edition is a great desideratum; and here is a nice opportunity 
for a Bengal scholar. 


In the 8.K. a verse of his is qnoted highly lauding the gifts 

of a Qau^endra * and thus pointing to his 

vara "^* Ben»i ^^^^ ^ Bengal poet. Besides this, the 

p^jQ^* ^ 8,K, quotes eleven more verses under this 

name,^ and distinguishes him from Yoge&- 

vara (51 verses quoted) and Earanja-Togesvara (2 verses quoted). 


Author of the Pavana-duiam, Already treated by me ( J.A.S.B. 
New Series, 1905, 1, pp. 41-71 *; ib., 1906, pp. 15, 18 22). 

Elder brother of Halayudha ; wrote iheDasa-kat-mma'paddhati 

Pafonati a writer C^«i^*^^^ ^ ^'^® ^ ^^^ performance of 

-on ritM* * *®^ domestic ceremonies according to 

the iSukla Yajurveda, Ea^va-sakha. He 

was BUja-Pandtta, according to colophon.* His work should be 

^1fahilavil<ik-ddhif(hita-Mdhd[_ rajid/ii-* ] rdjd'Sri' Sdramgadeva^kalydi^^wjapa 
rdjye. The date ie apparently in the year, Boathern expired. The inscrip- 
tion records the erection of a Kr^pa temple. € am indebted to Mr. D. B. 
3)ia94^kar for these informations. 

* ^w* ^a^nz%7 ^^iw^^j ^reTORTTuri ^k 

III. 16-4, fol. 125a. 

« S.Jr.-II. 231, II. 38-4^ II. 68-2, II. 624, II. 120-1, )l. 134 3; IV. 
2 4.6, rV. 44-6, IV. 46 3, IV. 61*2 

fnnTlf^W^ffRTTllfeT: fWllTrr l The colophon of the Sraddha- 
jpaidhati runs :— Kfif- 'TlSpdflilHref^lir^* W?m I *^ 

170 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [Maj, 1906. 

differentiated from that of the same name by Bhavadeva Bhat^ 
(Sftmaveda) or by Naraya^^a Pa^4it» ( ?gveda). 

In the introduction to the Brdhmana-sarwasva Halftyudha 

noted that Pasupati had written 9,Paddhaii or manual on S^raddhaa 

(v. 24) and another Paddhati on Paka-Yajna (v. 43). ^ No MS. 

of the latter had as yet come to light. The SrOddha-paddhali 

is foan^ in the As. Soc, Library, a Bengali MS.r foL 42-52.^ ■ 

In the 8. A', one verse is quoted under the name Pa&upatidhara^* 

Paftnnatidhara Whether he is identical with Pa6upati 

a wet. * ^^ ^^^^ ^ cannot say. Umapatidhara has 

sometimes been shown as Uma()ati. In the 

8.K. are named several authors with ^Dhara at the end, such 

as, Dhara^ldhara, Lak^midhara, S'ankuradhara, Sahkhadhara, 

SSgaradhara, Sancadhara, Snryadhara. 


A pupil of Acarya Govardbana, who with Udayana (*.v.) 
Balabhadra, pu- revised his Acarya's poem Iryd-sapta-Bati. 
pil of Q-ovar- Whether he is identical with Balabhadra^ 
dhana. under whose name five (5) verses are 

quoted in the 5. /if.,* cannot be. said at present. A sample is 
extracted below : — . 

I. 29-4, fol. \9K 
1 For verse 24, see I^atiB* F(»r verse 43 :— 

8.K.— U. 10% fo\.i9b^ 
8 Sjr.-I, 29-4 J IL 151, U. 28 1 J IV. 196, IV. 50-3. : 

Vol. ll, No. 5.] SanskrU Literature in Bengal. 171 



:Father of Lak^ma^asenftdeva (a.d. 1160-61—1169-70). 
' !the king Ball&la- li^ a.d. 1169-70 he completed the Dsna- 
8MiadeyA» as wri- sdyam, a manual describing t]ie yariona 
tBT* kinds of gifts and the connected cere- 

monies* In A.D. 1168-69 he started the compilation of the Adbhnta- 
sUgara, bnt died before completing it on the banks of the Ganges. 
It was completed bj Lak^mapaaena. The Adbhuta-sAgara deals 
with omens and portents.^ It gives the Saka hhuja-vasu'daia or 
1082 as his first year. Aniraddha {s,v,) was his guru, or spiri- 
tual guide. 

(: The S.K. and the S,P. (No. 764) quote only one of his 
yerses: — 

• ^ tfw^wftni: wnmn: fk^ -S.P. »» i|rf»!firfiroj--~S'.P. 


In the 8,K. under DharmfSdhikarana Madhu a verse is quoted 

■ praising Vatudisa (the anthologist's father) 

The Judge as the right-hand stafE of the king Lak^f- 

Ma dha. _^ ma^asena.* Presumably, therefore, he was 

a Bengal man, and as his title signifies a judge. Under the name 
Madhu seven more verses are quoted in the 8*K.^ He may be 
identical with the judge. 

1 For referenoes te;tlie MSS. of the Dina^sffgara and the Adhhuta'aigara, 
«ee my artiole, J.A.S.B., N.8 , 1906, I. p. 46, Note 1. In additioD, one MS. 
of the Adbhuia-sigara is in India Gk>Ternnient, and one MS., i^parently a 
fragment, noticed in the " Notioes " (N.S.), Vol. II. pp. 2-8 (No. 8). One copy 
of the Dina'Sagara is in the As. Soc.'s libraiy. 

* wiT^ ft^iit wtftr iig^ iwul. ftfiwt ' 

8 8.K.— II. U% TI. 147'1 ; V. 7*2, V. W, V, IW, V. M18-8, 

172- Journal of the Asiatic 8i>oiety of Bengal [May, 1906r 


Under tin's name one verse is quoted in the 8,KA " He prob- 

-mrx^t^ *^^y belongs to the royal family. Five 

™i i^^*"®°** * n^ore verses are found in that anthology 

royai poou. ^^^^^ Madhava.* Whether he is the same 

as Madhavasena or not cannot be definitely said at present. . 


The well-known Sena king (a.d. 1169-70—1200 P) The 8.K. 
The king Lak9- quotes nine verses of his * and the S.P. 
ma^asenadeva as one (No. 923). In the inscriptions he is: 
poet. called Farama-vaisnava, and they begin 

with an invocation to Naraya^a. His verses, therefore, often refer 
to Kr99a ; and where not, are amatory in nature. They are noi 
wanting in elegance ; e.g., take the following three : — 

• ifrtrt— Sr. •» npciT— Sr. •=?RWIT— Sr. I. 57'2. fol. 28&, 

(2) wf^?T«?^ m*i Ni I ifiprfS^f^raT- 

• fWWftr— Sr. V.12-l,fo!. I75b. 

■^^i^^' wrt rt^rro ^^m ^fWl^^ ^nn'n 

* ^Smtt— Aufrecht. . lY. 48-8, fol. 160&. Aufreoht, Z.DM.Q. 86, 640-1. 

« Sir.— I. 48-6 ; II. 164-4; III. 6-2 ; IV. 22.2, IV. 86-8. 
. 8 S.K.'^I. 66-2 (.•v. Jayfcde^a); I. 672; II. 16-2, II. 61«5, IF. 80-1, 
II. 82 3-4, 11. 106-8, II. 108'1; V. 12 1, V. 664. 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 173 

(8) int ji:^ ^^fW lEN^T^TOR 

V. 66-4, fol. 1976. 


In the 8.K. under Yetala one Terse is quoted, which laud 

highly Ya^udasa.^ He was therefore pre- 

PMt * ^^'^R** sumahly a Bengal poet. One more verse 

has heen extracted in that anthology under 

Bhat^a Yetala (ir. 34.3) and another under Baja-Yetala (iiL 

46.2), probably the same author. 


One stanza is quoted in the 8,K. under this name, praising 
. Ya^udasa.* He is thus likely a Bengal 
P^t. * ^^^^^ poet of the Sena period. The word Kam- 
raja may mean a physician. 


In the 8.K,, one Terse is extracted under GirantaQa- SaraQS 

dara^a, a Oon- (^-v-)* ^^^ under Saranadatta, four under 

temporary Poet of Sarai^eva, and 15 under Sara^a.* They 

Jayadeya. seem to be varying forms of the same 


* ^nrtwIWU — A. V. 76*8, 8r. (not in A, ezoept the name.) 

• ^rfir— A. * WWHI— A. • HT— Sr.. V. 76-5, fol. «»a. 

s 8 K.— lY. 12 (0. Baraga) i III. 2*6 (8ara9adatta) ; I. OM, II. 188% 
III. 16-4, III. 64-6 (Paravadeni) } I. 61*2-8, I. ST'l, IL 18*8-8, 11. 8e-4» 
III. 14, 4JS, III. 16-5, III. 60*6, IV. 60*4, IV, 64-1 V. 1-8.5 (8«ni9a). 

174 Journal cf the Anutic Society of Bengal. [M^j, 1906« 

No work of this poet has yet been diftoovered. But from a 
verse quoted in tlie 8,K., he appears to have flourished in the 
Sena rule, and another verse by deprecating all the neighbouring 
kings indirectly lends support toil' The poetV posterior limit 
is fixed by reference in the Otta-Oovinda^ I. 4, Saranah sldghyo 
duruha-druteh, t.e., Sara^a is best in composing difficult verses. 
His time probably falls in the 4th quarter of the twelfth century. 
One sample is given here : — 

f*f«l^ ^T% JCTfilf TlWiHrimirfiT I 

!• 61-4, fol. 306. 


The anthologist, son of Yatudasa described as MahSsQmanta' 

. cudHmani (chief officer) and friend of the 

A «?^*'^**iL**'^'** ^°^ Lak^ma^asena.^ Yatudasa must have 

^..^^^^ , been a man of high position as verses 

■ - " ■ ■■-.-.. 

* liurfir, A., s. in. 64-6, foi- 14-16. 

inPt^H^^^rit T^fir f^T^ ^f?^ Vrjrarsr I 

• ^^*S3r, Sp. "* 'mRW, Sp. hi. 15'4, fol. 125fl. M.M.C.— l-i?^)6. 

/-••'■-■"■.' J , . - ■ • . ' ' . ^' '■".". 

VdL II, No, 5.] Sanskrit Literature in Bengal. 175 

landing him by men like Umftpatidhara, tbe jndgeMadhn aiid othem^ 
are qnoted by bis son at the end of tbe anthology (Y. 76*1-5). 

Tbe anthology is called Sad-ukti-karn-Amrta only at two 
places, friz,, at the end of first pravSha and at the very end ; 
otherwise eyerywhere else (inirodnctory verse 5, and the cofophons 
of the other pravdhas) it is called Sukti-karn-Omrta, It is said to 
consist of five pravShas (currents), 476 vlcis (waves) and 
2,380 verses, at five to each vici (vide tbe colophon at the end). 
Bnt the tlizee MSS. I have examined actually contain 474 vtcts^ 
2,363 verses. Two vtois have, in fact, been omitted in the second 
pravdha^ and lees than five verses quoted in L 95 (4), II. 3 (4), 
II. 129 (3), IV. 21 (4), IV. 68 (3) and V. 25 (4). Bach verse 
ends, mostly, with the author's name; or where not known, 
with hasyadt or kasy-Hpi. In ten verses only the authors' names 
are wanting, probably dropped at the time of copying. More 
than four hundred and fifty authors have been named. Towards 
the end the date of completion is given as Saka 1027, Pb&lguua 20. V 
This does not admit of verification ; if a northern expired year, 
it is equivalent to 11th February, a.d. 1206. Tbe year in the 
Lak^ma^asena era, ras-atka-vimkey is ambiguous; raS'Ssititame 
would have made it agree with the Saka year. If a mistake for 
rasaikatwk'Bey it may be tbe actual regnal year of the king Lakf- 
mapasena (1169 and 37 » 1206). 

In the colophon at the end of each pravQha, Sridharadasa 
<3alls himself Mahd-mUnialika or the divisional officer (officer in 
oharge of a Mahilma;K4ala), The work bears ample testimony to 
his taste and industry. Nearly two thousand four hundred verses 
have been compiled horn more than four hundred and fifty authors 
named and others not named ; they have been fairly selected and 
sorted under different subjects ; and they bespeak a fairly wide 
culture with formation of libraries. Without his compilation it 
would have been impossible to write this sketch of Bengal writers. 


One verse under Sgncadhara is quoted in the S.K.^ lauding 

Sfiftoadhara, a Vatudasa.* He is thus likely a Bengal 

Bengal Poet. poet. In tbe same anthology four more 

V. 76-2, fol. 2016. 

176 Journal of ihe AsiaHc Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

verses are extracted under Sancadhara and three under Sinca- 
dhara' ; they are apparently the varying forms pf the same name.! 


The youngest and the most distinguished of the three 
_- , J -n- t- brothers («.». USna, Pa&upati). The 

on rituals. family are taken almost exclusively from' 

his Brahmana-sarvvsva. His father bom 
in the line of Vatsya muni (Introd. verse 4), married Ujjala (v. 8.),' 
and became dharmm-ddhyakfa or judge (v. 5). Halayudha was 
bom of them (vv. 9, 10), and had two elder brothers, Isana 
and Pasupati (vv. 24, 43). Halayudha in his early years wa^s ap-> 
pointed Bdja-pandita, (v. 12), in youth raised by Lak^manasena 
to the post of MahAmatya (vv. 10, 12), and in his mature age 
confirmed as senior judge, Mahfidharmm-fidhikdra or MahS-' 
dharmm-ddhyaksya {v. 12, and the colophons of the sections). 

Before taking up this work he had written the Mimdnisfl' 
Barwasva, Vatsnava-sarwasva, Saiva-sarwasva and Pandita-sarwasva 
(v. 19).* He composed the Brdhvun^a'Sarwasva because the 
Brahmanas in Badha and Yarendra did not know the Vedia 
rites.^ He dealt with the rites laid down in the Yajaaaneyi-^ 
samhita, Kanva-^akha. In the Gat. Catalog, two more works o£ 
his are nBimed—Thtja-nayana, and a fikfi on the SrOddha- 
paddhati. Exceptinsr the BrdJinnana-sarvvasva no other work of 
nis has yet been found. In the S.K. three verses are quoted 
under Halayudha.* He is to be differentiated from Halftyudha 
of the Purdna'sarwasva (composed in a.d. 1475), and of the' 
Bharmma-viveha (called therein MaM-kaviyE, P. Sastri's " Notices," 
L pp. 195-6). • 

I 8.K.—1. 21-2.6 (Saficadhara) ; 11.84 46, V. 64-6. V. 76 2 (Safioa- 

i SJT.— I. 80*6, 1. 68-4; V. 72-8. They have been qaoted by Aiifreoht» 
Z.D.M.O., 86, 589-80. 

Yol. II, No. 5.] The Sexes in Helofeltis theitoba. 17Z- 

• IN.8.} 

23. The Proportion hettoeen the Sexes tn Helopeltis theivoba, 
Waterhou8e.^By H. H, Mank, D.Sc. 

The study of the relative pi^portion of males and femalefir 
among various classes of animals, and especially among insects,, 
has led to comparatively important conclusions, and a good deal, 
of information has been gathered in recent years on the subject. 
I am not aware, however, that any member of the Heteroptera haa 
been examined in this sense either by breeding: or by the number- 
ing of caught specimens. The fact that the Gapsid bug, HdopeU. 
tis theivora, is a nerious enemy of the tea- plant, and the kindness 
and enthusiasm of an Assam planter (Mr. J. J. Smith of Behalli, 
Assam) , have enabled me to continue systematic and daily obser- 
vations of the relative proportion of the sexes now for over three 
years, and the figures thus obtained form the substance of the 
present paper. 

Helopeltis theivora, Waterhouse, the so-called 'mosquito blight' 
of tea, is tlie most serious insect-enemy of the tea-planter. It 
passes all stages of its life on the tea-plant, and at every stage it 
feeds on the youngest leaves and shoots by innerting the rostrum 
into the substance of the plant, and sucking out the juice. As a. 
result, the leaves become covered with minute irregularly round 
patches of brown withered tinsue, the growth of the shoot is 
stopped, and the young leaves (the commercial product) cease to be 
produced. An examination of the size of the spots sucked out by 
the insects indicates, to an experienced ohserver, very closely the 
age of the insect which has attacked the plant ; with adult insects 
the patches measure 2 to 3 millimeters in diameter, while they 
are usually on the outer parts of the bashes on older leaves than 
those generally used by the larvae. 

The sexes are thus described by Distant (in Blandford's " Fau- 
na of British India," Heteroptera, Vol. II, pp. 440-441) : — 

'* Male.—'KeAd and pronotnm shining black, mnch resembling 
" the same sex of the preceding species (Helopeltis antonii), but 
" with the scatellar horn more curved backward at apex. 

" Female, — ^Black, pronotum bright, shining, stramineous, or 
*' bchraceous, with a subapical transverse fascia and the basal area 
" shining black ; scutellum ochraceous more or less suffused with 
'' black, the horn long, black, piceons at apex ; antennsB dark- 
" brown, banal joint paler, yellowish at base ; femora dark brown, 
" mottled with ochraeons, and with a distinct pale annulation near 
" base ; tibiie ochraceous, speckled with fuscoas ; head beneath' 
"with a lateral luteous fascia on each side, more obscurely 8een' 
" above ; abdomen pale, creamy-oohraoeous, the apical third black.*' 
" LenKtb 6 to 7 millim." 

To this description one can add the following additional in- 
formation with regard to the male: The antenna? are shinin^^ 
Sioeous, ochraceous at the bane. The pronotum is shining black 
rith a patch of ochraceous differing considerably in size in different. 

178 Journal of the AHatie Society of Bengal. [May, IsiOd, 

fipecimens, but always mnch smaller than with the female. The 
insect, as a whole, appears distinctly smaller than the female. 

It will be seen that there is absolntely no difficnlty even at 
first sight in distingdishing the sexes. The points which settle 
the sex to a casual observer, are : — 

1. The size of the orange spot on the pronotum and scutel- 
lum. In the female it is much bigger than in the male, and 
in fact in the latter it is often hardly to be seen. 

2. The shape of the abdomen, which is always larger and 
stouter in the female. 

3. The size of the insect, the female being always distinctly 
bigger in every respect. 

4. The presence of ihe ovipositor in the female. 

It is obvious that the examination of the many thousands of 
samples could not be made by myself personally, but the ease of 
distinction prevents the possibility of any material error, and I 
have checked personally a very large number. 

The method adopted in the present investigation was to em- 
ploy boys and girls to catch the insects practically day by day 
throughout the year. In the two places firom which resulte are 
here reported, there have been abont 40 children employed for 
this purpose throughout almost the whole of the past three years. 
The catching is not an easy business, and it is usually some 
months before the children get expert at the work. Hence the 
earlier results are probably not quite so reliable as the later ones. 
But once they have become accustomed to the way of catching the 
insects, it is rare that an adult, male or female, escaped. They 
are about equally difficult to catch, and I have convinced myself 
that no material error is introduced on this account. They are 
found most abundantly in the early morning and late afternoon. 
During the hotter part of the day, as a rule, the insects hide 
away. ... 

The only error which may seriously affect the figures, is the 
fact that the numbers were, on the whole, declining during the 
three years, owing to the measures taken against the insect. It is 
a factor which might influence the relative numbers of the sexes, 
in a manner of which we know nothing. 

The two sites for collection were situated at Behalli and 
Bedetti, places about three miles apart in the Darrang district of 
Assam. Both of these are tea-gardens in which much of the 
tea was seriously attacked by the Helopeltis. It should be 
noted that the insect is present only in small numbers during the 
early part of the year, reaching a minimum in February, March 
and April. In June it commences rapidly to increase in numbers, 
and during July, August, September, October, and November it is 
exceedingly numerous, while in December the number usually, 
though not alwaysj rapidly drops. I give a special table of rain- 
fall each month at Behalli, in order that its distribution relative 
to lain may be ascertained* 

If the three years are taken together, the figures seem to. 
indicate :— 

Y<d. II, No. 5A The 8e3se$ in Hswrstna thbitora. 17^ 

• [NJ3.] 

1. That the males are always present in much smaller nam- 
bers than the females. 

2. That the more adverse the conditions, the less is usnally 
the predominance of females. This is indicated very clearly in 
the loehalli results for Jnly, August, September and October in 
the three sevetral years, when the attack was at its height. 

















Joly .. 







In the first year the efforts at keeping the insects in check on 
{hese plots were hardly successful ; in the second they were more 
so ; while in the third the insects were never able to get oat of 
hand. The same story is told by the figures given for the second 
place of observation (Bedetti). 

In explanation of the fact of the sudden drop in the number 
of insects in January or February in each year, it should be noted 
that it is at this season pruning is carried out, and this results in 
the removal and destruction of many millions of eggs from the 
plants. Hence the drop in numbers is not entirely a sensonal 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [May, 1906. 

Behalli,— April, 1903— March, 1906. 




Males M 

Bainf all : 

No. of 




May ... 
Jane ... 










July ... 




















November ... ••• 




















March ' •■• 








Jane ... .•> ••• 




not noted 

not noted 











July ... 



88 6 





























37 6 





















April ... 


June ••• ••• 
















July ••• ••• ••• 






August ••• .*• 







































10 8 









Vol. II, No. 6.1 TJhe Sexes in Hblopbltis theivora. 


BedeUi^—Jarmary, 1903'~March, 1906. 

Males as 




Fern n lea. 


January ... 




February ... • 
































October ... 




November ... 




December ... 




January ... ... .„ 




February ... 


























September .. 




October ... 




November ... 




December ... 








February ... 




March ... 

















Auguat ... 




September ... 




October ... 




November .„ ... [" 




December ... 




January ... 


February ... 







Vol. II, No. 5.1 Nate on the R.ite -f Oalcutta. 183 


24. Preliminary Note on theE'its of Oalcidt<i.-^By W. C. Hossagk, 
M.D., District Medical Officer, OalctUta. 

The important part which, aooording to most authorities, the 
parasites of the rat play in the propagation of plague, has rendered 
it a matter of considerable practical importance to ascertain 
definitely what are the chief varieties of rats found in Calcutta, 
and their relative frequence. Thanks to rewards for the destruc- 
tion of ratfl, it has been possible to obtain a very large amount of 
material, and, by working on large series, to collect valuable inform- 
ation as to the variations normally found in the difEerent npeciea 
and varieties. The variations caused by immaturity are parti- 
cularly interesting and have a very practical bearing on the identi- 
fication of species, but the subject is too technical to be more than 
indicated here. There are three species of rat commonly found in 
Calcutta, and a fourth, though quite rare, is very striking from its 
very large size, viz., the Lesser or Northern India Bandicoot. 

Key to Rats of Calcutta. 

A. Long-tailed species (tail 115-130 per cent, of length of head 

and body). 

(1) Mtu raft us afexandrinus. — Medium sized or small. Ears 

long and wide and standing up from head, which is long 
and pointed. Slender b<^y, feet long, slender and 
dark, head long and pointed. Median pads of hind foot 
cordiform and the external one generally showing a 
smaU extra tubercle. The tail is uniformly dark. This 
is a house rat ; it corresponds to the Black Rat of Eu- 
rope. — Mammae, 2 pectoral, 3 inguinal. 

B. Short or Medium Tailed, 

(2) Mus dectimauus. — The Brown Rat of Europe. Heavy- 

bodied, large rat with heavy tail, the length of which 
is 90 per cent, of length of head and body. The tail 
is distinctive, being white or distinctly lighter below. 
The feet are large, heavy and flesh-coloured, with cordi- 
form median padn on hind foot like Mus alexandn'nus. 
Jowl heavy and broad. No long piles or bristles 
on back, though longer hairs are present. M, decu* 
m»nus does not bristle or spit when caged. The 
molara are tubercnlar. Eyes small and ears round and 
sh()i*t. — Mammae, 3 pectoral, 3 inguinal. 

(3) Nesokia bengal ensis (Indian Mole Rat) — Heavy -bodied and 

of moderate size, like asmalldecumaniitf but has long piles 
or bristles on its back. The tail is only about 80 pei* 
cent, of the length of the head and body, and is uni- 
formly dark; it tends to be rather attenuated and 
pointed at the end« Pads of the hind foot tend to be 
small and circular, not oordiform« The proximo- 

J 84 JiAimal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [May, 1906. 

external is very sdihII, and in 2 per cent, of specimens is 
wanting. The feet and nose are not flesh -ooloored but 
rather purplish. The fur is very thin, bristly and harsh, 
and in drowned specimens the half -naked bristly, pig- 
like appearance is marked. When caged N. hengaletisia 
bristles, spits and gnashes its teeth. Molars instead of 
tubercles show transverse laminae. Burrowing, stable 
and grain-shop rat. -Mammae, 4 pectoral, 4 inguinal, 
but very variable. 
(4) Nesokia nemorivagus (Lesser Bandicoot). — An extremely 
large and heavy-bodied rat. It may be confused with 
very large specimens of If. decumanus, but has a deep, 
narrow, greyhound-like muzzle with very large ears. 
On the back are very long piles 5-7 cm., lonpr. The 
feet are black and very large, with pads as in N, hengal- 
ensis. The tail is nearly eqnal to the head and body and 
is uniformly dark, more finely ringed than in M, decu- 
manus. It has the same savage demeanour when caged 
as N. bengalensis. Molars with transverse laminsB. It is 
a burrowing, grain-storing rat, but is captured in houses. 

It is as well here to mention Grocidura ccsndea, the Grey 
Musk Shrew, commonly known as the musk rat. This is not a rat 
at all bat is one of the Insectivora, being closely allied to the 
moles and the shrews. It feeds mainly on cockroaches. It is very 
<»mmon in Calcutta, bac in many thousands of trapped rats I 
have only come across a single specimen. 

Under Mus a^exundrinus I include all rats in Calcutta of the 
rattus type. My specimens certainly include M. rufescens, but 
I have still got to work th«m out. They show an extreme range of 
variation in colour from almost black with dark belly to pale cinna- 
mon or brown with white beUy, but as every gradation is shown 
1 am at present inclined to think they are all the one rat. Breeding 
-experiments will be required to settle the problem.* 

In this paper all I aim at is to give a rough idea of the rats of 
Oalcutta, and the external characteristic^ by which they may be 
•distinguished by one who is not an expert. Hence I have said 
nothing about colour, as it is an extremely variable characteristic 
and a most unreliable means of differentiation. In the live rat, 
the colour seems more or less the same in all of them, for even the 
most sharply defined white belly is almost unnoticeable unless 
the rat is sitting up at its toilet. All may be described as brown, 
but in alexandrinus the brown may be a light yellowish-brown, and 
in the two Nesokias it tends to be a cold greyish-brown with no 

1 Since this was written I have seoared two upeoimens which were black 
find one which was almost quite w)iite though the eyes were black, examples 
of partial melaniBin and nlbinism respectively. I hnve almost completed my 
examination o( rattus series, and find that no distinction can be drawn 
between nt/sscens and alssandrtnux, as they iiiterg^rade completely. The 
■smaller specimens which agree with the description of rvfMcens are simply 
jonng specimens of aU9andrinu9, May 16th, 1906. 

Vol. II, No. 5.1 Note on the Bats of Odcutta. 185 

rafous tendency. Mus ratlus nee.l n .'ver be mistaken, as even when 
the long tail is mutilated, as it freqaently is, the yery lar^^e pro- 
minent eyes and the large oatstaading ears are quit^ characteristic. 
Apart from its size, the bicoloured tail of decuminus will nearly 
always distinguish it. If the lower surface is only a very little 
lighter, then a glance at the large flesh-coloured feet will settle tha 
specie^, and an examination of the pads shows them large and cordi* 
form or heartshaped just as in Mus rattus. The purplish feet and 
finout and the shorter much-tapered tail make the recognition of 
Nesolcvi hengaleiuis also easy. The long, black bristlen, 4-5 cm. 
long, are nnmifitakable. The foot pads will settle any doubt, being 
8m»dl, rounded and with the proximo ^^xtefnal almost absent. 

The large black feet and slender muzzle at once separate the 
Bandicoot from the largest brown rat. The following is a summary 
of the principal measurements in centimetres To get the length 
of head and body it is important to see that the rat is straightened 
out, particularly if rigor mortis is present. The centre of the amis 
is taken as the junction of body and tail. Calipers may be used, 
but a steel tape is very convenient, and, considering the normal 
variations, sufficiently accurate. The curves of the body should 
not be followed. In measuring the hind foot the claws should 
be excluded. The ear should be measared from the external root 
of the conch. My own have been taken from the lower edge of the 

Average Measurements in Centimetres, 

Leiifcth of 

head and 





Leni{th of 
Hind FuoU 


3C. alex'indrinaa 





M. deonni'inas 


20 2 



N. bengalensis 

18 2 




K. nemorivfigDs ... 





Belative Frequenqf, — Figures in this instance tend to be rather 
unsatisfactory owing to two onuses. In the first place pressure 
of plague work made it impossible for me to make accurate record- 
ed counts of any but a small proportion of the rats I examined. 
In the second place it was only late in my investigation that I 
oould accurately distinguish the different varieties. My own re- 
corded counts total 6*8. My colleague. Dr. Crake, counted 1,000, 
but onlv distinguished long-tailed from other rats, making the 
former 11 '2 percent. 


Journal of the Astotte Society of Bengal, [May, 1906. 
Belative Frequency of Bats in Calcutta, 

N. bengalensis. 

M. decumanxis. 

M. alezandrinus. 

N. nemorivagus* 

I have collected 9 specimens of Bandicoot, but these were oot 
of a series of over 2,000 examined, and three of these were sent to 
me from other districts than my own. 

The frequency of N, bengalensis is certainly overstated in the 
above table, and the explanation is that my most assiduous collector 
worked in a quarter where grain godowns abound. From observa- 
tions in other districts, I should say that taken all over the city 
Nesokia bengalensis and M, decumanus are about equally frequent. 

I have already generally indicated the reason for publishing 
this abstract. The preparation of the plates which are to accom* 
pany the full paper will take so long that it seems advisable not to 
wait indefinitely but to publish this rough summary at once in 
the hope that it may be of Rome use to those who are working at 
the connection between rats and plague. 

YoL II, No. 5.1 Notet on the Freshwater Fattita 0/ India. 187 

26. Notes on the t\eshwater Fauna, of India. No. V.Sotne 
AnimaU found assttciated with Spongillfi carteri in Oalcutta. — 
By N. Annand.vcb, D.Sc, CM Z.S. (With ono plate) 

Several Insects and Cmstacea are known to live temporarily 
or permanently in the canals of MphydiUia fluviatilis in Eai*ope ; 
but very little has been published regarding the incolsB or 
commensals of the tropical Froshwater Sponges. During the past 
winter and spring I have examined in Calcutta a large number of 
fipecimens of the common SpongtUa carteriy in order to discover 
what animals live in association with it. Such animals prove to 
be numerous and of wevy varied kinds. Several species, of which I 
have little to say, may be noticed briefly. A small fish of the 
genus Ghbius (which I will descnbe later) lays its eggs in de- 
presnions on the surfac^e of the Sponge towards the end of the 
cold weather, and sevei^al of the higher Crustacea ' probably take 
shelter temporarily iu the same position. To descend in the 
animal scale, I have found considerable numbers of at least one 
species of Planarian actually in the interior of the Sponge. These, 
however, I only found in this position after the rise in temperature, 
which heralds the commencement of the hot season, had caused 
the cells of the organism to perish, leaving, in many cases, a 
fairly coherent skeleton nttached to the roots of floating water- 
plants vvhicli retaine«l the gemmules in its meshwork. This skele- 
ton also gave shelter to numerous Inse(*t larva, whicrh nny have 
been an attraction to the Planarians, although most of them were 
too big to fall an easy prey to the latter. In Sponges of the 
species I have seen, at all times during winter and spring, minute 
iNematodes of the family AngnilluhdsB, while in one, which I 
dissected in February, I found a larva of a Gordiid worm, lying 
close to the external sur&.ce in the substance of the Sponge. It 
was iu its first stage, and its presence was probablv connected 
with other inhnbitants of its host; for iHrve of the kind ai<e 
known to attack Ghironomid Inrvee, through the integument ot 
which they make their way. In another specimen, at the begin- 
ning of April, I c«ime across a worm of the genus DerOj which, 
although fully adult, was probably a chance Ruest also. It is 
evident that a loose, porous mass like the skeleton of SpongtUa 
carteri offers an attractive retreat to any animal of sufficiently 
small girth and of retiring habits which may chance to find it. 

There are several Insects and a Worm, however, whose 
oonnection with the Sponse is of a more settled though not a 
mrmanent nature. I will first deal with the Worm, of which a 
aescription follows. 

1 Bai Bahadur B. B. Sanyal in his eicellent little book Hourt wUh 
Nature savt that in *>ome parts of Benyn^l Freshwater sponget are known M 
"* shrimps^ nets," because Bhrimps take shelter in them. The same nataral* 
<M tells me tlmt ^ namber of joun^ snakes {Cerheriu rhyneope) born in 
bis aqiiariiiin in Calontta, took shelter, the day after birth, in the natural 
canals of a sponge at the bottom of the tank. 

188 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Benyal. [May, 190^. 


Diagnosis : — 

A large sncker surrounding the mouth ; no posterior 
sucker ; segments few ; body transparent, colourless ; integument 
irregularly, transversely striated on the body, with lom^itudinal 
rows of minute, irregular tubetcles on the " head "; chsBtsB short, 
feeble. reti*actilt*, nrranged in 6 or 7 pairs of bundles along the 
ventral surface, with a narrow, flattened area between them, with 
4 or 5 chsBtaB in each bundle, those of the second segment twice a^ 
long as the others ; no chiBtte on the 3rd- 6th segments ; total 
length of ^n individual which is rtot budding about 1 mm. 
Walls of pharynx comparatively thin ; oesophagus as long as 
pharynx or longer, undivided, covered with glandular cells; 
intestine short. An otocyst in the "brain." 

This Worm resembles Ghsetogaster bengalensts in the possession 
of the otocyst, whicli is a rehitively large, globular, transparent 
cyst. It differn, however, from the species previously dcKcribed 
jFrom Calcutta in the comparatively thin walls of its pharynx, 
its undivided cBsophagus, and the lack of a posterior sncker — the la«t 
a character which may be considered by authorities on the group 
to be of generic value. It is not improbable that both Ghmtogaster 
hengaleitsis and Ch. spongillse will be finally separated from the 
European and Ameiican species of the genus under some new 
generic name or names : but their affinities are shown to lie with 
this genus by the following important characters: — (1) The 
double ventral nerve cord ; (2) the discrete nature of the ganglia, 
the arrangement of which does not conespond with the segmenta- 
tion of the body; (3) the absence of dorsal setae and the arrange- 
ment of those on the ventral surface, which are present only on 
segment II and on the segments posterior to V ; (4) the presence 
of uncinate setae only. 

In specimens of Spongilla carteri which had borne down the 
floating plants to which they were attached and had been partially 
smothered in the mud at the bottom of the pond, and in specimens 
of Spongilla dectpiens which were already dying and producing 
large numbers of gemmules, I found Ohastogaster spongillse abund- 
ant during February. It frequented only those parts of the 
Sponge which had been killed or were dying, its food apparently 
consisting of the organic debris left by their decay. Many thou- 
sands of individuals were found in sudi parts of the sponge, while 
the healthy, growing parts were quite fi^ of them. 

Lately (April, 1906) I have found Ghaetogaster spongillse^ still 
sexually immature, on the external surface of colonies of Plumor 
iella repens var. emarginata^ which were growing on submerge 
stones and water-plants in a pond in the Calcutta Zoological 
hardens. Accompanying it were Naidomorph worms ' of several 
genera, (including Dero^ Pristina and Pterostylarides)^ numerous 
Kotifers, and also a third species which must be placed provision- 

t For descriptions and figares of many of the TncUan species of this 
family see A.. G. Bourne, in Quart. Jmim* Micr, 8cu XXXV, 1891, p. 886. 

.Vol. II, No. 6.] Noteton the Frethwater Fauna of India. \S9 

ally in the genus Chastoyaster. The last (Fig. IB) is remarkable 
for possessing in the brain a sensory organ which is densely 
pigmented and probably fanctions as an eye. The buccal cavity 
in this species is very deep, the muscular pharynx short ; the total 
length is from 2 to 3 mm., and there are not more tlian eight 
pairs of setigerous bundles, the seteB resembling those of Chseto- 
ycLster henyalensis in arrangement, but being fewei* in each bundle. 
Kxcept those just behind the month, they are not retractile. The 
vascular plexus in better developed than in the two othei* 
forms 1 have examined, and extends forwards to the base of th6 
buccal cavity. There is no nephridium near the second bundle, but 
■that which opens at the ba8e of the third bundle is larger than 
those postt'rior to it. Although the sexual organs arc quite imma- 
ture, the clitelluiii is well developed. 

The food of this form with an eye consists, at any rate in part^ 
of the Protozoa ^VorHcella, Epistylts, Stentor^ etc.) which are abun- 
dant on the surface of the zoarium of the Polyzcfon. The worm 
hooks itself along with the aid of its setee, the first bundle 
playing no part in progression but being used to seize and 
retain living prey The ventral surface is closely applied to some 
more or less flat surface during progi*cssion, and the movements^ 
in spite of the existence and use of the setee, recall those of a 
Planarian. Unlike the species which attaches itself to snails in 
the Calcutta '* tanks " — I have not been able to find specimens 
this winter^this Eyed Ghtetogaster cnn progress through th^ 
water without support, by lateral and vertical contortions of its 
body ; but it prefers as a rule to crawl. 

Fig, 1. Two species of Ohmto(fa»ter trom PiumnteUa, April. 
kmCh. npongilla. B«(?h., sp. (Both x n bout 85.) 

Babad. Caclitellutn; e*eye; o^otocyst. Both ■pecitnenR nre in a8tttta> 
of coiitr ot'on. 

190 Journal of ihe Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

Spongilla careen produces comparatively few gemmnles iu 
Calcutta, where the freshwater Sponges are not desicated during 
the hot weather as they are in Bombay but apparently perish 
owinff to the rise in temperature which takes plaice at the end of 
March or the beginning of April. Moreover, these few gemmnles 
are formed chiefly towards the interior of the Sponge, which may 
reach a diameter of at least six inches, and are mostly retained in 
the meshwork of the skeleton and germinate in situ on the return 
of cooler weather. A few, however, are set free and serve to aid 
in the dispersal of the species. I found gemmnles of this form 
fairly abundant on the surface of a marsh in Ghota Nagpnr at the 
beginning of March, and thej may occasionally be taken among the 
bacterial scum which appears on the water of the Calcutta *' tai^s *' 
a little later in the year. A large proportion of the gemmnles of 
SponyiUa decipiens are, on the other hand, produced, so to speak, 
for dispersal. The Sponge is a thin, incrusting form, which 
becomes full of gemmules, and the gemmnles are packed together 
in masses of a peculiar pneumatic tissue which gives them very 
great buoyancy. I have no doubt that Chastogaster spongillas 
(which I lubve only found in half-dead sponges iu an unfavourable 
position for the germination of the gemmnles) plays an important 
part in liberating the gemmules of both species, both by eating 
tiie debris which retains them in position, and by its movements 
as it crawls along the skeleton. Its mode of progression 
differs from that of Ohsetogaster bengalensis and consists mainly in 
wrigffling movemente of the body assisted by the retractile ohastaB, 
which, owing to their fineness, are well adapted for grappling with 
the spicules of the Sponge. A large number of living organisms, 
however minute, moving in this way must aid in dislodging freely 
movable bodies such as gemmules in the meshwork of a Sponge 

Ohsetogaster spongillss reproduces its kind prolifically by bud- 
ding and subsequent fission ; but I have not found individuals 
which were sexually mature, notwithstanding the fact that the 
clitellum, as in Ghmtogaster bengalensis, is already visible in 
young individuals newly sepai-ated from a budding parent. There 
seems to be a tendency, however, for the latter species to desert 
its host at the beginning of the hot Weather, and it is not 
improbable that it becomes sexually mature after doing so, and 
deposite eggs at the bottom which lie dormant until the tempera- 
ture sinks again. The clitellum becomes more conspicuous at the 
end of winter ; but I have not been able to detect the gonads even 
in specimens in which this change had occurred. 

The Insecte which inhabit Spongilla carteri belong to several 
species ; but as they ate all immature I cannot venture on specific 
determinations. The most numerous belong to the Dipterous 
family of Chironomidae or Midges. 

Chironomus sp. (larva). 
One type of larva (possibly including several allied species) 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Notes ou the Freshwater B'auna of India. 191 

commonly found in i he Sponge asr> ee^t in almost all respects with 
the larv8B of hlaropean Midges of tlie genus Ghironomus, This 
type (Fig. IB) has an elongated body with the segments appit>xi- 
mately similar inter se. The head, which is nmall, is hard and 
of a brownish colour. There are two eyes, the lower of which is 
double, on each side, and a short tentacle which in not 
retractile. The jaws, which are formed for biting, and the 
other month-parts exuctly resemble those of European species. On 
the first segment of the body there is a pair of extremely short, 
stout, separate appendages, which are furnished at their fi*ee 
ezti-emity with a i>undle of coarse, curved spines. A somewhat 
similar, out longer pair of appendages occurs at the other extrem- 
ity of the body, and behind them, at the very tip of the abdo- 
men, is a pair of blunt, sack-like processes with a small bunch of 
hairs on h slight projection at their common base above. The 
last abdominal segment also bears on the dorsal sarface (in some 
cases on a hump or prominence > a bunch of much thicker and 
longer briistles, which are connected with a special muscle. A few 
fine, scattered hairs occur on the sides of the body. There are no 
processes on the ventral surface of the abdomen. (The last is a 
feature in which almost all the larvae of Ghironomus I have ex- 
amined in India differ from those of the European species, in 
which these ventral processes are conspicuous.) This sponge - 
haunting Ghironomus larva differs from the one which feeds onHydra 
in atleastfonr points: (1) in the extreme shortness of the anterior 
limbs ; (2) in the structure of the eyes, of which there is a single 
pair in the former; (3) in being considerably larger; and (4) 
in colour. Whereas the free-living species is nearly colourless, 
that of the form at present under considel^ation is of a deep blood- 
red hue. This colour, which is developed fully only in older in- 
dividuals, has been shown to be due in other larvsB of the genus 
not to the presence of ordinary pigment but to the production 
of hsBmoglobm, by means of which the larva breathes, its res- 
piratoty system being altogether rudimentary. The smaller size 
of the free-living species may render a highly specialized device for 
oxygenating the blood unnecessary. 

As I have said, I am not sure that seveml closely allied 
species of Ghironomus larvte do not haunt the Sponge ; but even if 
this is the cane, they are as Rimilar in their habits as in their 
structure, and they may be regarded from the standpoint of bio- 
nomics as a single form. In many cases it is evident that they and 
the Sponge grow up together, and large numbers of them may be 
found in the substance of their host at all times during winter and 
spring. The evil odour of the Sponge is apparently not offensive 
to them, and they are rather more numerous in the uving Sponge, 
which has this odour, than in the dead skeleton from which the 
smell has departed. As young larvie, thev build shoi*t pix>tectiug 
tubes of a parohment-like substance, which is ^ecreted by theii* 
salivaiy glands It appears, unlike the threads oF which the tube 
of the common European Ghironomus larvsB is made, to be given 
b out in an amorphous condition, and is probably moulded into shape by 


192 Journal (?/ the Asiatic' Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

the larva. The Sponge grows very rapidly and the larva is soon 
in danger of being engnlphed in its substance. The tube is there- 
fore lengthened, in orde:* to avoid this catastrophe and to secure 
communication with the exterior. The process may continue until 
the tube in over an inch in length, its diameter increasing with the 
growth of its maker. The internal aper t nre becomes practically closed 
by the pressure of the growing substance of the Sponge, but the ex- 
ternal orifice remains open. Very often the Sponge dies before 
the larva has reached the term of its larval life ; but this appears 
to make no difference to the latter, which lives on in ite tube. 
The entrance to the tui»e may project some little distance beyond 
the worn surface of the larva's dead host. 

The larva does not eat the Sponge but feeds on minute 
animals which it catohes by means of the curved bristles on ite 
anterior limbs. In capturing its prey it stretches the fore part of 
its body out of the entrance of its tube, to the interior of which it 
clings by means of its hind limbs and of the bristles at the posterior 
extremity of the abdomen. The tube is covered with scattered spic- 
ules of the Sponge ; but I have been unable to at-certain whether the 
larva fastens them there or whether they belong to the substance 
of the host. Their clean condition, as they are apparently free 
from living cells or the remains of dead ones, would suggest that 
the larva plucks them out from the sponge and fixes them in posi- 
tion ; but the tube is in extremely intimate contact with the sub- 
stance of the sponge, and can witli difficulty be separated from it. 

At first sight it would appear that the presence of a foreign 
body such as the tube of this Ohironomtis larva in the interior of a 
living organism would be necessarily hai*mful to that organism ; 
but the fnct that a Sponge has no definite organs or living tissues 
renders a theory of the kind improbable. Study of the fact* showJ9 
that the tubes of the larva are, on the contrary, distinctly bene- 
ficial to the Sponge, especially when they are present in considerable 
numbers. Spongilla carteri is very fragile in life, but, as has been 
iioted above, the skeleton of specimens which have not grown 
sufficiently large ' to bear down the plants that support them, 
remains coherent after the death of the cells of the Sponge, 
serving as a nest for the gemniules which it retains. The tubes 
of the Ohironomus larva aid very greatly in preserving this 
coherence by binding the skeleton together, as the substance out 
of which they are formed is- tough and persistent. The larva, 
therefore, would appear to be beneficial to the Sponge in a way 
very different from that in which Ghietogaster spongillse aids in 
maintaining the survival of the species ; but whereas the latter 
has only been found in Sponges which had sunk to the bottom, the 
former occurs chiefly in those which are floating near the surface. 

The larva does not pupate in the Sponge. 

Col. Alcock * has drawn my attention to certain instances of 

1 Sometimes they sink not becnuBe of their own weight but because the 
■leaves of the supporting plants Hi-e eaten by insects. 

2 See Aloook in Ann Marf. Nat. Hist, (6) X, 1892, p. 208. 

Vol. n, No. 5.] Noie$ on the Freshwater Faufia of India. 193 

commensalifim between marine Sponges and Hydrozoa, which are 
to some extent parallel to this between atubioolouslarva andSpongilla 
carterij the chitinons exoskeleton of the Goelenterates playing, how- 
over, a far more important part in the formation of the sponge 
body dian do the tubes of the Chironomid. The case of the latter 
and its host should perhaps be described as one of incipient oom- 
mensalism. The considei-able variation noted in the habits of 
allied Indian larvsB would support- this view. A very similar 
larva forms its tube indifferently either in the substance of a 
brackish-water Sponge or among the densely packed zooecia of a 
Polyzoon ; a third is common on the external surface of the zoarium 
of Plumatelhi repens, covering its tube with sand-grains ; while a 
fourth lives iDdependently and fastens to its retreat Protozoa 
and other small animals on which it feeds. The liabits of all these 
species tend, in greater or less degree, towards commensalism, and 
probably the one at present under consideration has gone further 
than the others in this respect. 

Tanypus sp. (larva). 

Another Chironomid larva (Fig. 2B) commonly found in the 
substnnce of Spongilla cartert "so closely resembles those of the 
European members of the genus Tanypua that I think there can 
be little doubt that this is the genus to which it belongs. It dif- 
fers from the larva of C^iionomti^ in tlie following characters : (1) 
the head, instead of being subspherical in shape is long, rather 
narrow, and flattened above, having a somewhat ** snaky *' appear- 
ance ; (2) the antennte can be completely retracted into cavities 
in the side of the head ; ( 3) the fore limbs are joined together at 
the base for a considerable proportion of their length ; (4) both they 
and the hind limbs can be entirely retracted, the latter being with- 
drawn into separate sheaths while the fore limbs disappear into a 
<^ommon tube which depends from the ventral surface of the first 
segment of the body some little diatance behind the head. The 
claws attached to ihe hind limbs are large in this sponge-haunt« 
ing form, which I have found both in winter and in spring, and 
there is a single, undivided eye on each side. This larva does not 
form a tube but fort*es its way through the substance of the 
Sponge, pulling itself along by means of its conjoined fore limbs« 
When alarmed it withdraws its limbs and antennae into their 
cases and remains still, as if it wei'e dead Probably it does not 
feed on the Sponge, but, like its ally found in the same organism, 
on minute animals which it catches by means of the hooks 
on its fore limbs. This form is commoner in dead Sponges 
than is the Ohironomus, and I have taken a species prob- 
ably identical with it living free among water-weeds. It is 
colourless and apparently breathes by tronamission of oxygen 
through the general surface of its body, which is covered with 
a fine, soft integument It does not grow so big as the Chironomut 
larva. I have sometimes found a considerable number of 

J94 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 

individaals close together in a natural cavity of the Sponge. The 
pnpa lives free in the water. 

Fig. 2. Chironomid Lat'vsB f rum S* carteri. 
A » Chironmus sp., x 10. B ^ Tanypua sp., x 20. 

A small Beetle larva (PL I, Fig. 3) occurs somewhat spaiinglj 
in the Sponge, both in winter and in spring. Its mouth-pi^ts 
prove that it is a predaceons form ; but I have been unable to 
identify it. A remarkable feature is the forked appendage at the 
extremity of the abdomen. This structure is jointed and bears 
at the extremity of each of its two branches a powerful hooked 
claw. The object of the daw is to enable the larva to cling 
tightly to any object, and the end of the abdomen is generaUy 
bent beneath the rest of the body like the '' tail " of a lobster. 
If the larva is dislodged, however, it straightens itself and moves 
along by means of its legs, with a curious jerky gait. I have 
usually found it near the centre or the base of the Sponge. 

SiSYRA sp. (larva). PI. I, Fig. 2. 

One of the most interesting Insects found in the Sponge is a 
Neuropterous larva very closely resembling that of the European 
Sityra fuscatUy which is found during summer in the cauids of 
EfSiydatia ftuviatUis, Indeed, I cannot find any definite character 
whereby the Indiiiu form could be distinguished from the Euro* 
pean ; but possibly the eyes are better developed in the former. 
The Indian larva is a small, whitish insect with a flattened, 
almost triangular abdomen and a compaiatively narrow thorax 
and head. The abdomen, as in the Eui-opean form, bears on its 
ventral surface seven- pairs of jointed appendages which appa- 
)?ently function as gills. There is a pair of very fine, stiff, 

Vol. II, No. 5.] Not«« on the Fre$hwater Fauna of India. 195 


bristle-like antennas on the head, and the eyes are large and 
dark. Each consists of a number of simple ocelli situated close 
together on a small circular area. The mouth-parts resemble 
those of the European form, but may differ slightly in details.. 
They consist of a pair of tubular structures which closely resem- 
ble the antennas m outward appearance, except that they are 
not jointed. Each is really double. Their function is evidently 
to obtain nourishment by suction ; but it is not known whether 
the European form feeds on the Sponge or on other animals or 
plants, and I have no observations on this point to offer as regards 
the Indian larva. 

I have only found this larva during the winter months. 
Unlike its European congener, it is not confined to the natural 
cavities of the Sponge ; for it forces it<s way into the actual sub- 
stance of its host. 

Its occurrence daring summer in Europe and in winter in the 
tropics, is what might be expected from the analogy of other 
forms in the " tank" faana. In Europe winter is the time 
of hardship for aquatic animals, owing t«> scarcity of food and the 
formation of ice ; whei eas in Calcutta the high temperature to 
which water, and especially shallow, stagnant water, rises during 
the liot season, appears to be inimical to most forms of animal 
life, while life flourishes in the comparatively, but not actually 
cold water of the cool season. In Calcutta few of the ^* tanks '* 
dry up at any time of the year ; but the fact that they do so in 
many parts of the warmer regions of the world may have had an 
effect on the history of the pond fauna of a district geologically 
so recent as Lower Bengal. Regarded from a geological stanil- 
point, the animals of this part ofthe country are, without exception, 
recent immigrants, and we find that some characteristic represen- 
tatives of even the Indian terrestrial fauna (e g., Ohamadeon calcara- 
tu8 Bind Sitana ponttceriaua) have never managed to establish them- 
selves in the Ganges delta. Aquatic animals can usually adapt 
themselves to changed conditions, as we see by comparing the 
fauna of a Calcutta ** tank " and that of a British pond and not- 
ing the many resemblances and identities ; but chnnges are 
brought about very gradually unless they are of essential impor- 
tance to the well-being of an organism, and it is not improbable 
that the crisis which fakes place in the life cjcle of so many of the 
animals of the Calcutta '^ tanks " towards the end of March, is 
not due solely to the actual rise in temperature which tlien occurs, 
but also in part to an inherited rhythmical tendency which pro- 
tected the ancestors of these organisms from perishing in a climate 
ill which the extremes of moisture and dryness were more widely 
separated than they are iii Lower Bengal. 


At least two species of Dipterous lar.vaB, a Beetle larva, a 
Neuropterous larva of the ^enus SisyrOj and a Worm probably 
belonging (o the genus Chsetogasterf occur in the substance of 

196 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengai, [May, 1906. 

living specinienB of SpongtUa carteri in Calcutta, while several 
other animals seek shelter in the dead skeleton of the Sponge; 
The Worm appears to be beneficial to its host in that it assists in 
the dispersal of the gemmales, while one of the Dipterous larvsB 
strengthens the skeleton of the Sponge by bnilding tough and 
persistent tuUes in the substance of its host. 

Explanation of Plate 1. 

Fig. 1. — Vertical section of a specimen of Spongilla carten 
which has sunk to the bottom. The upper, lighter 
portion was living, the lower, dark part practically dead. 
February 6th. (Natural size). 
G=gemmule. T = tube of Okironomus larva. R = 
rootlet of plant to which the Sponge was attached. 

Fig. 2. — An undetermined Beetle laiTa from Spongilla carteri, 
X 10. 

Fig. 8. — Ventral surface of larva of Sisyra sp., from Spongilla 
carteri, x 10. 

All the figures are from specimens preserved in formaline. 

Vol. II, No. 5.1 Nates on the Freshwater Fauna of India. 197 


26. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of hulia. No. VI, — The Life- 
History of an Aquatic Weevil. — By N. Annandale and C. A. 

So far as we are aware, no member nf the family Curcnli- 
onidce has been recorded as an aqnatic Insect In the autnmn of 
1905, however, one of as found a few specimens of a small Weevil 
among water- weeds in the Mnsenm ** tank "in Calcutta. At the 
beginning of March, 1906, another, considerably smaller species 
was noted under similar conditions in Chota Nagpur ; but unfor- 
tunately all the specimens obtained were accidently destroyed. 
In the same month, especially towards the latter half, the Calcutta 
species was abnndunt, and we are now able to give a general ac- 
count of its life history, which is surprisingly similar to that of 
many terrestrial forms. 

Although we do not propose to attempt a generic identifica- 
tion of this Weevil, it will be well to commence with a description 
of the species. 

Description of an Aquatic Wkevil. 

The antennae are elbowed and the basal joint fits into a groove 
on the surface of the rostrum They are inserted at a puint a 
little distal of the middle of the rostrum, than which they nre 
longer. The first joint is equal in length to the sum of the 
remaining joints ; the distal joint is flattened and expanded. The 
rostium is stout, slightly curved, and approximately equal in 
length to the head and pronotum together. The head is small 
and deflexed, its base being covered by the anterior bordei* of the 
pronotum. The eyes nre small and rounded, and are situated on 
the sides of the head, at the base of the i^ostrum. The prothorax 
has the lateral margins rounded. The elytra are truncate proiim- 
ally, pointed apically, with two blunt tubercles on each, one neai* 
the base and one a little distance from the apex ; they cover the 
abdomen entirely and are very convex outwa^s. The coxbb are 
snbconical and prominent, the anterior pair being contiguous, the 
intermediate pair slightly and the posterioi- pair very widely 
separated from one another. The femora are incrassate from a 
little beyond the middle point to the apex ; the tibiae are long, 
slender, curved towards the apex, ending in a sharp claw ; the 
tarsi are 4- jointed, and each joint is clothed below with a tuft of 
fine, white hairs. The head, thorax and elytra are finely punctured, 
the sides of the pronotum being also vertically, sinuately striated, 
and the elytra deeply grooved longitudinally. 

6 9 

Total length ... 4 mm. 5 mm. 

Breadth of thorax ... 0. 75 „ 1 „ 

Length of rostrom ... 1 „ 1.5 „ 

Colour. — Silvery grey ; eyes black, rostrum piceous ; antennaa, 
tarsi, tibiae and base of femora ferruginous, the antenn» rather 
darker than any part of the limbs. 

198 . Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1906. 


The adultfl feed on the floating leayes of Limntinthemum, 
They also eat the stems of the same plant, crawling down them into 
the water. Their bodies are lighter than water and conseqaently rise 
to the surface if dislodg^. Their powers of swimming are feeble and 
their movements on the snrf aoe are directed solely to secunng hold of 
the nearefit leaf or other floating object Under water each antenna 
carries a babble of air. which may be osefal, as Miall ' suggests, in the 
case of certain true Water Beetles, in enabling these organs to per- 
form their delicate sensory fa notions. The dorsal surface of the 
abdomen is flat, leaving an empty space beneath the convex elytra, 
the edges of which fit very closely to the lateral margins of the 
dorsal surface of the abdomen. The wings are closely applied to 
the elytra above. The space thus formed is filled with air. The 
beetle may sometimes be seen holding on to the edge of a Ltmnan- 
themum leaf, with the tip of th«- abdomen out of the water. 
Doubtless it is taking in fresh air into this space ; but the spii*acles 
ai^e not in any way modified to assist in the operation. Hubbies 
of «ir are not set free under wat<*r. 

The sexes couple on the upper surface of the Limnanthemum 
leaves in March. Union lasts for some hours, and then the male goes 
o£F in search of a fresh mate. The female descends beneath the sur- 
face, clinging to a stem. At intervals she bites small funnels in 
the substance of the stem, and in some of these she deposits eggs, 
one egg in each funnel. We have not found more than one egg in 
each stem in the *'tank," but captive females sometimes lay 
several in a stem. The egg is elongated and rounded at both ends. 
It measures about 0*8 mm. in length, and 0*3 mm. in tranverse 
diameter. The female has no ovipositor, bat the posterior extrem- 
ity of her abdomen is slightly tubular in shape. She pushes the 
egg along under the bark so that it lies with its major axia 
paniUel to the external surface of the stem. The young larva is of 
a dark reddish-brown colour owing to its large salivary glands, 
which are of this colour, showing through the transparent skin. 
It is rather more slender than some Weevil larvae but otherwise 
normal. The eye is small and very inconspicuous. There is 
a black spot on the last segment of the abdomen. The 
respiratory system is similar in all respects to that of a 
terrestrial species. Indeed, there is no necessity for any structural 
-adaptation for life inside the stem, which is natnrally full 
of air, its tissues, like those of the stems of many water-plants, con- 
taining closed spaces which render it buoyant. What has occurred 
is a modification of instinct which has allowed the Beetle to make 
use of the air-spaces in the plant; but this modification of 
instinct has nc»t been accompanied, as it has in the case of the 
lai va of the European Donaciu crassipes,^ by the development of a 
special organ for piercing the walls of the air-spaces. The larva 
eats away these walls with its jaws, as it forms the larger cavity 
in which it lives, and so is well supplied with air by the same 
action which gives it nourishment. 

i Nat. Hist. Aquatic Insects, p. 84. . S-Ki.^ op. C(^,. p. 95. 

Yol. II, No. 5.1 NoUs on the Freshwater Fuuna of India. \^» 

Immediately after emerging, the larva begins to eat, moving 
throngli the stem either upwards or downwards as chance may 
direct it. By feeding on the tissues of the stem it soon forma 
a vertical tunnel, which increases in width as it does. This 
tunnel reaches the length of about an inch and half, but behind 
the larva it is filled with excreta. The funnel in which the Qgg 
was laid disappears with the growth of the plant. 

After undergoing several ecdyses the larva becomes of a 

Fio. 1. The Metamorphosis of an Aquatic Weevil. 
A -egg ( X Id). B -^ young larva, probably in its seoond inetar ( x 16). G « adult larra 
(x 16), a— spimoles. D-pupa (x 16). B- adult female (x8). F - adult male (x 8). 
A-D from specimens preserved in formaline t B and F from dried speoimens. 

"200 Joumcd of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [May, 1906. 

pinkish cx)lour, owing to an accnmnlation of fat which conceals the 
salivary glands. At this stage it is abont 6 mm. long. Its girth ifi 
now sufficiently great to affect that of the stem in which it lives, 
and the latter bulges out round the chamber in which it pupates. 
The pupa is perfectly normal. It lies in the stem with its ventral 
surface directed towaixis the thinnest wall of the stem, and through 
this the adult eats its way. 

Although many eggs were laid in our aquarium, we have been 
unable to watch the metamoi'phosis, as the ova of a captive speci- 
men did not develop. The foregoing notes are therefore derived 
chiefly from observations on a large number of infected Ltmnanthe- 
mum plants brought from the Museum ^^ tank " and examined 

We have found both Chironomid larvae and Planarians in the 
tunnels made by the Weevil, but are unable to say whether they 
had entered the tunnels merely for the sake of shelter or to feed on 
the proper occupants. 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, 201 


27. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India. No, VII. — A new Ooby 
from Fresh and Brackish Water in Lmoer Bengal. -^By N. 
Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

The Fish described in this note was obtained in large numbers 
at Port Canning (Lower Bengal) in January, and has reoentlj been 
taken in Calcutta. I have to thank Col. A. W. Alcook for much 
assistance in its determination and description. 

GoBius ALCOCKii, flp. nov. 
Diagnosis : — 

D 5 V-T- A|- ^' lat. 26 to 28. L. trans. 9. Body compressed, 
moderately elongate ; the height 6 times in the total length includ- 
ing caudal fin. Length of head 3| times in total length including 
caudal fin ; diameter of eye gi*eater than length of snout, less than 
interorbital breadth ; eyes large, feebly protuberant ; cleft of mouth 
small, oblique ; several rows of teeth in both jaws, canines well 
developed ; snout obtuse, rounded. Two rows of tubercles below 
the mouth on each side and a less distinct A-shaped series on the 
lower proximal part of the cheek. Dorsal fins well separa- 
ted, barely as high as body, their spines without filamentous 
prolongations ; tail fin rounded. Scales relatively large, conspicu- 
ously ctenoid. Colour white (in life translucent), with two 
broad, black, vertical bars on the liead and four or five on the 
body ; the top of the head sufEused with black or wholly black ; the 
dark markings produced by an aggi*egation of relatively larg^, 
star-shaped pigment-celU which are separated more or less distinct- 
ly from one another. 

Length of a spawning female (the largest individual seen) — 
16 mm. 

The most remarkable points about this little Fish are its small 
size and its juvenile appearance, which has evidently caused it to 
be passed over undescribed. At least one other species of the same 
family, the Philippine Mistichthys luzonensis (which is said to be 
the smallest known vertebrate) is as small. 

The specimens taken at Port Canning were netted among 
weeds overgrown with Polyzoaand Sponges (SpongtUa lacustris var. 
hengaleiisis) in brackish pools ; while the one collected in Calcutta 
was found among the roots of a plant of Pistia stratiotes from a 
" tank *' in the Zoological Gardens at Alipur. This specimen was 
engaged in spawning. The eggs, which were rather large for the 
size of the parent, measured 0'9 mm., by 0*9 mm., by 1 mm., 
and were somewhat irregular and variable in outline, the majority 
having a more or less pear-like form. Thev were attached 
to rootlets near the centre of the bunch, surrounding a cavity such 
as is often produced in Pistia stratiotes hj some of the roots decay- 
ing and falling away after being attacked by Insects. The female, 
whose fin membranes were much torn, died on the day following 
her capture, and ova were seen issuing from her body. Judging 


Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal, [May, 1906.]. 

from the size and appearance of the eggs, I have little doubt that 
Qobius alcockiiiB the Fish which also spawns in depressions on the 
surface of Sfongilla earteri. 

Fig. 1. Gohius alcochii ( x 9). 
With a lateral scale (highly magnified) 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Note$ on the Indian Tortoises. 20J 

28. OontrihuUons to Oriental Herpetology. No. IV, — Notes on the 
Indian Tortoises. — By N. Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 
( Witli one plate. ) 

Although the Indian Masenm possesses an almost complete 
collection of the known Indian Chelonia, there is comparatively 
little to be said aboat the specimens ; few have been added 
during the last twenty years, and the late Dr. J, Anderson, who 
was mainly instrumental in getting the collection together, de- 
scribed the greater part of it in considerable detail. More recent- 
ly, however, Mr. G. A. Boulenger's Catalogue of the Ohelonia in the 
British Museum (1889) and Eeptilia and Batrachia (*' Fauna of 
India," 1890) have cast so much new light upon the group that 
notes may be useful on certain species. It is probable that con- 
siderable additions might be made to our knowledge if specimens 
were collected in the more remote districts <>f the Indian Empire, 
notably in Upper Burma and on the North -West Frontier. In the 
cases of land tortoises it is easy to transport living specimens, 
while even the skulls and shells of aquatic species would be 
valaable. In this connection I must express my thanks to Messrs. 
Vredenburg and Tipper, of the Geological Survey of India, and 
to the Political Agent at Kelat, for obtaining and sending to the 
Indian Museam from Baluchistan, a large series of one rare and 
important form. Similar consignments from other parts would be 
most gratefully received. 

It is unnecessary to mention the marine species. 


Triontx gangeticus, Cuvier. 

We have several well-authenticated and typical skulls from 

Emyda orakosa (Schoepff). 

The typical variety appears to be widely spread in Upper 
India, to which it is probably confined. 


E. vittata, Boulenger^ Faun. Ind , Rept,, p. 17. 

I cannot regard this form as more than a variety of E. granosa, 
its one constant diagnostic character being its coloration. Al- 
though it is common only in Ceylon and in Central and Soath* 
em India, it extends northwards into southern Bengal; I have 
examined specimens from Singhbhum. There are skeletons 
labelled as belonging to this form in the Museum from Chota 
Nagpur and Sind ; but their varietal identity is uncertain. 

fi04j Jowfial of the Astatic Socittij of Bengal, [June, 1906. 


Tbstudo elegans (Scboepff). 

There is a yoang specimen in the Museum from the Calcutta 
Botanical (hardens ; but Boulenger is probably right in stating the 
distribution of the species as *' India (except Lower Bengal)," for 
many imported Reptiles have been found in the Botanical Gardens, 
and T, elegans appears to shun damp localities. 

Tbstudo pseudemys, Boulenger. . 

T. pseudemys, Boulenger in Atmandale atid "Robinson, Faaoic. 
Malay., Zool, 1, p. 144, Fig. 1 and PL IX 

A young specimen from Pegu in the Museum agrees closely 
as regards skull characters with the type. The antero-latend 
margins of the vertebral shields are, however, less markedly short- 
er than the postero-lateral. 

I have nothing to ndd to the discussion as to the distinction 
or agreement between T. emys and T. phayrei ; but this specimen 
appears to be one of those associated with the latter name by 

Testudo horsfieldii. Gray (PI. II, Pig. 2). 

T. horsfieldii, Boulenger, Gat, Chelo9nans, p. 178. 

There are specimens in the Museum from Afghanistan and 
Eastern Persia, and I have lately received twenty-three Living ex- 
amples from KeLit. The latter vary considerably in size and age, 
and are of both sexes ; but although several have been injured in 
the carapace and plastron, all have the carapace flattened in the 
dorsal region. The skulls of eight specimens have been examined ; 
they vary considerably in respect to the following characters : 
relative width ; flatness ; relative breadth of the postorbital arch ; 
the development or absence of a transverse depression on the 
anterior part of the dorsal wall of the cranium ; and the degree 
of serration of the upper jaw. 

T. horsfieldii is an active species, walking, with considerable 
tapidity, very high on its legs. It is timid, but hisses when 
disturbed. Wlien eating or drinking it occasionally emits a low 
croak like that of a frog. Captive specimens conceal themselves 
during the heat of the day and at night, feeding at dusk and in 
the early morning. They are fond of most flowers and fruits and 
of the thick, fleshy leaves of various plants ; but they generally 
refuse to eat grass. They drink water greedily. Females cap- 
tured in April contained eggs of the size of duck shot ; in one 
oviduct of a large specimen killed towards the end of May. there 
were five fully-formed eggs with a thick, calcarious shell. The 
eggs measured 50 mm. by 35 mm. 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Notet on the Indian Tortoiseg. 205- 

Testcdo baluchioruu, Annahdale (PI. II, Fig. 1). 

T. balachiorarn, Annandale, in Journ, An, Soc, Be^igal, 1906^ 
p. 75. 

This species is very close to the preceding one. The main> 
difference hes in the sha^je of the carapace, which in T, haluchio- 
rum is not flattened in the dorsal region and descends more abmpt- 
ly at the sides and in front. Neither the skull characters men- 
tioned in my original account of T. haluchiorum nor the number 
of tubercles on the back of the thigh can be regarded as affording 
a constant diagnosis, as T. horsfiddii is evidently variable in these^ 

Of exotic tortoises of the genus Tesiudo in the Indian Museum, 
I may call attention to a large skull of the extinct T. trtserrata 
from Mauritius, and series of skeletons of the Madagascan species 
21 radiata. Most of the specimens of the latter species are labelled 
" Mauritius," and it is probable that large numbers were at one time 
introduced into Calcutta from Madagascar via that island. It is 
probable, further, that the species, which has certainly been con- 
fosed in some cases with T. elegavs, is or was feral in parts of 
Bengal. As a parallel instance I may mention that the com- 
monest terrestrial Mollusc in Calcutta gardens is a snail introduced 
from Mauritius, namely, Achatina fulica, Fer. 

NicoRiA TRIJUGA (Schweigg.). 

In my recent note ^ on the distribution of the var. thermalis of 
this species, I neglected to refer to Mr F. F. Laidlaw's ' record of 
its occurrence in the Maldives, whither it has probably been 
brought from Ceylon. The var. edeniana probably occurs in Ohota 
Nagpur, judging from the large size of skeletons hx>m that district,, 
as well as in Burma. 

Bkllia CRASsicoLLis (Gray). 

In addition to specimens from Burma and Malaya, there is a 
skeleton in the Museum said to have come from Travancore. In 
several specimens examined, the serration of the posterior margin 
of the carapace is obsolete. 

MoRKNiA PKTERSii, Andersou (PI. II, Fig. 4). 

There are several specimens in the Museum from the neigh- 
bourhood of Calcutta, as well as the types. 

M, petersii is easily distinguished from M. ocellata (PI. II, 
Fig. 3) by its coloration and by its skull characters; but tlie 
relative proportions of the plastral shields are not constant in 
either species. 

1 Ifem. A8. Soc. Bengal I, p. 185. 

2 In Gardiner's Maldives and Latcadives, Vol. I, p. 129. 


Jownial of the Aitiatic Society of Be7igal. [June, 1906. 

A List op thb Indian Tortoises. ^ 


1. TrioDyx subplanus, Geoffr. 

2. ,, gangetioas, Cav. 

3. „ leithii, Gray 

4. „ hnram, Gray 

5. ,, formosas, Gray 

6. „ phayrii, Theob. 

7. „ cartilagineas (Bodd.) 

8. Peloohelys oantoris, Ghray 

9. Chitra indioa (Gray) 

10. Emydagranosa (Sclioepff.) 

11. „ scutata, Peters. 

Testudinidm — 

12. Testudo elongata, BIyth 

13. ? Teatudo leithii, Gthr. 

14. Testado elegans, Schoepff. 

15. ,, platynota, Blyth 

16. „ emys Scbleg. & Mull. ... 

17. „ pseudemys,* Blgr. 

18. „ horsfieldii,* Gray. 

10. „ balachiorum,* Annaud ... 

20. Geomyda spinosa (Gray) 

21. ,, grandis, Gray 

22. „ depreasa, Anders. 

23. Nicoria trijnga (Schweigg.) 

24. „ tricarinata (Blytb) 

25. Cyolemysplatynoto, (Gray) 

26. „ dhor, (Gray) 

27. „ mouboti, Gray 

28. i, amboinenses (Daad.) ... 

29. Bellia orassicollis, Gray 
80* Damonia hamiltosii (Gtbj) 

31. Morenia ocellata (D. & B.) 

32. „ petersii, Anders. 

33. Hardella tburgi (Gray) 

34. Batagnr baska ( Gray) 

35. Kacbuga lineata (Gray) ... 

86. o tiivittata (D. & B.) ... 

37. „ dhoDgoka (Gray) 

38. „ smithii (Gray) 

39. „ syllietensis (Jerd.) 
40 Kachuga intermedia, Bli^nf. 
41. Kaohaga tectnm (Gray) 

... Lower Bnrma. 

... Ganges and Indus basins. 

... Soatb and Central India. 

Ganges and its tributaries. 

... Rivers of Burma. 

... Lower Bnrmn. 

... Lower Barm a. 

... Gtinges and Burmese rivers. 

... Ganges and Irrawaddy. 

••• Peninsular India, Barroa and Ceylon. 

... Irrawaddy. 

Bengal, Assam, Burma. 
? Bind. 

Peninsular India except Lower Ben- 
Ka) ; Calcutta (? introduced) ; Ceylon. 

Assam ; Burma. 
Lower Burma. 
Kelat, Balucbistan. 
Lower Burma. 
Lower Burma. 
Arakan bills. 
Peninsular India ; tbe Pnnjab 

Burma ; Ceylon ; the Maldives. 
Chota Nagpur ; Bengal ; Assam. 
Lower Burma. 
Lower Barma. 
Assam ; Burma. 
Lower Burma ; Nicobars. 
Tenasserim ; Travancore. 
Northern Peninsular India ; the 

Assam ; Burma. 
Lower Bengal. 
Ganges and Indus systems. 
Bengal ; Assam ; Burma. 
Northern and Central Peninsular 

India ; Burma. 

Ganges and Indus systems. 
Upper Ganges and Indus and their 


Central Provinces ; Godaveri. 
Ganges and Indus systems. 

PL'itysternidx — 

42. Platystemum 



i An * indicates that a species is new to the Indian fauna since 1800. 1'he 
names printed in italics are those of species not represented in the Indian 

VoL II, No- B.] 

Note on a rare huio- Pacific Barnacle. 


29. Note on a rare Indo-Pacific Barnacle.- 
D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

'By N. Annandale, 

Specimens of a Barnacle (Figs. I, la) which I regard as identi- 
cal with O-s^en'^GoHchoderma hunteri, have recently been received at- 
the Indian from the British Mnseum ; thej are labelled as having 
been taken on a sea-snake {Hydrtis platurus) in Oejion by Mr. E. E. 
Green. They differ from Darwin's description and figures {Monogr, 
Oirr. Lep.j p. J 63, pi. Ill, fig. 3.) in the greater (but variable) 
relative length of the peduncle and in the fact that the terga 
are straight and the scuta, althongli of normal shape, hardly 
calcified at all. Hoek regarded Owen's species as probably no 
more than a variety of G. v^irgatum (Spongier), a more com- 
mon and probably a more widely distributed form ; and a 
specimen from the Ganges delta in the Indian Museum gives 
additional support to this view. In this specimen (Fig. 2) the 
scuta are distinctly Y-shaped, but the two upper ai'ms are joined 
together at the base by a delicate, feebly calcified web ; the terga 
and carina are narrow and almost straight. The coloration is that 
of Spengler's form ; whereas the Ceylon specimens agree with the 
descriptions of the types of C. hunteri^ which Darwin believed to 
be faded, in their almost complete lack of pigment. Evidently this 
absence of pigment is characteristic. The appendages and mouth- 
parts are normal in all the examples I have examined. Major 
A. B. Anderson, I.M.S., has recently presented to the Museum a 
Hydrus platurus from the Andamans to which typical examples of 
C, hunteri are attached. 

Fig. la. 

Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

The Ceylon specimens may be reganled as slightly abeirant, 
examples of C. virgatum vai-. hunteri^ while that from Bengal 

208 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Be7igal. f June, 1906, 

represents an intermediate variety.- The typical )iunteri is probably 
confined to the tropical parts of the Indian ajid Pacific Oceans, the 
only localities hitherto fixed bein^ the Maldives or Laccadives ' and 
New Britain.* The form has been taken on Hydrus platurus on 
several occasions, and once on a telegraph cable. 

1 See Borradaile in Gardiner's Maldives and LaeeadiveSf Vol* I, p. 441. 
^ See Stebbing in Willey's ZooU Bestilta, Part Y, p. 676, 

Vol. IT, No. 6.] TheBavais and UerOts ofRSiputdna. 209 

IN.8.] ... 

30. The Bawnis and.Merdtsof Bdjputana.^By B. 0. Beamlbt. 
Oi/mmunicated by B. Bqrn. 


Tbe method bgr wbicli Hinduism has graduallj but silently 
extended its inflnence over tbe animistic tribes of India was 
grapbicall J described by Sir Alfred Lyall in criticising a statement 
made bj the late Profesor Max Miiller, that Brahmanism was 
opposed to missionary work on its own behalf. Discussions which 
arose from enquiries made into problems in connection with the 
last census showed, howerer, that the process of absorption, though 
undoubtedly active, is not unaccompanied by difficulties. While 
the caste system of the Hindus is theoretically rigid, abundant 
evidence proves that, in reality, it is constantly being altered. 
Changes at present are chiefly disintegrations into separate endo- 
gamouB groups, but at the same time there are instances of groups 
rising in position, and being recognised as members of one of the 
twice-born castes. As is only natural, the caste which chiefly re- 
ceives accessions in this manner is the Bajput. Its high position 
in society rendei*s it a desirable group to belong to, while at the 
same tipae its unique formation in a number of exogamous clans, 
the members of which are bound by strict though varying rules 
of hypergamy, make it easier to enter than any other. When 
communications were difficult, it was possible for a tribe, after 
undergoing the slow process of absorption into Hinduism, and 
acquiring the whole paraphernalia of mythical ancestors and the 
like, to assume the desired position in its own territory unques- 
tioned. If its members subsequently acquired sufficient wealth 
and influence outside the tribal territory, there would not be much 
difficulty in contracting marriages with the lower groups of 
recognised Bajputs, after which the rest was easy. At the present 
time, however, contact with the outer world is easier ; fictions are 
thus more transparent, and, under the influence of a thin veneer of 
education, people are not content with the slow progress of former 
times. The circulatiou of printed books and railway communica- 
tions have had results which have been often recorded ; but the 
following careful study by Mr. B. C. Bramley, District Superin- 
tendent of Police in Ajmer-Merwara, of the revolution in progress 
in a Bajputana tribe, the MerSts and Bawats, shows a new factor, 
the influence of milita^ service. It is also valuable as illustrating 
the advantages which Islam possessed over Hinduism as a prosely* 
tising religion. 


Superintendent for Ethnography^ 


1. It is but seldom that an opportunity occurs of observing 
- the rise and progress of a social revolution 

Xntroduotory. among the inhabitants of the country. Sucb 

210 Journal of the A smtic Society of Bengal / . [ June, 1906. 

a movement, naturally, aronses considerably interest . and is a fit 
subject of study; A social change is in progress in the small British 
district of Merwapa* in Bajputana. Those portions of the Merwara 
clans who profess to be Hindus and who, up to 1903, intermarried and 
interdined with the Merat Katats, who profess Muhammadan- 
ism^ have now decided to abandon this intercourse, on the general 
ground that Hindus cannot intermarry and interdine with the adher- 
ents of another faith . It is a noteworthy thing that the inhabitants 
of a particular district, some of whom have professed Hinduism and 
others Muhammadanism for centuries, and yet have interdined 
and intermarried freely, should suddenly abandon these old-estab- 
lished social customs on the ground that their religions are differ- 
ent. For centuries this difference of religion has been no barrier 
to social intercourse. Then how comes it to pass that it is now 
put forward as the reason for discontinuing social customs which 
have been in vogue for so long a time ? To trace the origin and 
progress of this movement, and to indicate its probable results, 
will be interesting as well as instructive. For the sake of conveni- 
ence, the Hindu portion of the Merwara clans will be referred to as 
Rftwats and the Muhammadan portion as Merats. The term 
Rawat, it may be explained, is, in reality, a petty title of nobility ; 
but it is convenient, inasmuch as all Bawats are Hindus. 

2. In order to be able to understand a social revolution 
-M-Av^r&^a o«t#i *i%^ ^^ ^^^^ natuTo, it is necessary to know some- 
kS^a cfaiw. *^i°^ ^^ *^® *«^*^ ^^^^^ " Merwara " and of 

the people who inhabit it. Merwara, which 
means the " hilly country " (Sanskrit meru, a hill) is a small 
British district in Rajputana lying between 25° 24' and 26° 11' N. 
and 73° 45' and 74° 29' E., and is one of the two districts which make 
up the small province of Ajmer-Merwara. Prior to 1818 its history 
is a blank. It was inhabited by people with the proclivities of 
Highland caterans, who acknowledged no master and who lived 
solely by plundering the surrounding Rajputana States. With 
the advent of the British in 1818 the scene changes and the history 
of the district becomes one of its administration. Of the original 
inhabitants little or nothing is known. The district is said to 
have been an impenetrable jungle, and such information as is 
available goes to show that it was inhabited by Ghandela Gujars, 
Brahmans,'Bhati Rajputs and Minas. The present people do 
not claim to be the original inhabitants. They are promiscuously 
designated **Mers" which means " hill men.*' The name is not 
that of any caste or tribe and is only correct in so far as it means 
those who live on this portion of the Aravali range. The inhabi- 
tants claim descent from Prithwi Raj, the last Ghauhfin king of 
Ajmer, who ruled in the 12th centurv of the Christian era. The 
story IS that Jodh Lakhan, the son of Prithwi Raj, married a Mina 
girl, who had been seized in a raid nqar Bflndi, thinking her to be 
a Rajputni. Subsequently he discovered his mistake and turned 
her and her two sons Anhal and Antip away. The exiles wander- 
ed to Chang, in the Bea war Pargana of Merwara, and were hos- 
pitably entertained by the OGjars of that place. One day the two 

Tol. n, No. 6.].' The BawOU and MerOts of RajputOna. 2ll 

brothers were resting nnder a hargad tree {Ftciis tndica) and 
prayed tliat, if their race was destined to continue, the triink of the 
tree might be rent in two. This occurred instantly and raised 
Anhal and Anfip from their despondency. The splitting of the fig 
tree is a cardinal event in the history of the race. There is a 
distich which runs : — 

" Oharar se Chita bhayo, aur 
Barar bhayo Bar-ghat 
Shakh ek se do bhaye 
Jagat bakhani Jat." 

" From the sound " Charar " (the noise made by the splitting 
tree) the Chitas are called, and the clan Barar from the splitting 
of the fig tree. Both are descended from one stock. The world 
has made this tribe famous." 

3. Anhal settled at Chang and, in course of time, his descend- 
The Chitas ^^^ exterminated the Oujars who had 

, succoured the exiles. This was the origin 
of the Chita clan, which waxed strong and multiplied and 
established many villages in Merwara and a few in Ajmer. 
There are several subdivisions of the Chita clan, the most 
numerous and important of which is that of Mergts, a term 
synonymous with a Muhammadan Mer. The word "Merat" is 
derived from Mera, the common ancestor of Merat Katats, who 
are Muhammadans, and Merat Go rats, who are Hindus. In the 
controversy which has arisen between the Hindu and Muham- 
madan clans of Merwara the Merat Katats represent the latter 
element — all other clans are arranged on the side of Hinduism. 

4. The origin of the Merat Katats here claims notice. One 
mv ir ♦ ir ♦ f Hurra j, the grandson of Mera, took service 
Tne Merat Karats. ^^ j^^jj^. ^^^^^ ^^^ Emperor Aurangzeb. 

During a night of terrific rain, he remained at his post as sentry 
and sheltered himself nnder his shield.^ The matter was. brought 
to the notice of the Emperor who is reported to have said : — 

" In the Marwar tongue they call a brave soldier Kata : let 
this man be henceforth called Ka^a." 

Shortly after this, Hurraj embraced Muhammadanism and 
was the progenitor of the Merat Katats. The Katats settled i^ 
several villages in the Beawar Tahsll and spread northwards 
into Ajmer. They hold (1904) 93 villages in Merwara. 

5, The Merat Gorats, who are Hindus, are descended from 
_. «- Gora, who was the brother of Hurraj, 

Goi^ts "^ ® ' * * They spread southwards and are to be 
* found principally in the Todgarh Tahsil, 

6, The next clan which claims notice is the Barar clan. 
fp\xA -R&vAw nioTi Anup, the brother of Anhal, settled at 
ine isarar uian. Barsawara, now Todgarh, and founded the 

Barar clan. His descendants proved less enterprising than the 

i The same story. is told of ■eyeral people, e.g.y Ma^ammad Khan 
BaogaA of Fami)^&b&d.— B. B. 

212 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 190^1 

ChitSs and are to be fonnd ojJj in Merw&ra. They like being- 
called Kawats* 

7. ]j* addition to the Chitas (witb their snbdivifliona of 
Other Clans. ^®^'^* Katats and Merit Gorats) and the 

Barar clans who claim descent from Anhal 
and Antip, the grandsons of the Chauhan King, Prithwi Baj, there 
are other clans such as the Pramar, the Moti, the Gehlot and 
others who claim descent from others than a Ghanhan Mina stock. 
Members of these clans are to be fonnd in both Ajmer and 
Merwdiu* It is not necessary to set forth in detail the ancestry 
of each. For the pni-poses of this controversy it is snf&cient to 
say that they all profess Hinduism and are called "Rawats," 
wnich in everyday nse is understood to mean a Hindu Mer a^ 
opposed to a Merat, by which is understood a Muhammadan Mer. 
8. Whatever the origin of the various Merwa^a clans was^ 

and whether they called themselves Hindus 
•»*^1^^ ^'^^^^S^i^^w? or Muhammadans, their customs were the 
of tfi^MerwSpa *?™®- ^'*^^ ^®^'^ well-defined restric- 
Clan8« tions, such as that a Chit a could not marry a 

Chita or a Barar, the clans intermarried 
and interdined. These restrictions have, however, been modified 
since 1875. The Barar clan live principally in the Todgarh 
Tahsil. Enquiries made in that Tahsil show that the Rawats 
there gave up intermarrying 20 years ago with Merats. The 
stopping of such marriages compelled Mer&ts to seek husbands 
for their girls elsewhere. So now Merats marry Mer&ts. Chang, 
Lulwa and Jhak are full of such marriages. It was by a mere- 
chance that one of the descendants of Anhal embraced Muham- 
madanism and so introduced the religion into the district. The 
plant was an exotic which was compelled to straggle along as 
best it could. Even the bigot Aurangzeb made no attempt to 
compel the inhabitants, by fire and sword, to adopt his religion. 
No Mullas or Maulvts sprang up in Merl^ara to instruct the 
Merats in the religion which they had adopted. Under these cir- 
cumstances, it is matter for small wonder that Islam never gained 
ground in the district, and that those who profess the Muham- 
madan religion have always been in the mmority. It is natural 
also that the Merats, with their vague notions of the tenets of 
their religion and with no desire to make proselytes from their 
Hindu brethren, should continue the social customs of the 
msjiority of the inhabitants of Merwara, with many of whom they 
had a common ancestor and with the majority of whom 
they had always intermarried and interdined. The fact of 
the matter is, that the difference in religion had hitherto^ 
been one in name only. The Hinduism of the Rawats, 
like the Islam of the Merats, is of a very vague and 
undefined description. The isolated position of Merwara and its 
physical features have prevented it from being exploited by 
Hindu Fakirs and Muhammadan Mullas, disseminating the tenets 
of the BrShmanical and Muhammadan faiths. Move through the 
Merwara district, and stately Hindu temples and Muhammadan? 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Sauats and MerSU of B&jputana. 213 

mosques will not meet the eye. They are conspicuous by their 
absence. The ordinary Bawat worships incarnations of Siva^ 
Buch as Mataji and Bhairunji, and talks of Parameshwar in 
a va^e way, without a clear understanding as to who Parameshwar 
is. '*The Sarkftr is oar Parameshwar," was the answer once 
returned by a number of Rawats, who were asked who Paramesh- 
war was. As for the Merats, they resort to circumcision and 
bury their dead, but, beyond this, it is doubtful whether they 
pay any attention to the tenets of their faith. In physique, 
habits and personal appearance, the Rawats and Merats are 
alike. Their dress is similar, and it is only the experienced eye 
which can detect, by small difference in their clothes, whether a 
Rawat on a Merat is being addressed. For instance both Rawats 
and Merats will wear a bakhtart, a dhoti and a turban, which 
appear to be exactly similar ; but the hahhtaii (jacket) worn by the 
Merats will open on the left, that worn by the Rawats on the 

9. Constituted as the Merwara clans are, it is hardly likely 

that the elements of disintegration would be 

The influences found within the house. Outside influences 

which ^*Y® have been at work to bring about the pres- 

movfment fn Si ^^^ ^^^ ^\ ^^^^^' ^^ ^*'' ^^^ ^^ ^^?^ 
present form and ^^' (Now Sir James) La Touche recorded in 
the contention of his Oazetteeer of Ajmer-Merwara ihat a 
each clan. tendency was apparent on the part of the 

Merats to abandon their ancient customs 
and assimilate with orthodox Muhammadans, while among the 
Rawats of Todga^h the tendency was to adopt the rules of Brah- 
manism, as practised by the Rajputs of surrounding Native 
States. For some 25 years these tendencies appear to have lain 
more or less dormant, after which a series of events occurred, 
which have brought about a complete upheaval of the existing 
social customs of the clans. A good deal of feeling has been 
created on both sides, and the popular belief is that the present 
movement has been, and is being, fostered by those who enlist in 
regiments of the Indian Army, where they find themselves in 
anomalous positions besides orthodox Hindus and Muhammadans. 
Evidence is not wanting that the Brahmanical influence has been 
stronger than that of Islam, and the Rawats are, in reality, foster- 
ing the movement. Each clan seeks to throw the responsibility 
on to the other. The Rawats contend that the movement has 
been brought about by the Mei ats giving their daughters in mar- 
riage to Muhammadans of an undesirable class, and by marrying 
within degrees of relationship which are clearly prohibited. The 
beef-eating propensities of the Merats are also mentioned as an- 
other item in the programme to which the Rawats object. These 
practices, which are, they say, abhorrent to them, have increased 
very much of late, and they only want the Merits to abandon them 
and all will be well. The Merats, on their part, contend that they 
have not departed from their old-established customs as regards 
hose to whom they give their daughters in marriage or as regards 

214 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [June, 1906. 

tiie degrees of relationBhip within which they many, or in the 
matter of beef -eating, and that the rupture has been brought about 
by the Bawats who want themselves considered " Rajputs." The 
situation as sketched by the people themselves is : — 

(i) The general belief is that the movement is being fostered 
by those who have served or are serving in regiments, 
and this is the outside influence which has tended to- 
bring about a rupture, 
(ii) The Bawats condemn the matrimonial practices and beef- 
eating propensities of the Merats, and say that the 
extent to which these practices have increased of late 
is the cause of the dispute, 
(iii) The Merats deny the foregoing contention and say that 
the Bawats have brought about the dispute by wanting 
to be considered * Bajputs.' 
It now remains to be seen what evidence has been pro- 
duced in support of each of the above points. 

10. In order to be able to form an opinion as to what influ- 

. . ences, if any, have been exerted by men 

?r® reginaents ^j^q j^ave served or are still servine in 

wbioh enlist Mer- • x 'x • ^ ^- i. 

w&raolansr regiments, it is necessary to see which 

regiments in the Indian Army enlist Mer- 

wara clans and what their organization is. 

There are five such regiments : — 

(i) The 44th Merwara Infantry, 
(ii) The 119th Bajputana Infantry, 
(iii) The 120th Bajput&na Infantry, 
(iv) The 122nd Bajputana Infantry. 

(v) The 43rd Erinpura Begiment. 

Numbers (i) and (v) are fixtures at Ajmer and Erinpura^ 
Numbers (ii), (iii), and (iv) are stationed at places in the Western 
Command. The 119th, 120th and 122nd are each composed of 
two companies Gujars (Western Bajputana), two Companies Mers ^ 
(Western Bajputana), two companies Uajputs (Eastern Bajput&na 
and Central India), and two companies Hindustani Muhammad- 
ans. The 43rd Erinpura Begiment has about 200 Mers and Merats, 
while the 44th Merw&r^ Infantry (late Merwara Battalion) is 
composed entirely of Merwara clans. This regiment stands by 
itself, and a brief history of it will, perhaps, not be out of place. 
The regiment was raised in June 1822 by Captain Hall, who was 
then in charge of Merwara, as part of the policy whereby the wild 
clans of the district were reclaimed from their predatory habits. 
It was originally called the *' Merwara Local Battalion.'* In 1858 
a second battalion called the *' Mhair Begiment '" was raised for 
services in the Mutiny. In 1860 the two battalions were amal- 
gamated into what is known as the '* Mhairwara Military Police- 

A Inclades Riwats and Meritr* 

Yol. II, No. 6.1 The Bawats and Merat* of Rajvutttna. 215 

Battalion " and oontiniied nnder this name till 1871, when it was 
reorganised nnder the name of the "Merwara Battalion," under 
which designation it continned till 1903, when, on the renumbering 
of the Native Army, it became the 44th Merwara Infantry* It 
has always been composed entirely of B&wats and Merits, aud no 
distinction was held between the clans until 1903, when the 
dispute assumed its present aspect, and orders were received that 
the regiment was to be composed of four companies Mers and four 
companies Merats. These orders were recently modified and the 
organization of the regiment is now six companies Mers and two of 
Merats. The right wing of the regiment went to Mhow for some 
six months in 1902, and, in the same year, some men of both clans 
went with the Coronation Contingent from the regiment. The 
119th, 120th and 122nd Infantry move about in relief along with 
other regiments. These regiments have been enlisting men from 
Merwafa since 1887* It is, therefore, clear that the Merwara 
clans have, during the last J 7 years, come in closer contact with 
the various castes and creeds to be found in India than they did 
formerly. It would be only natural that they, witli their vague 
religious ideas, should, in the course of time, be influenced by the 
orthodox followers of Hinduism on one hand and of Isl&m on the 
other, and should each strive to be considered orthodox followers of 
Hinduism, or Muhammadanism, in order to be able to free them- 
selves from a social state which they both found anomalous. The 
belief that the outside influence which has caused the rupture has 
come from regiments is, therefore, based on reasonable grounds. 
To be able, however, to grasp the movement, it is necessaiy to gO 
back to 1875 — in which year Mr. (now Sir James) La Touche 
wrote his Gazetteer of Ajmer-Merwara. 

11. For some 25 years after Sir James La Touche wrote, 

the tendencies he indicated appear to have 

The PJfK'^^J^ ^1 made but Httle or no progress. Outside 

to 1B(K>. ^^ influences had not been brought to bear 

on the clans, and Bdwats and Merats inter- 
married and interdined or not according to their personal inclina- 
tions. About 1900, however, commenced a series of events which 
turned the scales, and it was about that year in which the question 
began to assume its present aspect. And here it becomes necessary 
to examine the contentions of the two clans. 

12. As has already been stated, the Rawats contend that the 

matrimonial practices and beef-eating pro- 
of the Bfrwats^ pensities of the Merats are responsible for 

the rupture. As regards the former, they 
state that the Merats gave their daughters to low-class Mnhamma- 
dans and marry within degrees or relationship which are prohibit- 
ed. These statements are put forward, in the first instance, as if 
these practices were something quite new, but if those who make 
them be examined ever so lightly, thev are compelled to admit that 
practices which they now apparently object to so strongly, have 
been going on for years, and they then endeavour to screen them- 
selves behind the contention that they have increased to a very 

216 Journal of the Adaiic Society of Bengal, [Jtme, 1906. 

great extent in recent years, and this has bronglit about the 
mptnre. The Merats replj to these allegations that they still 
give their daughters in marriages to the same Muhammadan 
families as in the past, and that they have always married 
within degrees of relationship (i.e., cousins) to which the 
Rawats now object. The enqairies made go to show that 
the Kawats have by no means substantiated their case. 
Bawats of various villages from the Todgarh Police circle on 
the south to villages in the Pushkar, Gegal and Srinngar police 
circles in the Ajmer district on the north have been questioned as 
to the reasons of the split. They all give undesirable matrimonial 
alliances and the beef-eating propensities of the Merats as the 
reasons, and say they gave up marrying at periods varying from 
20 years ago onwards, for these same reasons. The matrimonial 
customs and beef-eating propensities of the Merats are, on the 
showing of the Rawats themselves, nothing new, and, it seems 
clear, that what the Rawats term reasons are really excv^es. Some 
of them have stated in the most barefaced manner that Merat girls 
were married to " Mochis " and *' Regars " and other unclean 
sects in Ajmer and other places. These allegations have, on enquiry, 
been found inaccurate, and would appear to be wholly unjustified. 
Merftt ^\t\% are, as a rule, married to Merats, while some are 
married to Khadims and such like in Ajmer. It is true that 
Muhammadans of high social standing will not intermarry with 
Merats, though they will allow their " Golas " or sons from con- 
cubines to marry Merat girls, because they cannot get wives from 
among good Muhammadan families for such sons. On the other 
hand, the Merats certainly do not degrade themselves to the extent 
of giving their girls in marriage to Mochis and other unclean sects. 
Numerically tlie Merats are much inferior to the Rawats. By 
the time their own brethren, Khadims and such like have 
been provided with wives, the number of maniageable Merat 
girls must be very small. It is, therefore, probable that 
Rawat-Merat marriages * have never been very numerous. 
Isolated cases occur even now; one occurred in April 1904 in 
Chang, but they are not acceptable to either clan. To whom- 
soever the Merats marry their girls it has not been proved 
that they do so to persons lower in the social scale than the 
Rawats themselves are The statement of the Rawats as regards 
Merats marrying their jrirls to unclean Muhammadan sects has 
been found inaccurate. The conclusion, therefore, as regards the 
contention of the Rawats on the matrimonial aspect, appears to be 
clearly against them. The beaf-eating contention is not worth 
serious discussion. The Rawats certainly have not progresssed 
along the paths of orthodox Hinduism to a degree which would 
justSy tlieir looking upon beef-eating with the same horror as a 
Brahman. The beef -eating cry is a palpable excuse. The Rawats 
have failed to substantiate their case. Per contra they appear to 

1 Many men (Rawats), however, in the 44th Merwafa Infantiy, are re- 
ported to be married to Merit women. 

ToL II, No. 6.1 The BatoOts and MerOts of BajputOtM. 217 


have made every effort to exaggerate it. The Merats say they do 
not g^ve their girls in marriage to new sects or marry them within 
•closer .degrees of relationship than before, and this has not been 
controverted by the Bawats. 

12. Now as to the contention of the Merats, that the Bawats 
The contention J^^ve brought about the mpture by wishing 

oftheMerSts. *^ "® considered Bajputs. To arrive at a 

conclusion, a series of events since 1900 
have to be examined. 

13. About 1900, as far as has been ascertained, occurred 

the first of a series of events which, if not 

The social dls- the origin of the movement in its present 

IftwatB an? Me° f^^^lJ^J^ ^* * considerable impetus. 

rats in a regiment -^'^o^* *^** J^^^ * question arose in one of the 

about 1900. regiments, which enlist men from Merwara, 

regarding the social castoms of the two 
clans, which appears to have developed into something approaching 
a dispute. It has not been possible to ascertain precisely what 
occasioned the difEerence, but accounts appear to agree that, while 
Merats were allowed to eat and smoke with orthodox Muham- 
madans, the Bawats, who claimed to be Hindus, and yet interdined 
with Merats, were excluded by orthodox Hindus and Muham- 
madans alike. Thus, while the Merats succeeded in getting 
themselves recognized as Muhammadans to an appreciable extent, 
apparently, the Bawats were recognized by the followers of neither 
religion. They thus found themselves in a very anomalous, not 
to sajr awkward, position as compared with the Merats, and their 
position was, no doubt, the theme of much discussion and com- 
ment and, perhaps, banter in the regiment. At this turning 
point in the history of the clans, the Merats, by being allowed to 
smoke and dine with orthodox Muhammadans, would appear to 
have gained a decided Rdvantage. The natural course for the 
Bawats would be to do their utmost to free themselves from so 
invidious a position. Their brethren had, to some extent, got 
themselves recognised as Muhammadans. It, therefore, became 
incumbent that they should make efforts to get themselves 
recognised as orthodox Hindus. How the dispute was for the time 
being settled is by no means clear, but that it gave rise to a 
situation such as that sketched above seems certain. The advan- 
tage gained by the Merats was a matter which the Bawats could 
certainly not forget or forgive. Here, at any rate, was " the 
little nft within the lute.** And now we may move on to the 
next step in the series of events under discussion. 

14. Subsequent to the occurrence sketched in the preceding 
_. . - - paragraph, the regiment in which the 

Brahmani?m''''tnd ^}^,^l^l^^ *^*^/^S*^™^, ^/« transferred to 
Islftm. Allahabad. The Bawats found themselves 

at Prayag, a holy place, where Brahmanical 
infiueuces are strong, wliich, no doubt, were brought to bear 
-on them to a considerable extent. On the other hand, the Merats 
•came under the. influence of Maalvis and Mullas to a. greater 

213 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [Jmie, 1906, 

extent than they had done before. Thns two antagonistio and 
powerful inflnences were brought to bear on the clans, whose^ 
difference in religion, had, so far, been one simply in name. The- 
breach which had been caused by the unfortunate difference 
referred to was widened. Rawats and Merats ascended one more 
rung on the ladder of separation. The Brahmanical influence 
was, apparently, the stronger, and events now commenced to move 
forward with a certain degree of celerity. Matters had goue 
too far to be allowed to stand still any longer. 

15. The time had come for the Bawats to decide whether tliey 

would continue their old social customs or 

The Meeting of not, and those who were engineering the 

^*™^ ^^«iH?4^^'5i' movement decided, it seems, on the latter 
naficar f oiice circle n. i. i ^ i 

in Ajmer in April course. It became necessary to show by 
1902. some unmistakeable action that ancient cus- 

toms were to be abandoned. Accordingly, 
on the 18th April 1902, a meeting of about 260 Rawats, some of 
whom were from Merwara, took place in the Srinagar Police 
Circle, in the Ajmer district, at which it was proposed that 
Rftwats were not to give their daughters in marriage to Ghitas, of 
whom Merats are a subdivision, as thev were Muhammadans. The 
meeting appears to have been more oi a demonstration than any- 
thing else. It was not convened with the idea of laying down 
rules for future guidance, which were to have the force of law, 
so to speak. It did not result in the dispute assoming an acute 
form. The delegates met and stated Rawat-Chita marriages 
were to stop, but beyond talk of this nature, no decided action 
was the outcome of the meeting. So much, however, may be- 
taken for certain, that the meeting was brought about by outside 
influences : it was the precursor of other meetings of a similar and 
more decisive nature, and was significant as indicating that the 
controversy had passed from tlie region of thought to that of 

16- In May 1902 the Coronation Contingent went to England. 
A detachment from the 44th Merwara In- 
Cwitingent^^* fantry, then the Merwara Battalion, consist- 

ing of members of both clans, formed part 
of it. The journey to and from, and the sojourn in, England 
appears to have accentuated the difference. The Rawats, it is said, 
gave themselves out as " Rajputs," but were twitted by ortho- 
dox Hindus from other regiments, who also formed part of the 
contingent and who, not unnaturally, expressed surprise at people 
who professed to be " Rajputs," eating their food with their clothes 
on instead of bare-headed and wearing only a dhoth Further- 
more, the Rawats and Merats used to eat together, it is said, and 
here again orthodox Hindus w«nted to know how "Rajputs" 
could eat with those who professed Mnhammadanism. Questions 
which were asked were distinctly awkward, and the Rawats, it 
seems, were made to feel, more thfln ever, that, although they 
professed Hinduism, they were, really, in the matter of caste and 
religion, neither ** fish, flesh, fowl, nor good red herring '* in the 

Yci. II, No. 6.1 The BawOtt and MerSU of BSfpuUlna. 219 

eyes of orthodox HinduR. Then again, it is said, the Merats 
refused to eat the meat of the sheep and goats provided, hecanse 
the animals had not been hallQled, The Rawats, possibly, 
regarded this as an attempt on the part of their brethren to pose 
as better Mnhammadans than they really were, and perhaps 
thonght it was done on purpose. But, whatever the relations be- 
tween the Rawats and Merats were, on the joomey to and from 
and during their stay in England, the Rawats appear to have 
realised more strongly than before that while the Merats had, at 
any rate, some observances which were in conformity with ortho- 
dox Mahammadanism, they (Rawats) had ancommonly few, if 
any, which conformed to orthodox Hinduism. The breach was 
^videned still more and it became necessary for Rawats to take 
further steps to get themselves recognized as orthodox Hindus. 

17. The men who went to England with the Coronation 
_,- *• V Contingent from the 44th Merwafa Infantry 

of September 1902 anti-kme-killing letters, 
similar to those which were circulated in Bengal and the United 
Provinces a few years back, were put into circulation. The letters 
were in Hindi, and the following is an English translation : — 

" A voice has been heard by Sri Jagannathji, sajiDg, if any Hinda sells a 
cow to a bntcher, or enters into any financial transaction with any bntcher, I 
will go away to Ceylon. If anyone receiving this letter does not make five 
copies of it and distribute them he will be guilty of killing cows." 

The circulation of these letters spread rapidly, but the move- 
ment was very closely watched by the police, and, by degrees, 
the circulation died out. The letters created no feeling among the 
populace generally, but, there are some points connected with the 
movement which appear to have an important bearing on the 
R&wat-Merat Controversy : — 

(i) The villages in which the letters were first found appeared 
to indicate that the movement was one towards ortho- 
dox Hinduism on the part of the Rawats. 

(ii) The letters were put into circulation soon after the return 
of the Coronation Contingent. This lends colour to the 
idea that Rawats, who had been to England, had 
something to do with the movement at its commence- 
ment. If orthodox Hindus of Ajmer had put the 
letters into circulation, they would have done so in 
1899-1900, when the famine was raging, and, for some 
months, hundreds of cattle were killed daily at Na^irft- 
bid for the sake of the hides. For the purposes of the 
question under discussion, it is useful to know that 
Rawats were concerned in the circulation of the letters 
very early in the day, and this at a time when some of 
them had recently returned from England, after a journey 
and sojourn in which the influence of orthodox Hinduism 
bad been brought to bear on them with a considerable 
amount of force. 

fi20 Journal of the Ariatic Society of Bengal. [ Jund, 1906. 

18. For some months, after the circulation of the anti-kine- 
mu Tk ^Ai« rt killing letters, matters remained dormant. 

f erenoe. ' ^^ ^^^ ^^^ » ^^^® meeting of Rawats was 

held at Dad alia in the Todgarh Police 
Circle in Merwara. Some Rawats will maintain that the meeting 
was held merely to re affirm social customs which had been dis- 
located by the famine of 1899-1900. Merats will say that letters 
were circulated at the Conference requesting Rawats to make 
their wives and daughters dress in Rajput fashion, but, whatever 
the meeting was held for, it set the whole community by the ears 
and raised the question in its present acute form. At the Dadalia 
Conference it was laid down, in the most decided manner, that the 
former social intercourse was to cease, while the allegation that 
efforts were made at the Conference to make Rawat women dress 
like Rajputnis is by no means devoid of foundation. The Con- 
ference was presided over by a Jogi of Saran in Marwar, who is a 
priest of the Rawats, and, ever since it was held, the whole social 
organization of the Merwara clans has been upset. Petitions 
have been flying about, each party has accused the other of un- 
worthy acts, and many harsh things have been said on both sides. 
A more unfortunate occurrence than the Conference at Dadalia is 
not to be found in the annals of Merwara. 

19. Since the Dadalia Conference a few incidents have taken 

place which claim brief mention. In Sep- 
DJwmiia^ C o^n fl rt tember 1903 a meeting of Rawats and Me- 
^x^QQ^ ' rats was held at Beawar at the time of the 

Tejaji Fair with a view, apparently, of 
settling the difference, but no understanding wa« arrived at owing 
to the terms imposed by each party, which will be referred to 
hereafter being well nigh impossible. An occasional letter has 
been circulated, saying, Rawats are not to marry into Herat 
families. There can be no question but that the social organiza- 
tion of the Merwara clans has been seriously upset. 

20. The foregoing series of events indicates that since 1900 

Brahmanical influence, in a powerful form, 
foreiwf'M^ G^^e*^^ ^^ ^®®^ brought to bear on the Rawats 
and the conclu8?on serving in regiments, and they, in their turn, 
as to the conten- have sought to influence their fellow clans- 
tion of the Merats. men in their villages. The difference in the 

regiment (para. 13) showed clearly that the 
Merats adapted themselves to the Muhammadan faith and were, to a 
certain extent, recognized as Muhammadans by orthodox followers 
.of the Prophet. The Rawats, on the other hand, could not gain ad- 
mission to the more rijjid folds of orthodox Hinduism. They called 
themselves Hindus, but were not recognized as such in the regi- 
.ments in which they served. Ever since the movement sprang up 
in its present shape, the Brahmanical influence has been stronger 
than that of Islam and has been impelling the R&wats to get 
themselves considered orthodox Hind as. The majority of them 
^iilaims a Rajput (Chauhan) ancestry, and, in fact, have commenced 
to record themselves as Chauhans. when entering service at a 

Vol II, No. .6.1 The BawOis and Merdts of BajputSna. 221 

distance from their homes. If they could only make themselves out 
Bftjputs, and be recognized as sucb, their hearts* desire would be- 
attained and the matter would be settled. They do not appear to 
have recognized the difficulties which would beset the reahzation 
of their dreams. They started on their course without properly 
feeling their way, and succeeded in upsetting the social organiza- 
tion of the Merwara clans at the Dadalia Conference, without bet- 
tering their own social position in the slightest degree. A review 
of the situation since 1900 shows that the contention of the Merats^ 
that the rupture has been brought about by the Bawats wanting 
themselves considered ** Rajputs," has a considerable amount of 
force in it. At any rate, the Merats have gone a much longer 
way towards proving their contention than the Rawats have 

21. Such is the history of this remarkable rupture as gleaned 

from Rawats and Merats themselves. The 
The attitude of quarrel is, naturally, between those who live 
the people general- in Merwara principally. There are some 
ly, the relations Chita and Rawat villages in Aimer, but 
ties^and Sobable f^®''' i^^^a^i^ants have played a minor part 
oonsequences of ^^ ^^^ matter. The attitude of the people of 
the quarrel. Merwara towards the rupture is, generally 

speaking, -one of apathy. They know of the 
quarrel, they feel the outside influence, but they are too much con- 
cerned with their daily avocations to give the subject much 
thought. The conti'oversy is, to all intents and purposes, confined 
to those villages which provide men for regiments, though, of 
course, meetings like that at Dadalia have helped to spread the 
difference. The relations between the parties are, naturally 
enough, not cordial, but while the Rawats are agitating with the 
sole object of getting themselves recognized as Rajputs, the- 
MerSts are not much put out about the social aspect. The reli- 
gious feeling is not strong enough yet, on the part of the Merats, at 
at any rate, to bring about any untoward consequences, but the 
harmony which formerly prevailed among the MerwSrft clans has 
been shaken to a considerable extent, and the social organization 
upset. These consequences are, in themselves, regrettable. It 
would be a thousand pities if the social organization of the Merwara 
clans, as it existed prior to their quarrel, assuming an acute form, 
were swept away. It was an organization pecuHarly its own and 
conduced to harmony and peace throughout the district. For the 
Bftwats to try and destroy this desirable state of things, by a ludi« 
crous attempt to get themselves recognized as Hindus of high 
social standing, is very unwise. 

22. It may be asked if there are any chances of a reconcilia« 
p. tion. Some influential men on both sides 

ocmolUa^n. '^" appear to think reconciliation is possible. 
Rawats and Merats discussed the question 
at the meeting held at the Tejaji Fair, at Beawar, in September 
1903. Each side imposed certain conditions. The Rawats wish 
the Merats to — 

^2% . Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [June, 1906« 

(i) Cease intermanyiiig among themselves, 
(ii) Cease giving their daughters in marriage to Mnham< 

(iii) Cease eating the flesh of cows or buffaloes, 
(iv) Cease giving their pipes to Muhanunadan Fakirs to 


The Merats, on their part, required the Bawats to — 

(i) Cease eating pig. 

(ii) Cease eating animals killed by violence, i.e., otherwise 
than halldled. 

If the Merat-Katats and Merat-Gor&ts * could be induced to 
<3ome to an understanding a reconciliation might possibly be 
effected, but, it is alleged, that there are some mischief-makers 
about, who are preventing a reconciliation. A committee of influ- 
ential, broadminded, tolerant men of both clans, with a competent 
President, might possibly effect a good deal. The Merats have, 
so far, maintained a very reasonable attitude as regards the quar- 
rel. The Bawats, by holding meetings such as the Dadalia one, 
have agitated in a manner very distasteful to the Merats. With 
skilful and patient handling the clans may yet be induced to for- 
get and forgive and return to their former social customs, but the 
chance of a reconciliation now seem very remote. It may be 
noted that the Merats have not held a single meeting so far after 
the fashion of the Bawats. 

i Another condition the Bawats wish to impose is said to be that a 
Bawit woman married to a Merit shoald be burned at death They have al- 
ways been buried. 

> The Merat-Gofats are said to be the keenest on separation of all the 
varioas Bawat olans. Enquiries in Merwi|« hare not revealed that they 
-were agitating more than others. 

Vol. II, No. 6,] The Bevenw Begulations of Avrangzib. 223 


51, The Revenue Begtdatiotia of Aurangzih (with the Persian texts 
of two unique farmdns itom, a Berlin Manuscript.) — By Zkm- 
NATH Sarkar, M.A., Professor, Patna College, 


. A Persian manuscript of the Berlin Royal Library ( Pertsch's 
Catalogue, entry No. 15 ( 9) //. 112, 6.-125, a. and 15 (23) //. 267, a.- 
272, a.) gives, among other things, two farmnns of the Emperor 
Aurangzih. I have not met with any other copy of these docu- 
ments m any European or Indian public library; the first (the 
farmSin to Muhammad Has^im) is absolutely unique; but of the 
other (the farmHn to Basik Das) a second hut very incorrect copy 
was presented to me by Maulvi Muhammad 'Abdul-' Aziz of Bhitri 
Sayyidpur, District Ghazipur, the agent of Mr. W. Irvine, I.C.S. 
(retired). The Berlin MS., though beautifully written, is often in- 
correct. The text of the first farm&n is accompanied by a highly 
useful commentary in Persian, written on smaller leaves placed 
between but paged consecutively. In my edition of the text, every 
important departure from the original has been noted, but evident 
slips have been silently corrected. In two places good readings 
could be secured only by departing very far from the text ; but this 
I have not ventured to do, preferring to leave the original un- 
altered. Photographic reproductions (rotary bromide prints) of 
the Berlin MS. were secured for my work. 

For the meanings of Indian revenue terms I have consulted 
(1) British India AtMlyzed (ascribed to C. Greville), London, 1795, 
Part I. ; (2) Wilson's Glossary ; and (3) Elliot and Beames's Sup- 
plementary Glossary, 2 vols. The last two are likely to be acces- 
sible to the reader ; and I have referred, in my notes, to the first 
work only, partly on account of its extreme scarcity and partly 
because it was nearest in time to the period of Mughal rule. The 
Berlin MS. will be called the A Text, and the Ghazipur one the 
B Text. The punctuation of the text is my work. 


Farmdn of the Emperor Aurangzib-^Alamgir, in the year 1079 A.H*,^ 
on the collection of revenue. 

[112,6.] Thrifty Muhammad Hag^im, hope for Imperial 
favours and know- 
That, as, owing to the blessed grace and favour of the Lord of 
Earth and Heaven, (great are His blessings and universal are His 
gifts!) the reins of the Emperor's intention are always turned to 
the purport of the verse, *' Verily God commands with justice and 
benevolence," and the Emperor's aim is directed to the promotion 
of business and the regulation of affairs according to the Law 
[113, a] of the Best of Men, (salutation and peace be on him an4 

i Jane 1668— Ma; 1669 ; the 11th year of the reign. 

224 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [June, 1906, 

his descendants, and on his most virtuons companions!) — and 
as the truth of [the yerse] "Heayen and earth were established[ 
with justice " is always acceptable in the eyes [of the Emperor] 
as one of the ways of worshipping and honouring the Omnipotent 
Commander, and friendliness and benevolence to high and low is 
the aim of the illuminated' heart [of the Emperor], — . 

Therefore, at this auspicious time, a /arm^nt of the high and 
just Emperor is issued, — 

That officers of the present and fature and ^amils of the 
Empire of Hindustan from end to end, should collect the revenue 
and other [dues] from the mahaU in the proportion and manner 
fixed in the luminous Law and shining orthodox Faith, and 
[according to] whatever has been meant and sanctioned in this 
gracious mandate in pursuance of the correct and trustworthy 
Traditions, — 

And they should demand new orders every year, and consider 
delay and transgression as the cause of their disgrace [113, 6*] in 
this world and the next. 

[O^wimen^crry, 113, 6 margin: — The purpoi-t of the introduc- 
tion is only the transaction of affairs and threatening with [the 
anger of] God for the performance of the rojal order and for the 
sake of [according] justice to the officers, and benevolence mercy 
and convenience to the peasants in the collection of revenue, etc.^ 
agreeably to the Holy Law.] 

First, — They should practise benevolence to the cultivators, 
inquire into their condition, and exert themselves judiciously and 
tactfully, so that [the cultivators] may joyfully and heartily try 
to increase the cultivation, and every arable tract may be brought 
under tillage. 

[Oommentary^ 113,5 margin: — Concerning what has been 
written in the first clause the vnsh of the just Emperor is, " Display 
friendliness and good management which are the causes of the in- 
crease of cultivation. And that [friendliness] consists in this that 
under no name or custom should you take a dQm or diram above 
the fixed amount and rate. By no person should the ryots be 
oppressed or molested in any way. The manager of affairs at the 
place should be a protector [of rights] and just [in carrying out] 
these orders."] 

8econd,-^At the beginning of the year inform yourself, as far 
as possible, about the condition of every ryot, at to whether they 
are engaged in cultivation or are abstaining from it. If they can 
cultivate, ply them with inducements and assurances of kindness; 
and if they desire favour in any matter show them that favour. 
But if after inquiry it is found that, in spite of their being able to 
till and having had rainfall, they are abstaining from cultivation, 
you should urge and threaten them and employ force and beating. 
Where the revenue is fixed {^ardj-i-muazzaf) inform the peasants 
that [115, a] it will be realised from them whether they ctiltivate 
or not. If yon find that the peasants are unable to procure the 
implements of tillage, advance to them money from the State in 
the form of taqavi after taking security. 

Vol. II, No, 6.] The Besentte Eegviatiotu of Aurangzib. 225< 


lOommerUary, 114, a.* — ^The second clause proves that the 
only business of peasants is to cultiyate and bo pay the revenue of 
tlie State and take their own share of tlie crop. If thev lack the 
materials of cultivation, they should get iaqRvi from the Govern- 
ment, because, as the king is the owner [of the land], it is proper 
that when the cultivators are helpless tliey should be supplied 
with the materials of agriculture. The emperor's desire is the 
first. And threatening, beating and chastisement are [ordered] 
with this view that, as the king is the owner, [and] always likes 
mercy and justice, — therefore it is necessary that the. ryots too 
should, according to their own custom, make great exertions to 
increase the cultivation, so that the signs of agriculture may daily 
increase. This thing is the cause of the gain of the State and the 
benefit of the ryots.] 

Third. — About fixed revenue : If the peasant is too poor to 
get together agricuJtural implements and runs away leaving the 
land idle, give the land to another on lease or for [direct] culti- 
vation [as a tenant at will P], and take the amount of the revenue 
from the lessee in case of lease, or from the share of the owner in 
cnse of [direct] cultivation. If any surplus is left, pay it to the 
owner. Or, substitute another man in the place of the [former] 
owner, in order that he may, by cultivating it, pay the revenae 
and enjoy the surplus [of the produce.] And whenever the [for- 
mer] owners again become capable of cultivating, restore the lands 
to them. If a man [115, 6] runs away leaving the land to lie idle, 
do not lease it out before the next year. 

[Oommentary, 114, b : — In what has been written about giving 
lease, entrusting to cultivators for [direct] cultivation, taking the 
amount of the revenue from the lessee [in case of lease] and from 
the owner's share in case of [direct] cultivation, and paying one- 
half to the nMikj i.e., to the former cultivator, — ^the word mdlik 
(owner) does not mean 'proprietor of the soil' but 'owner of the 
crop in the field '; because, if the word * owner' meant 'proprietor 
of the soil,' then the owner would not run away through poverty 
and want of agricultural materials, but would rather sell his land 
and seek relief in either of these two ways : (i) throwing the pay- 
ment of Government revenue upon the purchaser, (ii) devoting the 
sale-proceeds of his owner^s right to the removal of his own needs. 
As for the words ''substitute another man for the [former] owner," 
the rightful substitute for a proprietor can be none but his 
heir, and this is the distinctive mark of ownership. Therefore, 
the word 'substitute* as used here means 'a substitute for the 
owner of the crop.' But in the case in which a man, after 
spending his own money and with the permission of Govern- 
ment, cultivates a waste land which had paid no revenue before, 
and having agreed to its assessment for revenue pays the revenue 
to the State, — such a man has [true] tenant's right to the land he 
cultivates, because he is the agent of reclaiming the land. The 
real owner is he who can create a substitute for the owner, i.e., the 
king. It is a well-known maxim, "Whosoever wields the sword, 
the coins are stamped in his name." As for the expression " pay 

236 Journal of the Asiatic Society : of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

half [the produce] to the owner, and do not lease out the field to 
anyone else for a year afterwards," — the intention is that, as the 
fiied revenue {Kha/rSj-i-muazzaf) is not affected by the productive 
or barren nature [of the year], in both cases the cultivator has to 
•pskj the revenue in cash. As the Emperor likes leniency and jus- 
tice, [he here orders] that the officers should kindly wait for one 
year [for the return of a fugitive ryot] and, in the case of [direct] 
cultivation or lease, they should pay to him any surplus left above 
the Government revenue.] 

Fottr^A.— Inform yourself about the tracts of fallow {uftSda) 
land which have not returned to cultivation. If they be among 
the roads and highways, enter them among the area ( P hand) of 
towns and villages, in order that none may till them. And if you 
find any land other than these, which contains a crop that stands 
in the way of its tillage, then do not hinder [the cultivation] for 
the sake of its revenue. But if it be capable of cultivation, or 
really a piece of land fallen into ruin {hair), then in both these 
cases, in the event of the land having an owner and that owner 
being' present and able to cultivate it, urge the owner to till it. 
But if the land has no owner, or if the owner is unknown, give 
it to a man who can reclaim it to reclaim. Thereafter, if the 
lessee be a Muhammadan and the land [117, a] adjoins a tract 
paying tithes, assess tithes on it ; if it adjoins a rent-paying tract, 
or if the reclaimer of the land be an infidel, lay the full revenue on 
it. In case the [standard] revenue cannot be realised, as prudence 
may dictate, either assess the land at something per bigha by way 
of unalterable rent,— what is called Kharaj -i-muqai' at, ^— or lay on 
it the prescribed revenue of half the crop,— which is called KhoyrSy 
i-^muqasema. If the owner be known, but is quite unable to culti- 
vate it, then if the land had been previously subject to Kharoj- 
i" muqcisema, act according to the order issued [for this class of 
revenue]. But if it be not subject to Kkardj-i-mtiqUsema or is not 
bearing any crop, then do not trouble [the owner] for tithes or 
revenue. But if he be poor, engage him in cultivation by advanc- 
ing taqSvi. 

lUommentary 116, a : — Fourth clause : " When the land forms 
part of highways or is really waste or owned by a person 
unknown, or when the owner is quite unable to till it," and other 
expressions. In all these cases the word owner is used in the 
former sense. And there is a possibility of ownership being used 
in the latter sense too, as described before. There are many 
proofs more manifest than the Sun and more evident than yester- 
day, in support of * owner ' being used for the king. For the sake 
of brevity they have not been mentioned here.] 

Fifth. — As for a desert tract (hSdia), if the owner be known, 
leave it with him ; do not give possession of it to others, [117, ft]. 
If the owner be not known, and there is no chance of ^audSt^ in 
the land, then, as policy may dictate, give the land to whomsoever 

1 Bilmokta— Maod held at a low unalterable rent.*— (Brte. in(i.,p. 151.) 
' jjuP retuTD* 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Bewnw Begidationr of Aw-angzib. 227 

jou consider fit to take cieu:^ of it. Whosoever makes it 
arable must be recognised as the owner of the tract and 
the land should not be wrested from him. If the land contains 
articles of ^auddt (?), do not issue any order that may hinder the 
^audOt in the land ; and as for the gain from the land, forbid 
Bowing, etc. ; and do not let anyone take possession of it, and re- 
cognise none as its owner. 

If an entire ^ tract of waste land has been transferred for any 
reason, and a contrary state of things is brought about by a 
different cause, then regard the land as belonging to the man up 
to the time till when it was in his possession, and do not give 
possession of it to anybody else. 

[Commentary, 116, h : — In the fifth clause it has been written : 
** If the owner of a desert tract be present, entrust it to him ; 
otherwise, give it, as advisable, to a fit person who may reclaim it 
to cultivation ; recognise him as its owner, do not wrest it from 
him, — if there is no probability of 'audat in it," and other things. 
Here the word ^audSt has two meanings : (i ) that the land is likely 
to contain mines, and (ii) that the [original] owner may return to 
it. The second alternative which has been stated before, is clearly 
evident here, " Whosoever makes a land fit for cultivation should 
be recognised as its owner." It means that, as with the permission 
of the ruler he cultivates a waste unproductive land and benefits 
the State, therefore he has a claim to the land based on his services. 
Hence the imperial order runs : " Whosoever makes a land fit for 
cultivation should be recognised as its owner, and the land should 
not be wrested from him." Then it is evident that none else can 
have any right to the land. ** As for the gain from the land, 
etc." — I.e., if hereafter someone else sets up a claim to ownership, 
he should not be given possession of the profit from this land, such 
as the price of crops or [the gain from] gardens, tanks, and such 
things. The reason is that this land had been paying no rent 
before, and therefore the i^an who has reclaimed it and none else 
has a right to it. 

" And if a tract of waste land, etc." — i.e., if a tract of waste 
land is in its entirety transferred to another person, either on 
account of its having had no owner, or by reason of the man having 
reclaimed the land by his own exertions from unproductiveness 
and incapacity to pay revenue, then the man who first owned it 
and from whom it was transferred to the former, has a right to the 
price of the produce of the transferred land up to the time when it 
ceased to produce anything. This produce had no connection 
with the man to whom the land has been transferred, because the 
land belongs to him only from the time of the transfer.] 

Sixth, — In places where no tithe or revenue has been laid on 
a cultivated land, fix whatever ought to be fixed according to the 
Holy Law. If it be revenue, fix such an amount that [119, a] the 
ryots may not be ruined ; and for no reason exceed half [the crop], 
even though the land may be capable of paying more. Where the 

J j> •ntirei undivided. 

228 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [Jnne, 1906. 

amount is fixed, accept it, provided that if it be Khardj, the 
Oovemment share should not exceed one-half, lest the ryots be 
ruined by the exaction. Otherwise reduce the former Khardj and 
fix whatever the ryots can easily pay. If the land is capable of 
paying more than the fixed [amouut] take (P) more. 

lUommentary, 118, a : — In the sixth clause : The wish of the 
benevolent Emperor is that the revenue should be so fixed that the 
peasantry may not be ruined by paymeut of it. The land belongs 
to the king, but its cultivation depends on the ryots ; whenever 
the ryots desert their places and are ruined, i.e., when they are 
crushed by the excessive exactions and oppression of the officers, 
one can easily imagine what the condition of the cultivation would 
be. Hence urgent orders are issued in this clause. And the 
statement in the last portion, ^* If the land is capable of paying 
more than the fixed amount, take more," is contrary to the order 
in the first portion of the same clause. Probably it is an error of 
tlie scribe. He mast have imagined that as this passage is insistent, 
it ought to be read as * take.* The reason is that in the first 
portion there is a total prohibition [of taking more revenue], 
^' although it can pay more, do not take more than one-half," and 
again here the Emperor orders *' do not take more than the pre- 
scribed amount,** such an order strengthens the first order, nay 
more, the repetition of the order is for the purpose of strong 

Seventh, — You may change fixed revenue {muazzaf) into 
share of crop {mnqQsema), or vice versa , if the ryots desire it ; 
otherwise not. 

[Oomvientary ; — The order for changing one kind of revenue 
into another at the wish of the ryots is for their convenience.] 

Eighth, — The time for demanding fixed revenue is the harvest- 
ing of every kind of grain. Therefore, when any kind of grain 
reaches the stage of harvest, collect the share of revenue suited 
to it. 

10 ommentary : —The object is, whenever the revenue is de- 
manded at harvest, the ryots may, without any perplexity, sell a 
portion of the ci*op sufficient to pay the revenue and thus pay the 
due of the State. But, if the demand is made before that time, it 
puts them into perplexity and anxiety. Therefore, the Emperor's 
order is to seek their convenience.] 

Ninth, — In lands subject to fixed revenues, if any non-preven- 
table calamity overtakes a sown field, you ought to inquire care- 
fully, and grant remission to the extent of the calamity, as required 
by truth and the nature of the case. And in realising [119,6.] 
produce ^ from the remnant, see that a net one-half [of the produce] 
may be left to the ryots. 

ICommentary, 118, h : — " If Khardj-i-muazzaf has been fixed 
on a land, and a calamity befalls some crop of the laud by which 
it is not totally destroyed, then you ought to inquire into the cane. 

^ Text has malisulf whiph may also mean ' revenae.* 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Bevenue Begul<aiotu of Aurangzib. 229 

and deduct from the revenne to tlie extent of the injury done ; and 
from the portion that remains safe, take so much of the produce 
{mahsul) that the ryot may have a net one-half*' ; e.g.^ ten maunds 
are [usually] produced in a field ; on account of the calamity six 
maunds only are left [safe], the net half of this is five maunds ; 
therefore, you should take one maund only [as revenue], so that 
the net half {viz.) five maunds may be left to the ryot.] 

Tenth. — In lands with fixed revenues: If anybody leaves 
his land untilled, in spite of his ability to till it and the aosence of 
any hindrance, then take the revenue [of it] from some other ^ 
[field in his possession.] In the case of fields which have been 
flooded, or where the [stored] rain-water has been exhausted, or any 
non-preventable calamity has overtaken the crop before reaping, 
60 that the ryot has secured nothing, nor has he time enough left 
for a second crop to be raised before the beginning of the next 
year, — consider the revenue as lost. But if the calamity happens 
after reaping, whether it be preventable like eating up by cattle or 
after the calamity sufficient time is left [for a second crop], collect 
the revenue. 

IGommentary : — "If a man holds a land on which KharOj-i- 
muazzaf has been laid, and he has the power to cultivate it, and 
there is no obstacle to his cultivating, and yet he leaves it untilled, 
— then realise the revenue of that land from any other land be- 
longing to the man, because he left his land idle in spite of his 
being able to till it and there being no obstacle. If any land be- 
longing to the man is flooded or the rain-water which had been 
dammed up for irrigation of crops gets exhausted, and the crop is 
ruined, or if any non-preventable calamity befalls his crops, before 
they have ripened and been harvested, so that he secures no crop 
nor has he any time left for raising a second crop that year, — then 
do not collect the revenue. But if any non-preventable calamity 
overtakes the crop of the man after reaping, or if the calamity 
takes place before the reaping but enough time is left for a second 
crop that year, take the revenue {mahsul)" because the calamity 
happened through his own carelessness after the reaping of the 
com. And so, too, "if the calamity happens before the reaping, 
but time enough is left for another crop, then [as the loss] occur- 
red through his neglect, it is proper to take revenue from him.] 

Eleventh, — If the owner of a land, subject to a fixed revenue^ 
cultivates it but dies before paying that year's revenue, and his 
heirs get the produce of the field [121, a] collect the revenue from 
them. But do not take anything if the aforesaid person died before 
cultivating and [time] enough is not left that year [for anyone 
else to till it]. 

lOommentary, 120, a : — What has been published about " the 
death of the owner of tl^e land, taking the revenue from his heirs, 
and not demanding the revenue from the heirs if he died before 
tilling" is manifestly just; becauRe the land-owner, i.e., truly 

i B*a»9 Zamin^Qee Wilson, p. 69, i. '* The Baze Zamin or certain lands 
flet apart for varioas aB6e."^( Brit. Ind., p* 276.) 

230 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

speaking the owner of the crop, died befok^ cultivating, and so it 
18 far from just to collect revenue from his heirs, even though tliey 
may have got something from him by way of bequest ; for the 
[true] owner of the land is the king, and the owner of the crop, 
i.e., the deceased [ryot] died before cultivating, and his heirs 
have not got anything or crop that may be a ground for [demand- 
ing] revenue, so, nothing should be collected from them.] 

Twelfth, — Concerning fixed assessments: If the owner gives 
his land in lease or loan, and the lessee or borrower cultivates it, 
take the revenue from the owner. If the latter plants gardens, 
take the revenue from the latter. But if a man after getting hold 
of a Kharaji land denies it, and the owner can produce witnesses, 
then if the usurper has cultivated it, take the revenue from him; 
but if he has not done so, take the revenue from neither of them. 
If the usurper denies [the usurpation] and the owner cannot pro- 
duce witnesses, take the revenue from the owner. In cases of 
mortgage (rihan), act according to the orders applicable to cases 
of usurpation. If the mortgagee has engaged in cultivation with- 
out the permission of the mortgager, [121, 6] [exact the revenue 
from the former]. 

[^Commentary, 120, b : — This order may be construed in either 
of the following two ways, or it will yield no sense : " If the owner 
of a land under fixed revenue gives his land in lease or loan, and 
the lessee or borrower cultivates it, realise the revenue from the 
owner. If the latter has planted gardens on it, take the revenue 
from him, because he has planted the gardens. If a man after 
getting hold of a Khardji land denies it, and the owner has wit- 
nesses, tlien, in the case of the usurper having tilled it, take the 
revenue from him, but if he has not done so take the revenue from 
neither of them. If the usurper denies [the usurpation] and (i) 
the owner has no witness, take the revenue from the owner." This 
is one construction. The other is (ii) " if the owner has witnesses, 
take the revenue from the owner," i.e., the usurper denies [the 
usurpation] and the owner produces witnesses to prove his own 
cultivation, therefore the owner should pay the revenue. 

** In cases of mortgage act according to the orders issued for 
cases of usurpation. If the mortgagee has engaged in cultivation 
without the consent of the mortgager, [demand the revenue from 
the former],*' because if the mortgagee engaged in cultivation 
tvith the consent of the mortgager, the latter ought to have paid 
the revenue, because the right to cultivate is [here] included in 
the mortgage. But if he has engaged in cultivation ujithout the 
mortgager's consent, he ought to pay the revenue, because the 
land alone, and not the right to cultivate it, was mortgaged.] 

Thirleenth,'^Ahout lands under fixed revenue : If a man sells 
his Khardji land, which is cultivated, in the course of the year, 
then, if the land bears one crop only and the buyer, after taking 
possession, gets enough time during the rest of the year to culti- 
vate it and there is none to hinder him, collect the revenue from 
the buyer ; otherwise from the seller. If it yields two crops, and 
the seller has gathered in one and the buyer the other, then divide 

YoL II, Ko. 6.] The Revenue Begulatione of Aurangztb, 231 

the revenue between the two. Bat if the land is [at the time of 
sale] under a ripe crop, take the revenue from the seller. 

[Oommentary^ 122, a : — If a man wishes to sell his land, t.6., 
the crop of his land, and the purchaser gets sufficient time during 
the year to cultivate it, take the revenue from the purchaser. If 
it bears two crops, of which the seller has gathered m one and the 
buyer the other, divide the revenue and collect it from the two 
parties. If the land be under a ripe crop, take the revenue from 
the seller, because as the crop is ripe and the seller has sold it with 
full knowledge, he must have taken the price of the ripe grain. 
Therefore the seller should pay the revenue.] 

FburteefUh, — Oonceming lands under fiaed revenue : If a man 
builds a house on his land, he should pay the rent as fixed before ; 
and the same thing if he plants on the land trees without fruits. 
If he turns an arable land, on which revenue was assessed for cul- 
tivation [123, a] into a garden, and plants fruit-trees on the whole 
tract without leaving any open spaces [fit for cultivation], take 
Bs. 2f upwards (P bSld)^ which is the highest revenue for giu^dens, 
although the trees are not yet bearing fruit. But in the case of 
grape and almond trees, while they do not bear fruit take the cusr 
tomanr revenue only, and after they have begun to bear fruit, take 
Bs. 2f upwards (?), provided that the produce of one legal higha, 
which means 45 x 45 Shah Jahani yaixls, or 60 x 60 legal yiuds, 
amounts to Bs. 5^. Otherwise take half the actual produce [of 
the trees]. If the price of the prodace amounts to less than a 
quarter-rupee, — as in the case when grain sells at 5 Shah Jahani 
seers a rupee and the Government share of the crop amounts to one 
seer only (?) ^ — you should not take less than this [quarter-rupee]. 

If a man sells his lnnd to a Muhammadan, demand the revenue 
in spite of his beine a Muslim. 

lOommentaryy 122, b : — If a man owns a land under a fijced 
revenue, and builds a house on it or plants a garden of trees that 
bear no fruit, there should be no change in its revenue, the former 
revenue should be taken. If a garden is planted on a land which 
was used for cultivation and on which the revenue of culturable 
land was fixed, and the fruit-trees are placed so close together that 
no open space is left for tillage, take Bs. 2-12, which is the due 
(hdsU) of gardens, even while the trees do not bear fruit. But in 
the case of grape and almond trees, the [usual] revenue is taken 
while they have not begun to bear fruit, and afterwards the due 
(hUsil) of gardens. But if this due of ff^^^ns, which is fixed at 
Bs. 2-12— on the ground that the total yield (P rab'a) of a legal 
btgha including the owner's share, may reach to Bs. 5-8 — does not 
reach that amount, then take half the actual produce as reveoue.' 

^ Is not this a very round-aboat way of saying that when the rarenne in 
kind is worth only ^ of a rupee, a qnarter-rapee ihoald be regarded as the 
minimom assessment P 

s In revenoe by division of crops, the State took only i of the gross pro- 
duce in the case of gprain; bat 4 to |^ in the case of opinm, sugar-cane, yine 
plantain, and cotton. (Brit. Ind , p. 179 ) 

232 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

But if the price of this half -share of the produce be less than 
As. 4 — as, in the case of grain, if you get one seer in five Shah 
Jahani seers (P)— do not take less [than As. 4]. If an infidel 
sells his land to a Muhammadan, collect the revenue from the 
latter, because in truth it was not the latter's possession]. 

Fifteenth. — If any man turns his land into a cemetery [123,6] 
or serai in endowment {waqf), regard its revenue as remitted. 

lOommentary, 124, a : — ^As it is a pious act to endow tombs 
and serdis^ therefore the Emperor forbids the collection of revenue 
from them, for the sake of benefiting and doing good [to the public]. 
Revenue ought not to be taken [from such lands]. 

Sixteenth. — About revenue by division of crops {kharOj-i- 
mnqOsema) : If a man, whether Hindu or Muhammadan, is not the 
owner of a revenue-paying land, but has only bought it or holds it 
in pawn, he ought to enjoy the profit from whatever is produced in 
it. Collect from him the proper portion which has been fixed [as 
revenue], — provided that the share is neither more than one-half 
nor less than one- third [of the total crop]. If it be less than one- 
third, increase it, [if more than one-half, decrease it], as you consider 

[Commentary : — If a man is not the real owner of a mvqdsema 
land, but holds it [by purchase or] in pawn, he ought to enjoy the 
gain from the land, whether he be Hindu or Muhammadan, on con- 
dition that in case of mortgage he has received permission [to till] 
from the mortgager. Therefore, collect from him the portion [pre- 
viously] fixed as the assessment on that land. But this portion 
ought not to be more than one-half nor less than one-third. If 
more than one-half, decrease it, if less than one-third, increase it, to 
a proper amount.] 

SeverUeenth.^li the owner of a mtiqUsema land dies without 
leaving any heir, act, in giving it in lease, direct cultivation, etc. 
according to the ordinances issued [above] for muazzaf lands. 

\_Oommentary : — ^If the cultivator dies without heir, the man 
who administers the land should act in the manner prescribed in the 
third clause about khardj-i-mHazzaf in giving it in lease or direct 

Eighteenth. — In muqdsema lands, if any calamity overtakes 
the crop, remit the revenue to the amount of the injury. And if 
the calamity happens after reaping the grain or before reaping, 
gather revenue on the portion that remains safe. 

[Oomm.entary : — The Emperor seeks the happiness of the ryots. 
Therefore he sfcrongly orders that no revenue should be demanded 
for the portion destroyed. But it should be collected for the rem- 
nant according to the share of that remnant.] 

Famuln of the Em^rcr Aurangzib^^Slamgir to Rasik Das krori 
in the form of a revenue-guide. 

{267, a.] Basik D&s, thrifty and obedient to Islam, hope for 
Imperial favours and know — 

That, all the desires and aims of the Emperor are directed to 

Vol. II, No. 6.1 The Bevenue Begulaiums of Aurangztb. 233 

the increase of caltiyation, and the welfare of the peasantry and the 
people at large, who are the marvellons creation of and a tmst 
from the Creator (glorified be His name !)• 

Now the agents of the Imperial court have reported, after in- 
•quiry among the officers of the parganas of Grown lands and fiefs 
{taitd) of jSgir-holders, that at the beginning of the current year the 
Smins of the parganas of the Imperial dominions ascertain the re- 
venue of many of the mauz^as and parganas from a consideration of 
the produce {hOsil ) of the past year and the year preceding it, the 
area capable of caltiyation, the condition and capability of the 
ryots, and other points. And if the ryots of any village do not 
agree to this procedure, they fix the revenue at the time of harvest- 
^T^g l>7 [actual] survey or estimated valuation of crop J And in 
some of the villages, where the cultivators are known to be poor 
and deficient in capital, they follow the practice of division of crops 
[gAaUa-baibshi] at the rate of ^, ^, f , or more or less. And at the 
end of the year they send to the Imperial record office tlie account- 
books (tumflr) • of the cash collection of revenue, according to rule 
and custom, with their own verification (tasdiq), and the Krwis* 
acceptance, [267, b] and the signatures of the chaudhuris and 
qHnungoes, But they do not send there the records of the lands of 
every pargana with description of the cultivation and details of the 
articles forming the autumn and spring harvests, — in such a way 
as to show what proportion of the crop of last year was actually 
realised and what proportion fell short, what difference, either 
increase or decrease, has occurred between the last year and the 
present, and the number of ryots of every mauz% distinguishing 
the lessees, cultivators, and others. [Such papers] would truly ex- 
hibit the circumstances of every mahal, and the work of the officers 
there — who, on the occurrence of a decrease in the collection of the 
mahal, after the ascertaining of the revenue had taken place, remit 
A lar^ amount from the total [standard] revenue on the plea of 
deficient rainfall, the calamity of chillnip, dearth of grain, or some- 
>thing else. 

If they act economically [or with attention to minute details] 
after inq^uiring into the true state of the crops and cultivators of 
every village, and exert themselves to bring all the arable lands 
under tillage and to increase the cultivation and the total standard 
revenue, so that the parganas may become cultivated and inhabit- 
^, the people prosperous, and the revenue increased, then, if any 
-calamity does happen, the abundance of cultivation will prevent 
any great loss of revenue occurring. 

The Emperor Orders that — 

Tou should inquire into the real circumstances of every 
village in tha parganas, under your divodns and dmins, namely^ 

i Kankoat—** Estimate of the ripened corn is called JToof." {Brit Ind., 
p. 216.) 

• 2Vim4r~>rent-roll« 

234 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 190^. 

what is the extent of the arable land in it ? [268, a] what pro* 
portion of this total is actually under cultivation, and what portion 
not ? What is the amount of the full crop every year P What is 
the cause of those lands lying uncultivated P 

Also find out, what was the system of revenue collection in 
the reign of Akbar under the diwani administration of Tudar Mai? 
Is the amount of the sdxr cess t)ie same as under the old regula- 
tions, or was it increased at His Majesty's accession P How many 
mauz^'as are cultivated and how many desolate? What is the 
cause of the desolation ? After inquiring into all these matters, 
exert yourself to bring all arable lands under tillage, by giving 
correct agreements {qauL) ^ and proper promises, and to increase 
the first rate crops. Where there are disused wells, try to repair 
them, and also to dig new ones. And assess their revenue in such 
a way that the ryots at large may get their dues and the Govern- 
ment revenue may be collected at the right time and no ryot may 
be oppressed. 

And every year after correctly preparing the papers contain- 
ing the number of the cultivators of every mauz^a^ [the extent of] 
the cultivated and uncultivated lands, lands irrigated by wells and 
by rain [respectively], the higher and lower crops, the prepara- 
tions for cidtivating the arable land for increasing the first-rate 
crops and bringing under culture the villages which had lain 
desolate for years, — and what else has been ordered in previous 
revenue-guides {dasturu-Waml) ^ — ^report these details, with the 
amount of the money collected during the year just com- 
pleted [268, 5]. Know this regulation and procedure as estab- 
lished from the becrinning of the autamn of the year of the Hare,* 
the 8th year of the reign, and act in this way, and also urge the 
officers of the mahals of the j a gir-dars to act similarly :— ^ 

First. — Do not grant private interviews to the ^amils and 
chaudhuris, but make them attend in the [public] audience-haU. 
Make yourself personally familiar with the ryots and poor men, 
who may come to you to state their condition, by admitting them 
to public and private audiences, so that they may not need the 
intermediation of others in making their requirements known to 

Second, — Order the ^amUs that (i) at the beginning of the 
year they should inquire, village by village, into the number of 
cultivators and ploughs, and the extent of the area [under tillage], 
(ii) If the ryots are in their places, the ^amils should try to make 
every one of them exert himself, according to his condition, to 
increase the sowing and to exceed last year's cultivation ; and 
advancing from inferior to superior cereals they should, to the best 
of their power, leave no arable land waste, (iii) If any of the 
peasants runs away, they should ascertain the cause and work 

i Tippa Saltan's order : " On the oommencement of the year [the amit] 
Shall give cowle to all the ryots... and enoonrage them to oaltiyate the lands.'* 
British India Analysedj I, 1 and 2. 

« A Turkish year. 

ToL II, No. 6.] The Beventie BeguUOioitt of Aurangtib. 23^ 


rery. hard to indace him to return to his former place, (iv) Sinii«- 
larly, use conciliation and reassurances in gathering together 
cultivators from all sides with praiseworthy diligence, (y) Devise 
the means hj which barren {hanjar) lands may be brought under 

Third, — Urge the dmins of the parganas, that at the beginning 
of the year, after inquiring into the agricultural assets {maujudnt- 
i-mazru^aUt) [269, a] of every tenant, village by village, they 
should carefully settle the revenue in such a way as to benefit the 
Government and give ease to the ryots. And send the davl ^ of 
revenue to the Imperial record office without delay. 

Fourth. — After settling the revenue, order that the collection 
of revenue should be begun and the payment demanded at the 
appointed time, according to the mode agreed upon in every par* 
gana for the payment of the instalments of revenue. And you 
yourself should every week call for reports and urge them not to 
let any portion of the fixed instalments fall into arrears. If by 
chance a part of the first instalment remains unrealised, collect it 
at the time of the second instalment. Leave absolutely no arrears 
at the third instalment. 

Fifth, — ^Having divided the outstanding arrears into suitable 
instalments according to the condition and capability of the ryots, 
urge the kroris to collect the instalments as promised [by the 
ryots], and you should keep yourself informed about the arrange* 
ments for collecting them, so that the collection may not fall into 
abeyance through the fraud or negligence of the ^amUs. 

Sixth. — When you yourself go to a village, for learning the 
true condition of the parganas^ view the state and appearance of 
the crops, the capability of the ryots, and the amount of the reve* 
nue. If in apportioning [the total revenue among the villagers] 
justice and correctness have been observed to every individual, 
fair and good. But if the chaudhuri or mtiqaddafn or patwOri has 
practised oppression, conciliate the ryots [269, 6] and five them 
their dues. Becover the unlawfully appropriated lands {gunjiiish) 
from the hands of usurpers. In short, after engaging with hon- 
esty and minute attention in ascertaining [the state of things] in 
the present year and the division (? or details) of the assets, write 
[to the Emperor] in detail, — so that the true services of the Ominf 
and the admirable administration of this wazir [Rasik Das] may 
become known [to His Majesty] . 

Seventh. — ^Respect the rent-free tenures, nUnkOr^ and in*aw, 
according to the practice of the department for the administration 
of Crown lands. Learn what the Government ^amils have in* 
creased (?), namely, how much of the tankha of jagirs they have 
left in arrears from the beginning, what portion they have deducted 

t Daul — " an aooonnt of partioalar agreemeutt with the inferior farmers 
of the diatriot, attested by theCanongoes ; snb rent-roll." {Brit, Ind,, p. 222.) 

s Nankar^iBrit. Ind„ p. 148). Enama — " the meanest and more general 
gifta of land, bestowed on mendicants and oommen singers." (Brit. Ind., 
p. 186.) 

236 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal, [June, 1906. 

on the plea of shortage [of rain] and [natural] calamitj. In 
consideration of these things resume [the unlawfully increased 
rent-free lands] of the past, and prohibit [them] in future, so that 
they may bring the parganas back to their proper condition. The 
truth wfll be reported to the Emperor, and favours will be shown 
to all according to their devotion. 

Eight. — In the cashier's office (fotakhdna) order the fotadars 
to accept only 'Alamgiri coins. But if these be not available, they 
should take the Shah Jahani Rupees current in the bazar, and 
collect only the sikha-i'dhwUb. Do not admit into the fotakhdna 
any coin of short weight which will not in the bazar. But 
when it is found that the collection would be delayed if defective 
coins are returned, take from the ryots the exact and true dis- 
count for changing them into current coins, and immediately so 
change them. 

Ninth.—lf, (God forbid !) any calamity [270, a] from earth or 
sky overtakes a mahaly strongly urge the Omins and ^amils to 
watch the standing crops with great care and fidelity ; and 
after inquiring into the sown fields, they should carefully ascertain 
[the loss] according to the comparative state of the present and 
past produce {ha8t'0'hud)A You should never admit [as valid] any 
sarhasta • calamity, the discrimination (Jtafriq ) of wliich depends 
solely on the reports of the chaudhuris, qanungoes^ muqaddams, and 
patwaris. So that all the ryots may attain to their rights and may 
be saved from misfortune and loss, and usurpers may not usurp 
[others' rights]. 

Tenth.— Strongl J urge the dmins, ^amils, chaudhurts, qSnun- 
goesy and mutasaddis, to abolish balia (For hdlia?)^ exactions 
{nkhrdjUt) in excess of revenue, and forbidden Qhiodhs^ (cesses), — 
which impair the welfare of the ryots. Take securities from them 
that they should never exact htdia or collect the iShwShs prohibited 
and abolished by His Majesty. And you yourself should con- 
stantly get information, and if you find anyone doing so and not 
heeding your prohibition and threat, report the fact to the 
Emperor, that he may be dismissed from service and another ap- 
pointed in his -plsyce. 

Eleventh. — For translating Hindi papers into Persian, inquire 
into the rateable assessment and apportionment (hSchh-o-hihri)^ of 
the revenue, exactions (JSkhrHjdt)^ and customary perquisites 

1 Hasiahood jama'^" Gomparatiye aoooanfc of the former and actual 
souroes of revenue, showing the total increased val nation of the lands, the 
yariations produced by casualties, new appropriations. &o" (p. 220). 

2 ^^ y» exemption from payment. Hence the word in the text means 
entitled to remission of revenue. Barhasia in the sense of secret does not 
yield so good a sense. 

^ ~ S sSwcibs — " Imposts levied under the general head of Sair " {Brit. Ind.^ 
p. 168) ; they are enumerated in pp. 164-166. " Aurangzeb abolished 70 of 
these ahwaha " (p. 168). 

*> Bachh — Distribution of an aggregate sum among a number of indivi- 
duals (Wilson, p. 42, b.). Be?iri— Proportionate rate (Wilson, p. 70, 5.). 

Yol. II, No. 6.1 The Revenue Begtdatums of Aurangzib. 237 

(rcuumat)^ name by name. As for whatever is found to have been 
taken from the peasants on any account whatever, after taking 
account of the payments (wdsilSt) into the fotahhUna^ the balance 
should be written as appropriated by the dmin^ ^amtl, zeminddrs 
and others, name by name. And, as far as possible [270, &.] collect 
and translate the rough records (kUgfiaz-i-khUni) of all the villages 
of the pargana. If owing to the absence of the patwari or any other 
cause, the papers of certain mauz^as cannot be got, ei^timate this- 
portion from the total produce of the villages [taken collectively], 
and enter it in the tumHr. After the tumdr has been drawn up, if 
it has been written according to the established system, the diwfin 
ought to keep it. He should demand the refunding of that portion 
of the total gains of ^amils^ chaudhnrieSj qilnungoes, muqaddamSy and 
patwHris, which they have taken in excess of their established per- 
quisites (rasum't'tnuqarrar). 

Twelfth. — ^Report the names of those among the Smins and 
kroris of the jUgirdiirs, who have served with uprightness and 
devotion, and by following the established rules in every matter 
have proved themselves good officers, — so that as the result they 
may be rewarded according to their attention to the gain of the 
State and their honesty. But if any have acted in the opposite 
manner, report the fact to the Emperor, that they may be dismissed 
from the service, put on their defence and explanation [of 
their conduct], and receive the punishment of their irregular acts. 

Thirteenth, — ^With great insistence gather together the papers 
of the records {sar-i-riskia) at the right time. In the mahal in 
which you stay, every day secure from the officers the daily account 
of the collection of revenue and cess and prices- current, and from 
the other parganas the daily account of the collection of revenue 
and cash (maujucUit) every fortnight, and the balance [271, a] in 
the treasuries offotadOrs and the j'am^a toSsil bdqi every month, 
and the twrnUr of the total revenue and the jam^a handi * and the 
incomes and expenditures of the treasuries of the fotadiirs season by 
season. After looking through these papers demand the refunding 
of whatever has been spent above the amount allowed (P or spent 
without being accounted for), and then send them to the Imperial 
record office. Do not leave the papers of the spring harvest un- 
collected up to the autumn harvest. 

[271, S.] Fourteenth, — ^When an flmm or ^amil or fotadSr is 
dismissed from service, promptly demand his papers from him and 
bring him to a reckoning. According to the rules of the diwnn*s 
department, enter as liable to recovery the dhwahs that ought to be 
resumed as the result of this auditing. Send the papers with the 
records of the fihwSiha recovered from dismissed ^amiU^ to the Im- 
perial cutchery^ in order that the auditing of the man's papers may 
be finished. 

Fifteenth. — Draw up the diwUtni papers according to the estab- 
lished rules season by season, affix to them your seal [in proof] 
of verification, and send them to the Imperial record office. 

1 RwBooms-^** CastomB or oommisiioii." {Brit, Ind.^ p. 140.) 

2 Jamahandi — '* Annual lettlement of the revenue." (Brit, Ind,, p. 174.) 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

^ J ^Ji^ ^♦^^ c;J^'l^'* CJja^ ^Uy J^fti [11-2, «.] 

ciii^jj\y^ i^vi iAw j^ u?jU 8UjI vj^CjU 

^j^^ *^ ^|<)j jj>^ yj<H«t i^^^ c*iUAj ^U ,>«auo ^UA vi-^lft^ 

A&A^y* ^J^ f*^ (^^«x^^ J^>^f * m »> a^ O^ ^U vSA^Ub ^ OwM»( «4^b<^ 

Jjr*^ - C*Uf, gi>AJi cUi» iji^f J iJf ^ J A^^ . ^liiif^ [118, <i.] 

*r . Aftjy) J JdJO ^^r JI.UO \jl^ ^fyL |!^/U ^J 3» ^lUyxU 
^j - c*^J jr^'* 5 ^^j^ dliu-i^'O 9.^^iAA ivj^sutf cs^l^lj) 31 *f»^^f 

V^>^ »;3>^j «-ftl*3 J • AijlJw.^NA^t* ^^ Jl-*^j .^Uj Ji^«ft»i 

• dJ;UA lAii J Ciy^ \ [113, *.] Jte 

^,,w^ w> -ff> c^l^ v^;» 3* ^J^ i}^J^^j^ J^<^»*^l3» (rr^ 


Vol. n, 1^0. 6.] The Revenue Begulattons of Auranggib, 239 

^I^.A)b Axi^ oupf;3 .U «>A|^ Aijy ^t^lgl;*-^ [115, a.] 
i>>«aAj t; e^t^f • (>^j|;? ^^>^^>^ ASA'^ JUaiue \^ ^^^3 U . jiy^li yoJU,^ j 

*«»)>'*^'^ \,J^ ] ?>^' y r!/*^ ^'^^ J • '^^^'^ cs;^*^ "^^^^bi ^ '^ *;^* 

t^i tj ^t^fl^ »dy»^ "^^h) ^ - *^3^ ^^ r^ r'^ '-^ «>»»;^ u « jjju^ 

^ ou»fjjj »&;«»i er**3 v^;» •I?;* J • ^>^ d[;-Ai^ ^^ f; Aj3j«>rfUi 

dJa*« ^^^*^ [ 116, b. ] Qi;**3 J^ * ^*^ Lr#!> ^^ er**) "^^S 

• oiA^ S;^b 

^^tt^V y' J "^^^ **^** tH^3 v:;T-f**/»->*»»3^ t^;->* !/' 
• oJ^ («^!>« t^t't)^ J^ '^^ - •^-^^ ^^» ^j^ [ A^ ] - 4^ ^=^b3 
y»^Aa3 ^^ yk ^ . j>^ ^b JUf ^^k dy ^^1 v:)^ ^^U ^^T ;^^r j 

iXaTu )j (fiUU • iX&b v£^t;3 ^ ^^If j^(^ f^fS}\^Oj OwmST^Ua eH^3 c)^ 

)^j^yj» - Jt^ ^y^ 4^^;» ^y [117, a.]^«> eH^35 '^^ e;ULu<* 
j»^ (aJUm • ^ii ^V <^«uo b - A^ ^L;^ </*';• v^y^' 5 * *^^^ 
^j*^ *sJj 4i^uia3 ^u, Arf^i gi^i^ AT t/})^ :^ J * ^i^ th tjj^ 
3t vtH^A^ ^^'^^ ^ - ^^ ^j " ^^ o^Aiaft^ gt^ yt A^ • c^Ub a/aj^ 

^y«i>o ^^U ^r • «)J3U ^J^ ji^b A«^lA/o t^ tyt A^ <J^ J^'Asuo 


240 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [June, 1906. 

,IS3 ^>;^ ^jj^ j^ ^:/S «>i^ ^f>o gj^ g^ o-U ^ sMij^ 

^li oJib ^y** fjS)lo Jl\ [ .^b ] Ai^b aJ ^j^j IjJ ^i^ 
.yiUi ^yUx) ^f vfiJuyi • .xiA^ cUo [117, *.] J;:^ f^ 4!«/|o oJyjJ |^ 

^^^^t ^lAiif ^i J . Aijf fjU j>^ ^j^j ^f^i ci,!j>y: giU «f ^yo| Jf jAl* 

^li vi^ J *^^> J^i>l ^A^ c y i^-M-J^ Aj^b ^2^3 iaiai ^f • «>Jit«>i \ 

^hj\ <3i*i» c:*^y (>W ^^31 Ji^ A^ i^lojU . ^liif ^i ^ju^ 3» ^j/ I 

jf [119, a.] ^ '^ (fy ;«iAif ^lySi. O;j^;0> J • ^Ui ^^ .Xjjb ^ ^ i 

» iiJ^ jjil^ .>^b ^j^ 31 ?^b3 Jbl«if 

♦ •H^t^ ^j^ cr^ cj' y^y. ^ ^j^ *^ "^ ji>> •^^ *^ iT^j^ LTi 

jfi>*. l/t « iv^*/o^ oJf *i**l;3 u^^[ ;^y' ] <-aJd^ jy^ ;A ^ 
(c) Text vH {d) Text of cH^33t («) Text jl^Jfl *4^*i 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Eeve$me BegtdaHoni of Auraf^mh. 241 
i^A^ a: oi^U) ijfy-» ^y <^u Jj'AaR^ [119, i.] Ai.r j.^^ * ^^ 

• Om^ (j(i9y Afl** 

i^li » ^^ ^y * Ai^^A [ ^j^3 ] ,y^ ^^ ^f^ , j>y^ JLbiue 2>U 

jf^ . ^ o-^fj5 a^lj i*j^ ^^ JU ^^^'i y ^4 ar »aiU* *D<^ 
Ji/o y j^ yi h ^yC^ 9t^ - A-y wsJT ^j^a^ jt AW ^f ^ ♦ A»i»j iJU 

j/a« V^ ^ji ^-^ "A^^bi J^***^ i -ir^ *a5H J-^T gl^ ^^1 ji 

^ A^U VA^Ui «A«^Ai [ «H)>^ ] jA — &>t JUi|^5 J lAft ^y oaS «&^t^ 

s^f^jjS^ • AJ^ ji^'^j ^^i-»^3l J^ iWrfUi ^b ^fy» J • ^jif^ 

A-ib ifci^' O^fj^J^f J • aJ^ ,^*^ jl jf^ A^b ^/ o**fj3 ,,***U 
A&b alLfttAi e^^U' ^^ J ^^ j^ "^^ y^ J * AJj'JLj ^ ^ jr 
« aJ/ JL^ w-«i ^ jij^ ^j tttijtr'^j J • «iJ^iU^ UJUjf 1^ 

i:^-/"3» c»;^ ] ^^'^ [l^lf *•] »^ *^';3 ob^ t^•(^ c^' u^ ii^V^/j 
*^ b"^-^ s^l;^ i:^3 i .^A^a /f . aji^- gf>^A ^^H-* 

{/) Tett nJf 31 j'^A* ^) Tetfc ^!^» AjX^i 

(p) T«xt tt^ wli (^) Tei6 AU|Ai 


' 1242 • Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengci. [June, 1906. 

j^f jj^/JU ,j *a^ 4Ui fc^^ . ^jj^ JU ^y'^^of 6j^ -c^j) e»»>> 
i ^^^z^\^ JU ^fjj i>il>! \iS'\ fc«±-«l Aiil^ j^ J^ JU Aj&ijI tty^Kj^ 

»juL)lij^^^ ^Uii» ^^3 e;T)«i -^1 tH^r r^ J • •^^^ c>^^ ji^^-*^ 
»*>/ ^ [123, fl.] .^t^ c^j3 «»*Jb «>T ;'^ *^ • »j </^;3 tO C/W • *^^ 

jb aj» *Aj5j ji^ j4i .y^\d 3! «>«f J - ^^7*^ ^3^ ^^'••^ «>A«v>^' *^^^^j 

^^^jb •^^^ e;^*^ ^•>» b 4^ trt-j c«;«Vyf • [^^] a;^^ e;» }' 

. »i>i ^h c5»r* ^ [128, *•]' i;^ f; ^> e;*-3 ^/\ fA^ 

• jiJb fciU ^f g»^ 

t«i^ i:;«*3 e(>3 *^ J* *«^^ ♦» - ixAb^y b lUb jojyi. b ^J-^ l^ .>AliyV 
»^JJ *^ u-fc;^ - ^j4i [3' 30 •^'^ )J^ ^ oW,**to^ - ,xAby^ Ci^ 
A^yk OJ^UJ «^b) AAli aJIj^I ^ ^f^ - AJlJ3t^ Ai J|lj«>^'*^ •-ft*fl>3» 

• ^J^^ W4»**I U 

. 'u ' - 

(ft) T«xt yi JU A:;f>> 4il>yt .a^f ^ i^^^ t^^ g»^ J| 

(m) TextjjW-^-A*.'^ t«>^ ^^^3 ca^j^ *^yk ^W rfAb; jy c^ 

▼ol. II, No. 6.1 The Itevenue Begulationi of Aurangzib. 243 
\i)ii^ i:HJ*3 yjj^'* ^ji*>^ *^->U.i ^;4* *^^ trt*j ^U^l ^oibfc' 

' « Ai^f cUAi vS-iif '-ft^ ^^^ »>e^ ^^'>J ^ «;Wlj e;^ 

• AyXi ^fyi. ^Ui 

• p)'. Text jtAik^ 

Commentary on the farmSn to Muhammad Has^im. 
wUo. 3? «xj^ [J ixoA^ ,x^ 0;-» ;^ ei^»i^ [113, *. margin] 

^31^0 i^ . OM^f j^iti ^l|xU jjif^l Cr^f ■ ;aJuo Af^r ^^y ijii^ yi 

Aij->*U ^iH^ *_f;i ii;< o*^y> *^ Vij^y ***-J^.> c>5 *«#^ [114, a.] 

H:;(/?;;r^ '• •^*;^;. ^ ^^JO^ 3* *^ ' 4/^'*^ •^^^ B^J^^^jA o.^lj^ v^U*.| 3! 
iW|.w^JU ijj(^ f^ ^^ ^^3 w^Jf a^ , i>^b c^U» ^U. ^j^^ aT CM«t 

^^ J «>J«V J * vuJjl d by ^yUJ*. bljl JU J . <XA<>j v-*^ vM ^^ 

J^ ^ «^Uj *a»)r«y ^d - Ai**«t •^l^ ^'a. bI^ a^ *'=^* c>l;^^>^j.j 

• «8^* l^bj sz^iij^j j\ijm iC^jiaS Ajfib 

(a) Text cV *^tli («) Text - . 

(b) Text A- - ^ ^ (<j) rt,^ c^ji ^^-^ 

(«) Text i:^J k^) v'< P 

244 Journal of the Asiaitc Society of Bengal, [June, 190$. 

. [o-i-»^jiXU] AiiUj / ^^j ^U d;Oi ^ iJJU; a«i> J c«^y>0;^ cXJU 

^^Uh fc^U^f ji" f^ . c^t ^^'cj tt)f ;^ o^^I>« 9JJI0 si ^ifJjlj 4JJU 

. iiijU iJJU ^lA^ ^li fj ^A^UM *s*^f ^^^ *^ t^it J • ^ji^f ^^^ ^ 
ti^jfLo ^yOWLlO ^♦Ajt J -j^ilx*^ jf t^jtj «— l>i^ «-^^ ^^^ (^ J^ j<) 
^(A4 ^li i!S «Am«I ^^a« ^j;W C***4fc.^Ai-« ^Lc ^l* a^ l^;^ ^j»^ * vi^l 

• aiajj ^b j^ »^L} «^ /i^lhJU 

# • 

ii/^ \:M 3 cr^t t:;*^f j'i-^ tJliJf«> (»^^ c^.i^ <*^^ )^ 3 * *^^ j/^ 
jb Outb d^^^^piJU aTajib ^,yoj u;bjj f;^ tpi^ ^ S^l [116, i.] 

(/) Emenaation ^l^Uj (g) Text jj^C 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Bevenue Begulatians of Autangutb. 245 

• cHs^j e^f;^ u**^ e;''^ c>**f 3^ i^J 4>* p^ - *^ m)^ jUia.! a^ 4^*3 

4irt-5 A^ cu^» i^o J.^ . ixJJId fj jl A*ij ^\jo 1^ curljij JUtf f^ ^^^'^ 
^ akJi . Ow-I »^ jl^ oolif »^/ ^Ijf ^^U ^j;iU tj J^U. Jf^b 
t; e;**3 *^ 7* - ^^i yn e;^^ t^^^^L, ^ [^T] ^Lu - o^jt b vi.^J^ 

. ^^m^y^ MS $j^j ^^b ^^^3 i»ks ^1 J • ^ ^Af^Ai ^3^ 1^ *-^A 
^^,>^ ^31 J . jiid UB^^ ^^J clft^« AA^Uii «i.5b ^;;Juo3 Axkl JJ.-J 

w^-» JyA»^ Jy**' j**^^ erft^3 ^^.i^l [31] ^t^t oAa&a. ij ^j^f «JJU 
J[^^.A«^ t^j . Ijj^ JftiLo ^jaiui ^^by JliiJt 3! J ouilA jJUi J,f iS 

^f . »i^| yyj^ [»i**«j] vd'*^^ j^*** - ^ *«*^ ;«> vl^ [1 18, a,] 
•^^> ^y. ^^) i^)^ • ow-bb^ 31 y ^ibT o-f ^2;iU- j{ fciJU A^ ^^^3 

^^bf iiXbf - A)^i ^J^ jLoU ^ ^ ^-^ »^b3 *.,A>-J. ^ iXiiiw 03!^ 

»^^3 O'J-^ 3' (>i^ c^I)A y». *^ - c^-^jAi- >^» 1^ jA ^ i:H» J 
. o^t M^^ ^j^ ^^ ^jl 1^ ^^ lja*a> |,U jj^^f ♦ oi^ |^b3 o^b 

^ Om»| 4)^ ^lu i^f ^t A^ vsJbyj ^U^ . fXi^b 9^ sJX %y^ <>jU* 

246 Journal of the Asiaiic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906/ 

A^i jilSi ^ jiji^ af 0^ «iJ|^ S^ - Owi«lljt ^e^ OJ^ j ^ ^\ 

o^P;/^ ea&^ ^f^ C^j J'^/' *^*:! • ^ ***'>;^ v!^ [118,*.] 

I^T af ojIi i^o o^ . .3^i «W cWIj aT a-y oiT^;^3 e^^^-s^tjij ^^)^f 

^JU [«r] 4:_^.>i J . dJui^ \y^^ aAIj tiX^ »U3 4^ ^^y^ tCi^ (JljSaJ 

. ()JUi |JU« iJuAJ C«^c^ ^^f;^ A^ '^J^. c^T 3' J>«^^*^ J<>A>1 «SM«t t«>Jlo^ 

^f^ UiJtyo gf^ af j^y^ ^^^3 ^^.AiiAyt Jaj — ^^ *^«i jd wf^ . 

Jikiue . 0. ^'» 0^f;3 ^fjJ t*i^ jc^ J O^f ^a^iJf^j y ^^li jl J v5*^l j^^ 

o^tj3 ^Aw^^^ij • vs^Mtft aiifj JJw^ (JU f^i^j o^Ji ^j)^^ uu*j b a^ 
altfu o.^|j3 ,j^ v!>***^j ^-!/ *^ - o!;^ v^ ^i •^^ ••H^; u?^ u^*-fijf 

^j;f OUJr,^ ^ ^£)^)6 b - «XAU }iAi> {jU »£.*|j(J ^ - jJ&b s<>^ j^UJ - ^^ 

(>-;* J*^ v^^ *^b3 ^^ ^^ ^r^ <-^^ *^ 4.^ ^ • ***; ;'^** *"' 
uoAA <yf .i^lji) ^ c>^>>y^ J • **i;*^ r}j^ - *^^ •'^^^ lMI^ *«'*^ 

(i) Text u«J>5 0) Text *a^jy cm»a^ ^ 

(*) cH^^^ ^•^^ ^®^ ->^^^ everywhere. 

Vol. II, No. 6.1 . !Z%« Revenue BegtdaUcms of AurangnlK 2^7: 

v:^*/ J iir**j *^ *s^ 3' *^t' - ^djJf t*^Ji;^] v!>^ [120, a.] 

^ a^ e^3 mSJU «^ t^ « li^f ^ytf Jj* c*^| yfcllD - j.j;b |j>/ ^a,^i 
- oAij w/ *3>j* ^ *s^\)j ^ Jf 31 iJ^ *^^ •A*i»l^3 c^l* C-Sj^^Jl 
jAn 3) AAiv e^y 5!^ A-y U>u ^>t^y &y )» ^ ^j ^/^ fi^j 31: 

J • Ai^ ^* ;>fc jA i:r!«^(*^»^t -^A3!^^ C*^*'^;*] v^y^ [120, 3.] 

AA^ «i/« l^ »;l^^ 1; dy^ er4*3 «^^y' «^Aji^ g»^ )^3 '^ i/^i/^^^' 

/li • ^^ {j^j ^^ 3» vs)T ^Jb ^ ^=-*b3 c^b'^.ri^^-^i/^^^-^ J 
w^U 3! gt^ aAU »^f vsy>t^j ww^ y» - ivJib aUt^ c)^*/ *-^^ [5] 

v^ ^ • ^j^, 4i^u 3t gi^ 0^ «ur^ ^^Uf/ ijju . aT ^t ^^^ 

gt^ J^O lay C^lj3 t;*», ^b 4j;«y> jJl tS Jjij . ^b »;? O^Ij3 

itfit t^ /» • A* «y*) J*l^ J** c**!^) tt»A;<' *f »;♦ • *<T </• ri* »S^'J-^ 

(9) tt>*i^ Jl eH> tAii 

248 Journal df the Aiiaite Society of Bengal. [Jane, 1906. 

*^^ ^ fi!^ ^/^ *^'«t i(<H^^ jt)*^ '^'*^ ^^ ^^^1)3 ^ 1^3 ' txiiii^ Cr^3' 
- o^l ^y^ ji^,i «xaBu ^^ajj*»^ *^^!;3 ***<^^ *^' - *'^***' ^^Si^ ^^ (^ 

« liJjlU ^li Jl ^!^ d^ a/{ V ^331 

AT lUtl ^j;^j tjJ^ ^^A^Xj] ^ . (^^)\^ *Mi;^ wf^ [122,5.] 

»^A* l|i^^6 e^f 3^ *^ /' • **^ *s>--f ^^ ^b cUU. *^ AiT »A3ljJ> ^ 
**^ *i^Je5 t/^ (^ *sJla. li aT j^fii^^^y^l ^^;i^ • ^^. *i«^A> 

*^^ *ft4t> j^ y (^ •^^^ ^^ (3*t^ Jr«*^ *£^/\ ^ • .>*i;t^ «-«^ 

y^ cA^ ^^j ^j^ 3 !;*^ tti^*^ — (^•i>^V ^^ )^ V*^ [124, a.] 

j» 3t g»^ ^l*^^ A*-^ l^^t J *^*t*'*; y ^ o^^^ '^ *^^ ur-*'* 

^T j^f . ^JL^ b A^b ji\^J\ (jA*t^ 4^t ; jJ^b j^y l< dAUi j>3f ^jjt^T 

• AijJij (j«4ii ^J,UA 31 (j.-b ^yU yLJ^j 31 AfuT e^t^f ifii*^ i*«fc 
(p) Text Aj^ (g) Text «SU. SS ^j^^j 

Vol. II, No. 6.] The Revenue BeguUUions of AurangxilK 249 

j^lr*^ (!>** ^**^ *^ u*y^ • «^!>i J »;U^i MiiS^. o^jt f*^^' *^ ^^- 

(r) Texfc «a^«>' 

^[,Ai*f AiuiA^o cu*a.^ u»«*^; r^^» c^ ;^ *^-^ **^ 

j^rU^yf .ayfto. gfi , (jt.>j if - bl^ i^U ^ UUj ii«' JU. Ili^wl j ^^U| 

i^h Jr» c^^ vJ^/^ ii^«*5W^> ^'*^ * ^ ci»3»^^;'^ 3» c>y •^ [ y ^] 
•*^*^>*3' <^>^» e^ ^iy^ ^^ *«^^>i i^^''* J^'^* *^ " »**^; 

JU ykf y J - oiiUjs^ ^^J^y/^ ^>> ^ ^ *^ r.^*- ^ '-^ 
[267, «.] Jh^ [ J 3 ^^ ^i!>^. J>*** J '^'^ iJ'U* ^^ e^/**»>t 
cj^H^ i>iyA^ JUy 4>M» aiUL^ijAi ^5,l<^>lij e)^.^*^J^ l^A^^j o,^;!/ 

»j> '^> cr^» ^J^ft-^j *'j;3'* ^ ^ "^^^ 3' **(;i^ i/*;» *^;^^ 

(a) A.iiilif^j (b) A. omits ^ 

(c) A. ^jiiS l^ — B. ^jS^ b 

250 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [June, 1906^ 

^Uy>o ^fjjii J S »^ *a!^^ ^ ij^^. i/^ky *^^ Of«i jIa. JU 
ij*^ • ^.y*^ tjl** ^li' >*A* i^j IjU^ J e>L>^**-^ cH;*^ C^-T* 
pi, ^«^ ^ g^ u^iAljjf jj,.j ^ d. ^ut ^UaaJ- •■=*^»^^3 J^^*^y^ 

ft;jt »Ai|r; b *iy ^ *a»li»jj>> j e,Uy> c-Staau (4>fyi • d^AyUfe 
«/>^-y» J ^**^b) JjJ V^y e^i^U jj|;>» j.i ^•^ ^ oiiUi J*«J 4^ii>* 

't- c)V "^^bi (M^ V*l)' *^' *^^ ?> 4-^^ v^' -> </*'^'^ 4^^*^ ***^ 
^jiu* - ^ ^ jjj^>c U ^ ^Ijix a^ / y^ >> ai«^r ej! ^ [268, a.] •fi^t ;A^ 

5 ^^ a«. ^lif ^y< J ^ a*iU ^ly Jji s^bj c()U* ^^ JU jf *=^l 

J^ vijjfji) Jjli ^y vD^U ^jy^i e^t^ cs^^A ^t^bf ^bdjl ^ ^^ 
4^U Jk** sU. i^^jA J • dy J<i JLolf ^^^ ^JL>*^ J k-*-«Ub« ^J^ J c*^j,y 

ipft*^ J - '**i^j'> Ji-^^j^ c'*^ v^lP^* J - ^^ji ^J^ (3*? ^*f; *»V«^ 
* (d) Omitted by A. fe) A. ^UL.| Jtjp {h) A. JtT 

(•) A.ALM^3^ (H)a. j»j> ' ^ ' ' 

f/) B. ^^ O") A. cUUve \ > 

Vol. II) No. 6.1 The Revenue Beatdatums of 4urangzih. 251 

^jidj^ yoA^ b tyt Jh^ *^ ^^ V<>^ ;^ »d^3 ^> J^ ^^' J>^^ 
AkjU t;fi J * ^;f^ (>V^ ^^ ««^f ^« [268, i.] ^1^ ^U3 JU ^ a^ 

;^ J/b U-y*' J» ^S*^ ^ cy n ^j^JUA ij^j^ ^^lAVil jt f; vL^f^j. 

^liauo CH-U. jl^Jii ^A G - j^jU UAf c,^ i,jiA it^ X# J HL ^A I; i^T 

*£^»;3 ^JiV q^3 Aii»y G ^>^ Ja« (^I o'i^ 1>«>1 ^^^i** jl j ♦ Ai)f J**? 

. <xu(j ^^ yT 1^J oJ^b sj-^ ^^y (Ajj^l^ji «.<x^i /i j « <>^i«>^ ii>G^r 

f^[/ ;•> tJ^J^i^^ J ^ ^^ ^y. j^ i^ ^4^ iJjf^ J^J^ «a>dj^ tJ^ j^ > 
V-jjJ^ <rf« j' '; e»* »*»r) •>y>s^'-^ **** 'i'* ^i)> [269, a.} 

— I. 

j^j^^ i^ytr^ c3*>y a^AuTj^ gi^uM^^ — ^oW 

(tn) A. cJUAi 

(n) A. tV tH*- B* ^ tt>^ 
(|)) A. ^^ a* J ^;0« B. — ^«M> J ^j;>« 
(q) B. omits c^^i^fb^A ^ bat begins ^»^a«« here, 
(r) B. Aijf l^ i/^y^jyjffyi^^ 

252 Journal of the Atiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

4jA-flau ^ «iJ^ ^ixi ^^b ^^^ . «>jb ^ jy V^lp ^ J»^*l *J^ 
^ J • *^/ ^-1^ ^^ iJ^t^* v:***!^ 3^ »^ g5,.A J^*^^ L^**-^ 
. iXijt^i^ ^(i 4^J«t iJ^ ^^ 3' ^ *^^ *^^ ^^ j^ A^ ^^ 
j,> Jr^J •^ (•J.J A^ jd - aAIj *i-il.i «^>V* CS*-^ ^ t-J Jf tu^|| 


4^ ^ftP>* jii ^^ji vi^ftjAi^ <wtf;,> ^^1;? .^A »(^yk '^f /•^ 

^^. U^f cU^ ,^Ua. ^ ^^o. u A^ki^yk^ g«A. ^^j^^^ ^1 - ^.ij^f 

^yo . A^b »0^ /j^ ^ r ^y/j b ^OA^ b ^^^y^J\ y %y^, 

- i)iy. i^M*J^ ojRi ji 4^l»if ^ #oiUj J»j Aii.U [269, 5.] J*i-^ t; 

*S^f^ tr-^ J ^"^ ^'tS ^ »aA^ G . »>;C^ cUito *ia.j|^ (^JlJ>^ J 

«k 0^ Jt\J^ »bj cii;l3> w' e;t 
^jX A^U. J^ ^1^'^ J^<u> (yi\yi At>i\ J ^fcb — li'A fJSLA 

^^^jUv^^lfc ai^^iy^ jii,^f A^ «)j^ j^y^^iU. A^^ ^^ — a^t f^^ 

(a) B. & A. ob^ (•) A. i^UiJbjV 

(0 oUj) Jlaj gj (y) A. omits Itf;* 

(«) jd B. giT©8. ^jt^^^ {«) A. did Ai4|>- d^ (^ 

(^') B. 4jC5;i ^» (aa) B. *£*M** J 

(w^) B. |lu saj^Uof 

Vol. n, No. 6.1 The Revenue Begulations of Auranggib. 233^ 


jSj^ AiU> ^\yl, ^j 4^ ^^ iiKj^^ Ul « oJ^US g^ ^^f^f aC- cI;-o «by 
Jik-AAJ ,^iG ^jjk^ e)'H^''J^ J^}^ ^ oiil^Jij . «»jjij AjlA. ai9>f cU.^ 

>>i/^;» ^ </J^ [270, a,] -='i1J^ jJu.f^ iikL — a^'jiiji' 
, <x^ w^i^ «« A^U^ '^^ > ♦ «^^ tlU-u^J^ >lw jjlU Iff ^ i^^aa^ 

^U .aI^U y^«.A« a>U ai>y «fl»l^> «>^b Si)^T^ ^^^j a>(^ 31 w:«^«a. 

y»^#i^Ui A»^y «Aj^1 ^1/ *tf^ o^^i^^W Wct^^lf[270,*,l 

(bb) Omitted by A. 

(dd) B. (iiUlii V^ Jt 

(w) B. ft A.a»»L|J^ 

(XT) *f^^A. yijrj4/<>Uc:*U^-pcb^t^^ljJU<^A«t^^^ 

(py) A. laiUrfd j»U* 

'254 ^Journal of tJie Astatic Society of Bengal. ■ [June, 1906, 

.og'if jji ;•> ^ - '^--iy^ cj)^ ^^ v*^*^ ^ (^^j^ •'^j;^ r**^' V^^ 

^U^ > •^♦? »U. ^UUf^ f^ j ^IftAi^ Ji^ [271, flf.] ^40fnmy^ 

c^A^ 31 V ja^^ 3 J«l* J e;^c| — *» ^A ^jl^ [27 f, 4.] 

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(mm) A. *«aA 31 - . , 

(nn) B. aAIj »aA J|^ l| Ai|^ *fJ| 

<») B. ^1 (^j)3i ylib;^^ ^j»\j cjl v'-^r^ 

Vol, II, No. 6.] The Revenue Begtdations of Aurangzib. 255 


4yb^ Ji<^ JUi |f,>^4iuo {«X#li ^Ua>« ^1^,3 ^UuJ 88 — ify (•^<>>^V 

(m) b. WI^ 

(f8) B. ^ aLlU v^ lLaAj J^ ssA^H l^^f^ V«x#li ^(k« AC]| 

Vol. IT, No. 6.1 ahatsta KhOn in Bendal, ; * 257 

32. SMista^On in Bengal {1664-'66).— Sy Jadunath Sarkar, 
M.A., Professor y Patna GoUege, and Member ^ Asiatic Society of 

When Mir Jamla invaded Knch Bihar and Assam, he had in 
^y- - . I his train an officer named Shihahnddin 

MaienaiB. Talish, who has left a detaUed history of 

the expedition, named by the author the Fathiyyah-i-ihriyyah. 
A long absti^t of it was given by Mr. Blochmann in the 
Societ/s Journal for 1872, Part T, No. 1, pp. 64-96. Our 
Society h^s a fine old MS. of this work (D. 72), and the Khuda 
Bakhsh Library three others. All these end with the death of 
Mtr Jmnla, 31st March, 1663. 

But the Bodleian Libraty possesses a MS. of the work (No. 
Bod. 589, Sachau and Ethe's Uatalogue^ Part I, No;. 240), supposed 
to be the author's autograph, which contains a continuation (folios 
106, a-176, &.), relating the events immediactely following and 
bringing the history down to Buzurg IJmmed Eban's victorious 
entry into Chatgaon (Ghittagong), 27th January, 1666. This por- 
tion is absolutely unique ^ and of the greatest importance for the his- 
tory of Bengal, as will be seen from the abstract I give below. I have 
procured photographic reproductions of these 71 leaves of the MS. 
The internal evidence is overwhelming in favour of the 
... . . Continuation being regarded as Shihabud- 

AutnorBnip. ^^^ TaUsh's work. The style is marked by 

the same brilliancy of rhetoric ; many favourite phrases and turns 
of expression are common to both ; and one peculiar sentence, 

which I have found in no other Persian history, occurs in both 
{Conquest of Assam, p. 58 of our MS. D. 72, and Oontinuatian^ folio 
124,0.). We have here (/. 156,6.) one instance of the author's 
vicious habit of running the variations of a single simile through 
a whole page of which there are three examples in the Conquest. 
The writer is the same hero-worshipper, only Shaista Sban here 
takes the place of Mir Jumla. Neither of them is named, but 
both are indicated by laudatory titles, Mir Jumla being Navncdb 
Mustagiiani'dlqSib, and Shaista SbSn Nawwab Mu^ala-dlqab. 

The author evidently died shortly after writing the Continuu' 
Defects ^"'^' ^^^ ^* ®^^® abruptly, without carrying 

on the campaign in the Chatgaon District 
to its conclusion. He had no time to give it the finishing touches : 
the material is loosely arranged ; there is no regular division into 
chapters as in the Conquest, only three headings (surkhi) being 
given (jf. 150,6, 153, a, and 161,6.). Moreover, the author has 

^ I snspeot that there im a sorap of it at the end of an Ii;idia Office MS. 
of the work, which Bth6 in his Oatalogne describes as narrating the conquest 
of Jfttkam (should hb Ch&tgion). 

268 Journal of the AnaUc Society of Bengal, [June, 1906. 

leffc blanks for dates in two places {ff. 149, 6. and 175, 6.), which 
he evidently meant to fill np after consulting other sources. 
Wrong dates are given in 106, a, and 167, a. and some obscurity 
• has been introduced into the narrative by his passing over the 
first day of the siege of Chatgaon (25th Januaiy, 1666) in absolute 

I do not think that there is any good ground for holding with 
Wo autOffraDh Sachau and Eth^ that " this copy may be 

* ^ * Shihab-al-din's autograph." Two lines of 
the previous page are repeated by mistake in/. 117, a. There are 
two Jacunea : 1^6, h, 6 and 169, a. 7. In some places blank spaces 
have been left, evidently for putting down headings in red 
(snrkhi). All these facts go to show that the work is a mere 
copy and not the original. Besides, there are several errors of 
spelling of which an accomplished author and professional writer 
("tpaqi^a-nawis) like Shihabuddin could hardly have been guilty. 

Akaltsis of the Oontinuation, 

Official changes following "Mir Jumla's death (106, a.-107, b,) 
Ihtisham iQ^an, left by Mir Jumla in charge of Dacca, now began 
to exercise supreme authority. Aurangzib ordered Daud Q}an, 
Subahdar of Bihar, to administer Bengal, pending the appoint- 
ment of Sipucca Subahdar; Dilir £ban to officiate until Daud 
!Qian arrived. Daud £b&n arrived near Dacca, 27th September, 
1663, and stayed at Khizrpur. 

Khizrpur commands the route of the pirates of Chatgaon 
(108, a.)— Decay of the Bengal flotilla, nawQra (108, 6.) -Pro- 
digality and corruption of the officiating governors (109, a.) — The 
pirates plundered Bhushna during the absence of the cruising ad- 
miral, sarddr-i-sairdh (110, a.) — Daud !Qan on his own responsibi- 
lity remitted the tithe (zakat) on grain, in order to relieve the 
scarcity at Dacca (110, b.) — True condition and causes of the decay 
of the flotilla (112, a.) — Shaista ]Qan enters Hajmahal, 8th March, 
1664 (114, a.) — New appointments made by him (115, a.) — Shaista 
^an pushes on shipbuilding (115, 6.), demands help from the 
Captain of the Dntch (116, a.), plans to win over the Feringees of 
Chatgaon (116, b). 

His internal administration : gives relief to jagirdSrs and 
aimadars (117 , a.-121, a,) traiidated below, — Kaja of Kuch Bihar 
makes submission. 

Piratical incursion into Bagadia (122, a.) — Account of the 
pirates of Chatgaon (122, 6.) — their oppression and sale of captives, 
^23, a.) — they desolate Bagla. — Cowardice of the Bengal navy 
(124, a.) — ^Anecdote of *Aashur Beg, cruising admiral (124, 6.) — 
Former governors of Bengal only bent upon extorting money, but 
negligent of the duty of protecting the people (125, a.) — Author 
protests his veracity (126, a.) and then describes the ten merits of 
Shaista Bjan (127, a.-132, 6.) translated 6eZow;.— 'Aqidat j^an^ 
faujdar of Dacca, makes defensive arrangements (133, a ) — Shaista 
Kban*s piety (133, 6.) — Miracle at Rajmahal (134, a.). 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Shaiiita £ftAt in Bengal. 259 

Shftista Sban leaves Rajmahal, 16tli October, and enters 
Daoca, ISth December, 1664. (134, &.-137, a). — Great exertions in 
building and equipping warboats (137,6.). — New arrangement for 
patrolling the rivers (138, h) — Thana and port established at 
Sangramgarh (139,6.) — Cause waj built from Dhapa to Sangrdm- 
garh (140, a.) — ^Baja Indraman ( = Indradomna) imprisoned for the 
rebellion of his clansmen (141, a.). — Portent at Ma^susabad 
( = Murshidabad) (142, a.). 

Sondip, island, described (142,6.) — ^its forts— colonised by 
Dilawwar, a runaway ship-captain of Jahangir's time (143, 6.) — 
Dilawwar defeats the Arnu^nese and reigns supreme ( 144, a.) — 
Abul Hassan ordered by Shaista ]Q)an to spy out the nakedness 
of Sondip (145, a.) — His ruse (145, 6.) — The Nawwab prepares for 
a regular siege of Ghatgaon (146, a.). 

First invasion of Sondip by Abul Hassan, 9th November, 
1665 (147, a. and 6.) — Second invasion of Sondip, 18th November, 
1665(148,6.) — Gapture of Dilawwar and his son Sharif (149) 
— Mughal rule established in the island (150, a.). 

The loinntng over of the Feringees of Ohdtgdon (150, 6.) : — ^The 
Nawwab tempts them by various men (I5l) — They come over to 
Farhad Oan at Noakhali, with their families and boats (152, a.) 
— Conversation between Shaista Oan and the Feringee leader, 
Captain Moor (152). 

Description of Arracan (153, a.) — ^Three Arracanese invasions 
of Bengal (154,6.) — Reasons for the Nawwab not commanding 
the Ghatgaon expedition in person (157, a.) — Buzarg Ummed 
£ban, the commander of the expedition, starts from Dacca, 
24th December, 1665 (168, a.) — Composition of his force (158,6.) 
— Jungle-clearing and road-making (159, 6.) — Expeditionary force 
constantly suppHed with provisions (160, a.). 

Army advances, step by step, in co-operation with the flotilla 
(161, a.) — Ibn Husain, the admiral, enters the creek of Khamaria, 
— van of the land force joins him, 21st January, 1666 (161, o. and 6.). 

Gapture of ChfitgOon (161, 6.) : — The impassable barrier be- 
tween Bengal and Chfttgfton (162, 6. ) — Ch&tgaon fort described 
(163, a.-164,a.) — ^Ibrahim Shan's expedition to Chatgfion failed 
(164, 6.) — ^Anxiety about the success of Shftista S^^ftn's expedition 
(165, 6.-167 a.). 

First naval battle, 22nd January, — the Arracanese put to 
flight, 10 ghurUhe captured (167, 6.-168, a). 

The two fleets again face each other — ^night of 23rd January 
spent in distant cannonade. — Second naval battle, 24th January, 
(169, a. & 6. ) — ^The Airacanese retreat into the Kamphuli river. — 
The Mughals dose its mouth (170, a.), bum three stockades on the 
bank, and then attack and capture the Arracanese navy 
(170, 6.-171, a.). 

The Arracanese garrison evacuate Ch&tgfton fort, night of 
25th January (171, 6.) — ^Mughal generals enter it (172, a.) on the 
26th. Fort opposite Chatgfton also evacuated. 

Kews of the conquest reaches Daoca, 29th January. Rewanjii 
granted by the Nawwab and the Emperor (172, 6.-173, 6.). 

Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [Jane, 1906, 

Exaltation in Bengal. — ^How ihe conquest benefited the Excheqaer 

Buzarg Ummed £bau enters Chatgaon fort, 27th January, 
itestores order, and oonciliates the people (175, 6.). 

Previoas attacks of the Bengal forces on the Arracanese 
(176,a. and6.)- 

The Continuation, therefore, supplies as with useful and origi- 

__ _ , _ nal information on the following four sub- 
Heads of In- -^^^.^ ® 

(1) Shaista Q&n^s administration of 
Bengal up to January 1666. (2) The system of piracy followed 
by the Feringees of Chatgaon, and a record of the various Magh 
incarsions into Bengal and Bengal attacks on the Maghs. (3) A 
description of Sondip and the history of its conquest. (4) A 
description of Chatgaon and the history of its conquest. 
I shall deal with the first only in this article. 

SniiSTA Khan's Civil Administration. 

[117, a.} The mansabdars Lad their jagirs situated in differ- 
ent parganahs, and the multiplicity of co-partners led to the ryots 
being oppressed and the parganahs desolated. Large Rums were 
wasted [in the cost of collection] as many siqdars and *amlas had 
to be sent out by [every] jagirdar. Therefore, the Nawwab 
ordered the diwOn-i-tan to give every jagirdar tankha in one place 
only ; and, if in any parganah any revenue remained over and 
above the tankha of a jagirdar [117, &.], it was to be made over 
to the jagirdar for collection and payment into the public treasury. 
Thus the department of Crownlands would make a saving by not 
having to appoint collectors [of its own in the parganahs of 
jagirdars] ; and, secondly, it was not good for one place to have 
two rulers [viz., the jagirdar's and Government collectors]. The 
ditoSn-i'tan set himself to carry out this work. 

Next, Shaista ^han learnt the truth about the appointments 
and pxx)mQtioni| made after Mir Jumla's death by the acting 
Subahdars. Most of these men were now dismissed ; a few, who 
were really necessary for the administration, were retained in 
service. 1 have noted this difference between Shaista ^&n and 
other servants of the CroWn, in the matter of saving Government 
money, that they desired solely to gain credit with the Emperor, 
while his aim is pure devotion and loyal service. He considers 
the parading of this fact as akin to hypocrisy and remote from 
true devotion and fidelity. 

At this time the iiimadSrs and stipend-holders of the province 
of Bengal began to flock to the Nawwab to make complaints 

ill8, a.]. The facts of their case were : — ^After the reign of Shah 
ahan, the late Q^an-i-^anan [Mir Jmnla} confirmed in his own 

Vol. n, No. 6.1 ShOiaa SbOn in Bengal. 261 

jagirs many of these men who were celebrated for devotion to 
virtue and love of the Prophet's followers, and some who had got 
f armaria of the Emperor. All other men who had been enjoying 
tnadd'O-m^a^h and pensions in the Crownlands and fiefs of jagir- 
dars, were violently attacked by Qazi Rizwif the Sadr; their 
aanads were rejected and their stipends and subsistence cancelled. 
It was ordered that the Qimaddrs should take to the business of 
cultivators, tiU all the lands they held in madd-o-m^adshf and pay 
revenue for them to the department of Crownlands or to the 
jagirdars. And, as in carrying out this hard order these poor 
creatures could not get any respite, many who had the capability 
sold their property, pledged their children [as serfs], and thus 
paid the revenue for the current jear [118, 6.], preserving their 
lives as their only stock for the next year. Some, who had no 
property, brought on themselves torture and punishment, gave up 
their lives, and thus escaped from all anxiety about the next year. 


Like fire they ate sticks [i.e., received beating] and 

gave up gold [or sparks], 
And then, through loss of strength, they fell down 

dead in misery. 

And now even by the resumption of the cultivated lands suffi- 
cient gain in the form of produce cannot be coUected, because 
the Simadars abstain from tilling the lands that have been 
escheated to the State ; and even the chastisement and pressure of 
the ^amlas cannot make them engage in cultivation. And so the 
land remains waste and the atmadars poor and aggrieved. Owing 
to the great distance and the fear of calamities, these poor })er^ 
plexed sufEerers could not go to Delhi to report their condition fully 
to the Emperor and get the wicked and oppressive officials punish- 
ed [119, a.]. Hence their sighs and lamentations reached the sky. 

One Friday, the Nawwab, as was his custom, went [to the 
mosque] to offer his Friday prayer. After it was over he learnt 
that an old aimadar had suspended his head upside down, one yai*d 
above the ground, from a tree near the mosque, and that he was on 
the brink of death and was saying : 


Shall my life return [to my body] or shall it go out,— 
what is thy command P 

The Naww&b ordered the author to go and ask the reason. 
I went to the old man and inquired. He replied, " My son, T^ho 
held thirty bighaa of land in madd^o-m^adsh, has died. The andas 
now demand from me one year's revenue of the land. As I have 
no wealth, I shall give up my life and thus free myself [from the 
oppression]/' I reported the matter to the Nawwikb, who gave 

262 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [June, 1906. 

him a large'suni, and then confirmed his son's rent-free land on 


God favonrs that man, 

Whose life gives repose to the people. [119, 6.] 

The wise know that the resumption of the lands of HimadArs 
And the cutting off of the subsistence of stipend-holders bring 
on great misfortunes and terrible consequences [on the wrong- 
doer]. I have seen some among the rulers of this country who 
.engaged in this wicked work and could not live through the year. 


The dark sigh of sufferers, in the heart of dark nights, 
Snatches away by [God's] command the mole of pros- 
perity from the cheek of the oppressor. 

It is a lasting act of virtue and an undying deed of charity 
.to bestow imUih on the needy and idrHr on the poor. The hinder- 
ing of such liberality and the stoppage of such charity does not 
bring any gain in this world and involves one in the Creator's 
wrath in the next 

[120,0.] One day there was a talk on this subject in the 
I^awwab's court. As " the words of kings are kings among 
words," he remarked, ** If a man has not grace enough to increase 
the gifts made to these [poor] people, he should at least not de- 
prive them of what others gave them [L20, 2>.], because these 

people, too, should be counted among the needy. And one should 
not through his own meanness of spirit and vileness of heart 
resume the charitable gifts of others." 

In short, the Nawwab's natural kindness having been excited, 
he ordered that Mir Sayyid Sadiq, the Sadr, should fully recognise 
the fnadd-o-m^aash and wazifa which these men had been enjoying 
in the Crownlands according te the reliable sanads of former rulers. 
As for what was held [rent-free] in the fiefs of jagirdars, if it 
.amounted te one-fortieth of the tetal revenue of the jag^rdar, he 
should consider it as the zakat on his property and spare it. But 
if the rent-free land exceeded one-fortieth [of the total jagir], the 
jagirdar was at liberty to respect or resume [the excess]. Who- 
soever held whatever rent-free land in the parganahs of the jagir 
of the Nawwab, on the strength of the sanad of whomsoever, was 
te be confirmed in it without any diminution, and was on no ac- 
count to be troubled [by demand of revenue]. As for those who 
had no means of subsistence and now, for the first time, begged 
.daily allowances and lands in the jagir of the NawwSb, the ditodni 
officers were ordered to further their desires without any delay. 

The Sadr carried out the above order in the case of the 
'Crownlands and the ja^rs of [other] jagirdars [121, a.]. In the 
jagir of the Nawwab his diwnn-i-hayut&tj Khawajah Murlidhar, — 
who had been brought up and trained in the Nawwab's household, 

Vol. II, No. 6.] Shaiskt KbSn in Bengal, 263 

was marked by honeetj and politeness, possessed his master's 
confidence and trust, and, in spite of his still being in the flower 
of youth, had the wisdom and patience of old men, — displayed in 
this work of benevolence such zeal and exertion as, I pray, Ood 
may favour all Masalmans with. Every day two to three hundred 
(limadOrs presented their aanads to him and then departed. Next 
day, in the presence of the Nawwab, he passed them through the 
Record office and sealed them, and then gave them back to the 
Htmaddirs. In short, he exhibited such great labour and praise- 
worthy diligence in this business, that everjr one of this class of 
men got what he desired. And the aforesaid Khawftjah gained 
good name nnd respect for himself, temporal and spiritual welfare 
for his master, and prayers for the perpetuation of the empire for 
the Solomon-like Emperor. {Verse) [121,6.] 

That man's influence with the king is a blessed thing, 
Who forwards the suits of the distressed. 

ShIista KsIn's Good Deeds. 


[127, a.] I. His exertions for conquering the province and 
fort of Ghatgaon ; the suppression of the pirates, and the con- 
sequent relief of the people of Bengal. 

II. Every day he held open £irbHr for administering justice, 
and quickly redressed wrongs. He regarded this as his most im- 
portant duty. 

III. He ordered that in the parganahs of his own jagir 
everything collected by the revenue officers above the fixed revenue 
shotdd be refunded to the ryots. [127, 6.] 

rV. The former governors of Bengal used to make monopo- 
lies {ijctra) of all articles of food and clothing and [many] other 
things, and then sell them at fanciful rates which the helpless 
people had to pay. Shaista Khan restored absolute freedom of 
buying and selling. 

V . Whenever ships brought elephants and other [animals] 
to the ports of the province, the men of the Subahdar used to 
attach {qurq) them and take whatever they selected at prices of 
their own liking. Shaista l^wi forbade it. 

VI. His abolition of the collection of zahai (t.e., -^ of the 
income) from merchants and travellers, and of custom {KHsiV) from 
artificers, tradesmen and new-comers,^ Hindus and Musalmans 
alike. The history of it is as follows : — 

From the first occupation of India and its ports by the 
Muhammadans to the end [128, a.] of Shah Jahan's reign, it was 
a rule and practice to exact hlXsil from every trader, — from the 
rose- vendor down to the clay- vendor, from the weaver of fine linen 
to that of coarse cloth, — to collect house-tax from new-comers and 
hucksters, to take zakat from travellers, merchants and stable- 

1 Z^ttfh-iici«/itn, which may also mean * well-to-do men.* 

264 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [ Jnne, 1906. 

. keepers (muMri), As S'adi has salid, ** At first oppression's basis 
was. small ; but eveiy successive generation increased it/' [so it 
happened], till at last in all provinces, especially in Bengal, it 
reached such a stage that tradesmen and merchants gave up their 
business, householders took to exile, saying — 


*' We shall flee from the oppression of the Age, 
To such a place that Time cannot track us there." 

The rulers, out of greed for hdsil, gave them no relief. On 
the roads and ferries matters came to such a pass that no rider was 
allowed to go on unless he paid a dinar, and no pedestrian unless he 
paid a diram. On the river-highways if the wind brought it to the 
ears of the toll- collectors {rdh-dSre) that the stream was carrying 
away a broken boat without paying hUsil, they would chain the 
river [128, 5.]. If the toll-officers heard that the wave had taken 
away a broken plank [without] paying zakdt, they would beat it 
on the back of its head in the form of the wind. They considered 
it ail act of unparalleled leniency if no higher zakat was taken 
from rotten clothes actually worn [on the body] than from mend- 
ed, rags, and a deed of extreme graciousness if cooked food was 
charged with a lower duty than uncooked grains. None of the 
Delhi sovereigns, in spite of their efforts to strengthen the Faith 
and follow the rules of the Prophet, put down these wicked and 
[canonically] illegal practices, but connived at them. Only, we 
read in histories, Firuz Shah forbade these Unjust exactions. But 
after him they were restored, nay increased. But when, by the 
grace of God [129, a.] Aurangzib ascended the throne, he sent 
orders to the governors of the provinces and the clerks of the ad- 
ministration not to do such things in future. He thus gave relief 
to the inhabitants of villages and travellers by [129, 6.] land and 
sea from, these harassments and 'illegal demands. The learned 
know that no other king of the past showed such graciousness, 
made such strong exertions, and remitted to the people such a 
large sum — which equalled the total revenue of Turan. 


God ! Keep long over the heads of the people. 
This King, the friend of holy men. 

Whose shadow gives repose to the people. 

Through the guidance of [Thy] service, keep his heart alive. 

1 strongly hope that, just as the peasants and merchants have 
been released from oppression and innovations [in taxation], so 
someone would fully and freely report to the Emperor the distress 
among the soldiery and the fact of their being harassed and 
crushed by the oppression of the thievish clerks, and thereby 
release the soldiers from the tyranny of these godless men 
[130, a.]. The army is treated by the Hindu clerks, and drowsy 

Yol. II, No. 6.] 8hai$ta Stan »« Bettgal. 26& 

imters as more degraded than a fire-worsliipping slaye and more 
unclean than the dog of a Jew. Whenever that forked-tongaed 
cobra, their pen, brings its head out of the hole of the ink-pot, it 
does not write on the account-book (tumSr) of their dark hearts 
any letter except to ponnce npon and snatch away the subsistence 
of the soldiers. Indeed, when their tongae begins to move in tho^ 
hole of their month, it does not spit out anything except curtail* 
ing the stipends of the soldiexy. At times they would senseless!/ 
split a hair, and do not abstain from numerous unjust fines. 

Again, if after life-lonff exertion and the showering of bribes^ 
they are induced to sign the fard-i-chehra of any soldier, then, at 
the time of branding (^gh)^ they designate a charger worthy of 
Bustam as a mere pack-horse, and on the day of verification 
{taahiha) they describe [in the records] a horse that stands erect 

as fit for the yoke jfy^^ a horse that bends its leg as lame, a 

horse that shies as doubtful ^, a horse that lacks a particle of 

hair as Tan^ibi. They call a Daudi coat of mail the film of a 

wasp jj^3 t^ and a steel helmet itself a small linen cap. 

They regard a Bustam as a Z&l, and a Zfil as a mere child. May 
God the GKver [130, &.] reward with the long life of Noah, tiie 
patience of Job, and the treasures of Corah that valiant man» 
brave like Asfandiar, who after traversing these hill-tops ( =hin-» 
drances) gets his iasd^^q^ yOd-dHsht qahz and barSt passed through the 
Haft-I^an of the accounts department, so that his business may 
be done. In the shambles of the kachdri of Grownlands stipend* 
holders have to flay themselves [before getting their dues], and at 
the sacrificial altar of the office of the ditoSn-t-tan iankha^dOrs find 
it necessary to root out their own lives. O ye faithful ! Did mail 
ever hear of such tyranny as that each letter of the identification^ 
marks of the record office should be written by a [different] derk ? 
O ye Muslims ! Did man ever see such oppression as that one word 
has to be written by ten men P In [makmg out] the assignment^ 
paper (bardt) they decrease the tankha due and magnify the deduc* 
tion to be made. If, through a mistake, the balance is entered in 
the receipts {qahuz)y they Ireat it as a true record and appropriate 
the amount to themselves. And they think that they have con- 
ferred a great obligation if they consent to [issue such a paper as] 
this : — '* In the parganah of Wiranpur (city of Desolation) in the 
sarkdr of ' Adamabad ( Depopulation), tracts are assigned on the 
revenue in jagir [to the duped soldier?] and [he should] demand 
from the ja^rdar Khana-khardh (Buined) tiie arrears of many 
years at this place.'* A day's difference in the verification {tashiha) 
IS seised upon as a ground for making a year's deduction [from 
the trooper's pay.] If a man has entered service on the 1st Far« 
wardi, they assign tankha to him from the end of the coming 
Asfandftr. For the single grain of wheat (= fruit of the tree c^ 
knowledge, in Muslim mythology] which Father Adam, in his 
jagir of the earkllr of Jannat&bftd (Paradise), ate without [181, a.] 
authorisation, they demand from his progeny refund amounting to 

^6 Journal cf the Aniatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1906. 

«ii ajss's load. If a man's pajas due for 3 years, they designate it 
as one for many^years and then write [only] one-hialf of it (P). 
•Fhd faces of the clerks of the tavjih (description-roll) are dis- 
Agt^eable. The answer of the anthor of this journal is, *' The state 
<9l not being in need is better, iRdthont the need of taking oaths 
^^ it]:?' > ^o harm has be^ti done to me by these men (the 
clerks) , and no confusion has been introduced into my affairs by 
them ; but [I write] from seeing and hearing what they have 
done to the helpless and the weak in the court [of the Naww&b] 
aAd in the provinces far and near. 

' • [Verse.'] 

My heart is oppressed, and the pain is so great, 
That so much blood gushes out of iU 

In short, the Emperor's orders for abolishing zahat and hSHU 
^nt to Bengal, were for abolishing them in the parganahs of the 
Grownland. The Nawwab had a free choice in his jagir with 
i^gard to all exactions except the rcihdflri and the prohibited cesses 
{mwGhs)^ But this just. God-fearing, benevolent governor, out of 
his «ense of justice and devotion to God, abolished the hAsil 
amounting to 15 lacs of rupees which used to be collected [131, &.] 
in his own jagir, and he thus chose to please God, relieve the people, 
and follow his religious master (Aurangzib). 

-• - T YXJ. In many parganahs the despicable practice had long 
existed that when any man, ryot or newcomer (jkhush-nashin)^ died 
^thout leaving any son, all hie property including even his wife 
imd daughter was taken possession of by the department of the 
Crownlauds or the jagirdar^or zemindar who had such power ; and 
this '^^tLstem was called finkura [= hooking]. The Nawwab put 
dow*i this wicked thing. 

i -: "Yl'il; In the kotwdli chahutras of this country it was the 
ctLstem that whenever a man proved a loan or claim against an- 
oliier, 01- a man's stolen property [was recovered], the clerks of the 
ckaJbutra, in paying to the claimant his due, used to seize for the 
«tate one-fourth of it under the name of " fee for exertion." The 
Nawwab abolished it. 

! IX. When the plaintiff and defendant presented themselves 
at the magistracy (mu^ibuma) both of them were kept in prison 
until the decision of their case, lest it should be wilfully delayed (P ). 
And their liberators {itlaq-goian) took daily fees from the prison- 
ers and paid them into the State. This ctistom, too, was now 

X. The courtiers {132, a.] used daily to present to the 
•Nawwab many needy persons, and he made them happy with gift^ 
of money. When he set out on a ride or dismounted at » stage ot 
^iook a walk, and also on the day of ^Id and other holy days, A 
Edition to [supporting] the establishied almshouses, he ttsed to 
anvite' the populace and feed Vast numbei^ to satiety ut the tables 
iie.spr^d* Hid profuse.- charity tt> th^wWtighly removed poverty 

Vol. II, No. 6.1 Shaista SbSn in Bengal. 267 

and need from Bengal that few hired labourers or workmen oould 

be had [for money] to do any work Every year he used to send 

to all the provinces vast sums for the benefit of the faqirs, or- 
phans, and motherless children, and thus laid in vtattcum for his 
last journey. 

VoL II, No. 7.] ParatUetfrom the Qharial. 

33. Parasites from the Qharial (Ghkyialis g^n^ticns, GeofEr.)—* By 
Db. yon LiNSTOW, Ooetiingen. Translated by Paul BataL. 
Oommumcated by N. Annandals. (With 1 plate.) 

[The speoimens on which Dr. too Linatow hue been kind enoagh to 
fnrnith the following report were obtained from two GhArialt which died 
reoeotly in the Galea tta Zoological Oardens. The stomach of one of these 
alio contained an undetermined Ascaria. There is no reason to think that 
the death of the reptiles was in any way dae to the parasites. — N. A.] 

Micropleura vivipara^ nov. gen., nov. sp. 

Fig. 1-2. 

From the mesentenr : 

The genua ^oroplenra is related to Filaria; the anterior 
end is provided with neither teeth nor lips ; the lateral lines 
are low and narrow and are without a canal ; an excretory pore 
is wanting, the genus belonging to the Resorbentes; the caudal 
end is rounded ; the male has, on each side, a thickening ending 
in a papilla ; the female is viviparous, and the vulva is not far 
distant from the middle of the bodj; spicules of equal size. 
The muscular system is strongly developed; the lateral lines 
are feeble, broader outwardly than inwardly, occupying only 
■^f of the circumference of the body ; the anterior end is roundish 
with 6 papillsB which are arranged in a circle and are little 
prominent ; the oral aperture is small and circular ; the length of 
the oesophagus amounts to y^j of the total length of the body in 
the male, and to y^^ in the female ; it commences with a vestibu- 
lum which is about one-fourth the length of the oesophagus; 
the cuticle is smooth; the nerve-ring is situated at the end of 
the vestibule. 

The male is 35 ram. long and 0*72 mm. in diameter ; -^H of 
the total length of the animal is occupied by the caudal end ; the 
latter bears ventrally on each side three small papiUes arranged 
in an arc, further one postanal papillae placed on a rouncUsh 
elevation, on each side, and behind these on one side of the short 
tail a small papilla; spicules 0*47 mm. long. 

The female attains a lengtli of 37 mm. and a width 6f 
0*79 mm. ; the tail measures -^^7 of the total length ; the vulva 
is situated somewhat in front of the middle of the body; 
it divides the length of the body in the proportion of 
5:6; attached to the front and back of the uteri are ovaries 
the length of which amounts to 1^ of the length of the 
body; the sexual organs leave about one-tenth of the body 
free in front as well as behind. The embryo is 0*57 mm. long 
and 0*017 mm. in diameter; the cuticle is marked with sharply 
defined transverse .rings, and the caudal end is long and fine- 
pointed ; the anterior end is rounded. 

270 Journcd of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906; 

. Typhlophoros lamellaris, no 7. gen , no v. sp. 

Fig. 3-5. 
From the stomach : 

The genus Typhlophoros also belongs to the Resorbentes ; the 
lateral lines are without a canal ; they are broad and low, and occupy 
about l^ of the circumference of the body; the anterior end has 
3 lips, and behind these is a cuticular thickening consisting of 
longitudinal ribs ^ the lateral lines are raised into longitudinal 
ridges ; on the dorsal side of the oesophagus a caecal prolongation 
of the intestines extends right to the anterior end of the body ; 
the males possess two equal spicules. The cuticle is smooth ; 
the anterior end of the body has three lips which are triangular 
and narrowed at their base ; the pulpa is wider in front ; the 
dorsal lip bears two papilla) : behind it is a cuticular thickening 
which consists of sixteen finely and transversely striated longitu- 
dinal ridges, 0*12 mm. long ; caudal end pointed ; the longitudinal 
ridge which runs along the lateral lines has an equSaterally 
triangular cross-section ; the intestines possess a high epithelium ; 
in the parenchyma of the intestinal wall occur deep-black oval 

The male is 11 mm. long and 0*31 mm. in diameter; the 
caudal end is jir ^^ ^^® length of the body; on each side of it 
are placed four preanal papillae; the equal-sized curved spicules 
measure 060 mm. 

In the female, which is 16 mm. long and 0*32 mm. in diameter, 
two roundish projections are situated in front of the anus, the 
caudal end occupies -^ of the whole length of the body ; the valva 
is placed somewhat in front of the middle of the body and divides 
the length in the ratio of 4 : 5 ; the caudal end is curved towards 
the. dorsal surface ; the eggs have a thick shell ; their length is 
0'073 mm., their breadth amounts to 0*062 mm. 


Porocephaltis indicus^ nov. sp. 

Fig. 6-10. 

From trachea and lungs : 

Only females have been found. Rather young specimens are 20 
mm. long and 2 mm. bioad ; behind the thin anterior end the body 
IS thickened and spindle-shaped, attaining a width of 1*18 mm. ; 
behind this it contracts to a narrow neck 0*79 mm. in diameter ; 
older animals are 24 mm. long and 5 mm. in diameter ; the diameter 
here is nearly uniform. On the ventral side the cuticula is trans- 
versely ringed at regular intervals of 0*44 mm., the rings occu- 
pying ^ of the circumference ; the muscle-fibres run in four 
directions, transversely, longitudinally, and obliquely in two direc- 
tions making equal angles with each other; the anterior and posterior 
£nds are roundish. On the lateral edges of the rings there are 
posteriorly finger-shaped prolongations, Tfhieh become smaller and 

Vol, II, No. 7.] ParariteBfrom the Gharial. 271 

smaller farther back, bat which can be traced far backwards ; 
exteriorly they possess an annalar chitinoas thickening (fig. 9) ; 
at the anterior end there lies beneath the cuticle an oval ring which 
is provided in front and behind with a prolongation (fig. 8) and 
on the right and left of it with two hooks on each side which 
are directed frontwards and outwards and the points of which 
project freely ; their length is 0' 15 mm. The intestinal canal opens 
at the posterior end ; the vaginal aperture is situated closely in 
front of the anus ; the vagina is I'l mm. long and 0*044 mm. 
wide, whilst the width of the uterus, the numerous convolutions 
of which fill the body-cavity, amounts to 0' J 6 mm. ; the eggs 
possess a thick hyaline envelop (fig. 10) ; their length amounts to 
i)'052 mm. on an average, their width to 0*044 mm., the yolk 
attaining a length of 0*()26 mm. and a width of 0016 mm. We owe 
to A. E. Shipley an admirable account of the LinguatulidaB, *^ An 
rattempt to revise the family Linguatnlidie," in Arch, de Parasi- 
tUogie, vol. I, Paris, 1888, pp. 62-86. 

{8 lateral line, m muscular system.) 

Pig. 1-2. — Micropleura vivipara: 1, caudal end of male; 2 
•cross-section of lateral line. 

Pig. ^b.—Typhlcmhoro8 lamellaris : 3, anterior end ; 4, caudal 
end of male, right side ; 5, cross-section through lateral line. 

Pig. 6-10. — Porocephalus indieus : 6, older specimen, and 7, 
younger specimen, natural size ; 8, anterior end, ventral surface ; 
^, cuticular prolongation ; 10, egg. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] On some Fr0$hwater Eniomostraca. 27ft 

34. On some Freshwater Untomostraca in the collection of the Indian 
Miueum^ OalcuHa — By Bobkbt Gurhbt. Oommunicated by 
N. Annandale. ( With 2 plates.) 

The Ehitomostraca here dealt with were kindly entrosted to 
me for examination by Dr. Nelson Annandale, Deputy Super- 
intendent of the Indian Museum. They comprise a number of 
Phyllopoda, Gladocera and Copepoda, and one Ostraood, some 
collected by Dr. Annandale himself, and others forming part of 
the Museum collection. 

Our knowledge of the Entomostraca of India is most meagre ; 
apart from the Phyllopoda, of which several have been recorded by 
Baird and Sars, we loiow practically nothing, and it is impossible 
at present to make useful comparisons with the fauna of other^ 
countries. Though I am able to add 14 species to the Indian 
fauna, the list is obviously too incomplete to be of use to students 
of Geographical Distribution. The only point of importance 
which arises from the study of these collections is the completely 
Palffiarctic character of the species contained in the three collections 
from Ghitral and Bind. 1'he Ghitral district belongs clearlv to the 
Palssarctic Region, but Sind is generally included in the limits of 
the Oriental E^on, thouffh no doubt having the characters of a 
borderland. I cannot, of course, lay much stress on the evidence 
of the single species — Branchipus ptsciformisj Schaeff., which I 
record from there, but the genus, as at present restricted, has not 
been found hitherto outside the Palsdarctic Region. 


1. LiMNETis BBACHTaRA (0. F. Mtiller). 

Several specimens, mostly females, from Shand&r lake, Chit* 
ral ; 12,000 feet (Ghitral Mission). 

2. EsTHKRiA DAViDi, Simon. 

See G. 0. Sars, Ann. Mus. St. Petersh,, VI, 1901. 

This species was first recorded by E. Simon (1886) from Pe- 
king. It has since been i*edescribed by Prof. Sars from specimens 
brought from the Western slopes of the Ghingan Mountains in 
Eastern Mongolia. Several specimens, agreeing completely with 
the description given by Sars, were collected by Gapt. R. E. Lloyd, 
I.M.S., at Gyantse in Thibet. The species has not hitherto been 
found outside Asia. 


Description — 

The shell is of the same shape and appearance in both 
sexes. Seen laterally (Fig. 2) it is elliptical in shape, the height 
about two-thirds of the length ; .the umbones very prominent. 

274 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

situated near the anterior extremity. The dorsal margin is 
short and straight and ends posteriorly in a sharp angle : the 
anterior, ventral and posterior margins form an even curve. 
Seen dorsally, the shell is narrow, the greatest width in front, on 
a level with the umhones. The valves are thin and rather trans- 
parent, marked with about 20 very distinct lines of growth, the 
marginal lines closely crowded. The spaces between the lines are 
very faintly punctate and traversed by what appear to be canals, 
ending distally in little refringent protubeiances ( Fig. 2a. ) These 
protuberances are more marked along the peripheral lines and 
give these lines of growth a distinct beaded appearance, the canals 
^t the same time giving an appearance of radial striation. The 
margin of the shell is b^et with short hairs, as are also the last 
few lines of growth posteriorly. In all the specimens these hairs 
4u?e largely broken off, so that their distribution is not easy to 
•determine accurately. 

The head is separated from the body by a deep sulcus (Fig. 1) ; 
the rostrum is narrow and minutely emarginate at the extremity 
(Fig. 3). The eyes are not quite confluent. 

The first pair of antennas have about 15 rather irregular 
lobes (Fig. 8). The second pair of antennsB (Fig. 5) have all joints 
in the anterior branch and 12 in the posterior. There are 20 pairs of 
branchial legs, the posterior pairs exceedingly minute (Fig^ 4). 
The sensory appendage of the fifth endite is nearly as long as the 
sixth endite in the female (Figa. 9 and 10), but it is two-jointed, and 
considerably longer than the sixth endite in the male. The pre- 
liensile appendages of the male are of the usual form (Figs. 
7 and 8). 

The dorsal edge of the tail is armed with a series of short 
spines re^^ularly diminishing in size from in front backwards (Fig. 
4). The fifth segment of the body is produced dorsally into a smim 
elevation [bearing a seta ; the sixth and following segments are all 
silnilarly produced, but the elevation, becomes broader and bears 
more spines, finally dying away in the last seven segments arid 
leaving each segment aimed dorsally with a short strong spine and 
one or two accessory spinules. 

Size of Shell. 
Length. Height. 

Male : 30— 3-25 mm. 1-85— 20 mm. 

Female : 3-25— 375 mm. 20— 225 mm. 

liocality — 

Mandapam, Pamben Passage, South India. 

Collected by Dr. Annandale in a small rain-pool in sand, 
devoid of vegetation. The pool had been filled a week before by a 
shower of rain. 

The species differs considerably from any of the species of 
Estheria hitherto described from Lidia. In the outline of the 
jshell it has some resemblance to Edheria hoysiy Baird, but ihe 

Vol. II, No. 7.] On some Freshwater Entofnosiracn. 275* 

Bite, sculpture and number of lines of growth are very dilEerent. 
The ouly species from which there can be any difficulty in separa- 
ting it, is Estheria mexicana^ Glaus. It may be distinguished by 
the rather more prominent umbones, sharper posterior dorsal angle 
of the shell, and smaller number of joints in the second pair of 
antennae. The sculpture of the shell of Egtheria indica resembles 
very closely that of Edhen'a mexicana as figured by Packard (1883, 
PI. xxiv, Fig. 6). 

4. CrcLESTHEKrA HI8L0PI (Baird). 

(See Sars, 1887.) 

One specimen of this remarkable species was taken by 
Dr. Annandale in a small tank at Calcutta about half an acre in 
extent and containing a good deal of vegetation. First recorded by 
Baird in 1859 from Nagpur, it has since been found in Ceylon, 
Celebes, Sumatra, Australia (Queensland and Victoria), East Afrioi, 
and Brazil. It is the sole representative of what is probably a very 
primitive genus, and in its structure, life-history and distribution it 
is perhaps the most interesting of all Phyllopods. 

5. Branchinecta orientalis, Sars. 

The collection contains three specimens of this species taken 
by Capt. R. B. Lloyd, I.M.S., at Gyantse, Thibet. The specimens 
described by Prof. Sars ( 1901) were found in Lake Chunta-nor, 
Eastern Mongolia. The Thibetan specimens agree fuUy with the 
description given by Prof. Sars, with the exception that the 
f ureal branches are relatively a little longer. 

6. Branchipus piscipormis, Schaeffer. 

Syn. B. ledoufxi, Barrois, 1892. 

A number of specimens of this species contained in the coUec- 
tion are labelled " J. A. W. Murray, Sind." They differ slightly 
from the type in having a few chitinous hooks on the tip of the 
penis of the male ; and in having the tooth on the inferior antennw 
somewhat more prominent. In these respects they approach 
Branchipui ledou^xi, Barrois, and are in fact a link between the 
latter and Branchipus ptsciformis, Schaeff. I regard B. ledoulxi, 
for this reason, as not sufficiently distinct to rank as a separate 
species. Hitherto the species has only been recorded from parts 
of Europe, Algeria and Syria, so that the present record is a 
considerable extension of its range to the eastward. 

7. Streptocbphalus dichotomus (Baird). 

Sjn. S. hengalemis, Alcock, 1896, and Ohirocephalus stoUczkie, 
Wood-Mason MSS. See Sars, 1900. . 

I have had the opportunity of examining the types of Strepfo- 
rpphalus bengal en'ii'*, Alcock, consisting of one male and one female^ 

-276 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

specimen, and I think there can be no doabt tliat they shoold 
he referred to Baii^d's species, 8, dichotomus, as it has been re* 
•described by Prof. Sars (1900). I cannot detect any important 
difference between the species. There are also some rather dil- 
:apidated specimens in the collection labelled " Chtrocephalus sto- 
Uczkm Wood-Mason (Catch)," ^ and these are also in reality Strep- 
iocephaluB dichciomus. They do, however, differ rather markedly 
from the tjpe, and I think it is perhaps advisable to consider them 
as constituting a variety to which the uame Streptocepkalus dicho- 
iomu% var. simTplex may be given. The variety differs from the 
type in the following respects. In the second antenna of the male 
the ventral apophysis is very long and straight (Fig. 11) ; there are 
•only three sickle- shaped filaments on the basal part of the second 
joint ; the anterior terminal branch is simple and undivided, armed 
.along the greater part of its length with rei^ularly placed recurved 
spines. The accessory branch of the second joint agrees with the 
iiype. The penis, in its everted condition, is extremely long, reach- 
ing to the end of the fourth segment of the abdomen and armed 
with two rows of small spines. In two of the three specimens the 
penis is retracted, and has the form of a simple stout curved 

The female I have not seen. 

8. Daphnia fusca, n. sp. 

Description of female — 

Shell elongated oval in shape, bluntly pointed behind in the 
middle line, but without a spine in the adult condition (Fig. 12). 
The young are provided with a long toothed spine, sometimes 
:amounting to one-third of the total length, but the spine appears to 
shorten and disappear with age. The edges of the valves are quite 
;£mooth, but their surface is marked with oblique lines intersecting 
to form rhombic areas. The dorsal part of the head is reticulated 
in the same way, but over the eyes the cuticle is finely striated. 
The head is comparatively small, about one-fifth of the total length, 
without any crest, and is separated from the body by a very slight 
-depression. The front is nearly straight; the rostrum long, deflexed 
M nd obtusely pointed. The fornix is rather prominent and continued 
^ver the eye. It is also prolonged slightly over the anterior part 
-of the valves as an incipient secondary fornix. The eye is large, 
with the crystalline cones almost embedded in pigment. The first 
pair of antennad are large, and project considerably from the 
posterior margin of the head. The second pair are large and 
strong, the basal portion very minutely scaly along its anterior 
^dge. The natatory seteB are about as long as the rami and do 
not reach to the posterior end of the body. The postabdomen has 

i [I have inseried the looality, of which Mr. Gornej was anawnre, 
4!roin reoords in the Mnaeam. — N. Aonandale*] 

YoL n, No. 7.1 On tome Freshwater Eniamastmca. 277 

the dorsal edge slightly smuate, bearing about 17 short teeth, the 
anterior 5 or 6 decreasing in size (Fig. 13). The terminal claws 
are rather long with a basal comb and a row of fine cilia (Fig. 14). 
There is an acoessorj comb composed of 7 or 8 teeth on the 
postabdomen itself jost at the base of the claws. Of the dorsal 
processes of the abdomen, the anterior one is about twice as long as 
the next one, and clothed with cilia. 

The animal is of a deep reddish-brown along the back, shading 
off to a faint tinge ventrally. 

Length: 2-75— 3'3 mm. 
Locality — 

Kang Kul (Chitral Mission). 

This Dapnia is evidently closely allied to Dapnta atktnsani^ 
Baird, but, so far as the specimens which I have examined go, 
it is sufficiently distinct. In view of the great local ai^d seasonal 
variability of the Daphnias, the making of new species has become 
a rather speculative proceeding and it is unfortanate that in this 
case I have not had the male and ephippial female for compari- 
son ; but, on the evidence available, i think I have no course 
open to me but to describe the species as new. 


See Sars, 1888. 

This species, which difEers very slightly from 8, vetuloides, 
Sars, is a widely-distributed one, being recorded from Australia, 
Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Siam and China. The specimens which I 
have examined were taken by Dr. Annandale in Kyd Street Tank 
in Calcutta, on April 5, 190*5, and Jan. 21, 1906. It was abundant 
on the first occasion, bat rare on the second. 

10. Cbbiodaphnia rioaudi, Richard, 1894. 

Dr. Annandale has sent me specimens of this species taken in 
his aquarium in Calcutta, and I found several specimens in a 
collection made in a braclosh pool at Port Canning near Calcutta. 
In the latter collection they were associated with various typical 
marine Copepods, Amphipods and Caridea. This species has a 
wide distribution, being foand in Palestine, Indo-China, Sumatra, 
New Guinea, South A&ica and Brazil. 

11. ScAPHOLBBEEis KiROi, Sars, 1903. 

Found abundant in Eyd Street Tank, Calcutta on Jan. 21, 
1906. In the majority of specimens the sculpture of the shell is 
by no me^ns as well marked as Prof. Sars describes it as being ; 
in fact in some specimens the striation of the shell is not easy 

i For the name Simosa in place of Simocephalat, Sohodler, see Norman, 


278 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

tp see in a lateral view. Viewed from the dorsal side, on the 
other hand, the transverse ridges are sometimes very prominent. 
Except for its small size, Scapholeberts hingi appears to me to be 
inseparable specifically from S. mucronata (O. P. Mailer), though it 
should probably rank as a variety of that species. I have carefully 
examined the setse of the flattened ventral margin of the shell and 
find that they agree in almost all respects with the account given 
of them for S, mucronata by Mr. Scourfield (1894). The setsB of 
the outer of the two rows are about 26 in number. Of these the 
first 6 are inserted very close together on a line curving inwards 
towards the edge of the shell. Each seta is tubular, with a short 
basal branch and dividing distally into two larger branches. 
One branch is directed backwards while the other is a continua- 
tipn of the seta forwards and inwards so that it has a semicircular 
curve. Along the outer edge of the two distal branches spring 
several exceedingly delicate hairs, but I cannot see that they have 
the tuft- like arrangement described by Mr. Scourfield. The 7th 
and 8th setse are Hke the first 6 though placed a little wider 
apart, and differing in having no basal branch. On the other hand 
a minute hair springs from the shell near their bases and is 
probably the equivalent of this basal branch. The eighth seta has 
delicate hairs along both its outer and its posterior sides, and the 
seta at its base also has them on its posterior side. As in 
8, mt^ronata, there is a line of excessively faint radial markings 
running round beyond the ends of the anterior setae, and, as it 
were, enclosing them. Mr. Scourfield believed these markings to 
indicate " a number of imbricated hyaline scales supported by the 
setae*' (1894, p. 8). He considered it possible that the hairs 
arising from the setae are really stiffening corrugations in the 
hyaline scales. From the presence of these ** hairs " on the 
posteiior edge of the eighth seta only, I think myself that in these 
anterior setee there are no separate scales, but that there is one 
lamella the anterior series of (in this case) 8 setae. The setae 
following this series probably support each a separat-e, but 
overlapping, scale. The next 4 (9-12) are all two-branched; 
but from the 13th to the 24th they are all simple, though bearing 
a few " hairs." The 24th, 26th and 26th are much longer, and the 
25th has a short basal branch bearing a tuft of " hairs." 

Mr. Scourfield informs me that in a West Australian species 
probably identical with 8» microcephala, Lillj., the arrangement of 
these setae differs considerably from those of 8. mucronata^ and I 
have shown (1903) that in 8. aunta, Fischer, the modified seta& 
are wholly absent. It is probable, therefore, that these setae will 
be found to afford a reliable basis for discrimination of species, 
and, if this is so, then the species with which we are now dealing 
cannot be separated from 8, mucronata (O. F. Miiller). 

12. Chydorus sPHiERiccs (0. F. Miiller). 
Locality — 

Kang Kul-^— Chitral Mission.. 

A species of world-wide distribution. 

VoL II, No. 7.] On some Freshwater Entomosfraca. 279 


13. Cyclops strenuus, Fischer. 

Several specimens, mostly immature, were associated with 
Daphnid fusca in the Kang Kul collection. 

Gychps strenuus is a typically Northern species, which has 
not, so far as I know, been found South of Palestine. 

14. Cyclops vibidis (Jurine). 

One or two specimens were found in the Kang Kul collection. 
It appears to be confined to Europe, North Asia and North 

15. Cyclops leuckarti, Claus. 

Taken by Dr. Annandale in the Kyd Street Tank, and in a 
brackish pool at Port Canning near Calcutta. 

Distribution : world-wide. 

16. Cyclops prasinus, Fischer. 

Taken in the Kyd Street Tank, Calcutta. Recorded from all 
parts of the world. 

17. Cyclops phaleratus, Koch. 

Kyd Street Tank, Calcutta. 

Distribution : Ceylon, Australia, New Guinea and South 

18. Diaptomus bactlliper, KoelbeL 

Kang Kul — Chitral Mission. 

A species characteristic of Northern and high mountainous 

19. Stenocypris MALCOLMSONi (Brady). 

A number of specimens were sent me by Dr. Annandale 
from his aquarium in Calcutta. It has been recorded from Central 
India, Ceylon, Queensland and East Africa. 

[Both this year and last tliis Ostracod hns become exceedingly abandant 
ill aquaria at the beginniDg of the hot weather. In winter it disapppears. 
Its appearance hoa coincided ronghly on both occasions with that of the 
Protozoon Opercularia nutans. — N. Annandale.] 

280 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 


Alcock, A., Description of a new species of Branchipns from 
Calcutta, in Joum. As, Soc, Bengal^ LXV, 1896, 
p. 538. 

Report on the Natural History results of the Pamir 
Boundary Commission. Calcutta, 1898. 

Baird, W., Description of two new species of Entomostracous 
Crustaceans from India, in Proc, Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 

A Monograph of the family Limnadice, a family of En- 
tomostracous Crustaceans, in Proc. Zool. Soc., 1849, 
p. 84. 

Description of some new recent Entomostraca from 
Nagpur collected by Rev. S. Hislop, in Proc. Zool. 
Soc, 1859, p. 231. 

Description of a new species of Estheria from Nagpur, 
Central India, in Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 188. 

Barrois, Th., Liste des Phyllopodes re9uellis en Sjrie, in Bev. Biol. 
Nord. France., V, 1892, pp. 24-29. 

Brady, Q. S., Notes on Entomostraca collected by Mr. Haly in 
Ceylon, in Joum. Linn. Soc Zool., XIX, 1886, p. 293. 

Dadayi E,, Mikroskopische Siisswasser-Thiere aus Ceylon, in 
Termes. Fuzetek. Anhangsheft zum. XXL Bd., 

Gumey, R., Notes on Scapholeberis aarita (Fischer), a Cladocemn 
new to Britain, in Ann. Mag, Nat. Hist. (7) XIII, 
1903, pp. 630-633. 

Kobelt, W., Vorderindien, eine Zoogeographische Studie, in Ber. 
Senckenh. Naturf. Ges., 1890, pp. 89-104. 

Norman, A. M., New Generic names for some Entomostraca and 
Copepoda, in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) XI, 1903, 
p. 367. 

Packard, A. S., A Monograph of the Phyllopod Crustacea of North 
America, in 12^/i Ann, Bep. U.S. Choi. Survey., 1888. 

Poppe, S. A,, <fc Mrdzek, A., Die von Herrn Dr. H. Driesch auf 
Ceylon gesammelten Siisswasser Entomostraken, 
in Beih, zum Jahrh. Hamh. Wiss. Anstalt., XII, 1895. 

Richard, J., Sar quelques animaux inferieurs des eauz douces de 
Tonkin, in Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 1894, pp. 237- 

Sars, G. O., On Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird) : a new generic type 
of bivalve Phyllopoda raised from dried Australian 
mud, in Fork. Selsk. Chiist., 1887, 65, pp. 

On some Indian Phyllopoda, in Arch. Mat, Naturv., 
XXII, No. 9, 1900. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] On some Freshwater Entomostraca, 281 


On tlie Crastacean Fauna of Central Asia, Part I. 
Ampbipoda and Phyllopoda, in Ann, Mus, 8t. Petersh., 
VT, 1901 ; Part II. Cladocera, ihid., VIII, 1902 ; 
Part III. Copepoda, ihtd., VIII, 1903. 
Freshwater Entomostraca from China and Sumatra, in 
Arch. Math. Naturv., XXV, No. 8, 1903. 

Scourfield, D. J., Entomostraca and the surface-film of water, in 
Joum, Linn, Soc, ZooLy XXV, 1894. 

Simon, E.,djtudesur les Crustaces du Sous-Ordre des Phyllopodes, 
in Ann. Soc. Entom. France, (6) VI, J 886. 


(Plates 4 and 5.) 

Fig. 1. Estheria indica, n. sp. Side view of male, x 26. 
„ 2. „ Left shell of male. x 20. 

jj 2a. „ Part of the posterior region of the shell 

along 14th and 15th lines of growth. 
„ 3. „ Head of female from dorsal side, x 37. 

J, 4. „ Posterior part of body of female, x 37, 

„ 5. „ Second antenna of female. x 37. 

„ 6. „ Part of first leg of male. x 57. 

„ 7. „ Part of second leg of male, x 57. 

„ 8. „ First antenna of male. x 64. 

„ 9. „ Leg of 10th pair, female. x 45. 

10. „ 5th endite of leg of 11th pair of female. 

„ 11. Streptocephalus dichotomus.BsArdvar., simplex. Ke&d of 

male from side. x 8. 

„ 12. Daphnia fusca, n.sp. Side view of female. x 26. 
„ 13. „ Postabdomen. x64. 

„ 14. „ Terminal claw of postabdomen. x 260. 

„ 15. Scapholeheris kingi, Sars. 7th and 8th setee of outer row 

on anterior edge of shell, x about 1000. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Some Street Cries of Persia. 283 


.35. Some Street Ones collected in Persia.-^By Lieut.-Col. D. C. 
Phillott, Secretary to the Board of Examiners. 

Persia is the very home of figurative language, and striking 
•examples are to be found even in the cries of street-vendors. The 
following were collected in Kirman : — 

The vendors of kerosine oil cry Nafi-i dAram misl-i-guldb, " A Kerosine olL 
naptha have I like rose-water ** ; while the sellers of castor oil Castor oil. 
(for burning) say, " Yd shah-i chird^! Yd shah-i chirdgky' " Ob 
king of lamps ! Oh king of lamps ! '' 

Fruits and sweets are sold to a cry of Quvvat-i hdzu, quvvat-i Fruits: 
pdj " Strength to your arms, strength to your legs.*' sweetB. 

¥or figs alone, there is a somewhat similar cry, Quvvat-t Figs. 
zdnU anj'ir ast, '' Strength to the knees are fi^s/' ' Strength to 
the knees ' perhaps means no more than * light refreshment,' for 
a guest is sometimes invited to i^tay and eat by the polite but col- 
loquial phrase, *' Yak chiz-l bi-khur ki quwat-i zdnu paidd kuni, 
" Eat just a little to give strength to your knees." The idea seems 
to be that the refreshment will give the guest the neoessaiy 
strength to continue his journey. Another cry for figs is Anj'ir ! 
anjir ! hulhuUi hdg^-i Bihtsht, " Figs ! figs ! nightingales of the 
Garden of Paradise."^ 

For pomegranates there seem to be many cries : Andr ddram, Pomegra- 
an/lr-t hdgj^-i Sihisht, *' Pomegranates have I, pomegranates of the nates- 
Garden of Paradise;" Nnr,^ hdh-i dil'ihimdr^ " Pomegranates fit 
for the sick." A fine and esteemed variety of pomegi*anates called 
atdbtJct is vended to the cry of " Atdhakt ddram fidr, atdhaki 
ddram ndr,'* 

For grapes, fild ddram mushtari, " Gold have I, oh buyer ! " Grapes. 

For cucumbers, Ay qand-i tar khiy^rj^ '' Oh liquid sugar, Cuoiiinbers. 
cucumbers ! " 

The chant for mulberries is, ^^Biddna nahdt; hiddna dh-i hay at ; Mulberries. 
hiddna shakar nahdt ; hiddna ; hi-yd, lazzat mx-hari az rf?A, *' Seedless 
mulberries, sweet as candy ^ ; seedless mulberries, like the water 
of life ; seedless mulberries, like sugar and candy ; mulberries ; 
oh come ! thou wilt delight thy soul." Black mulberries are also 
sold to Miva-yi safrd-hur, shdh-mwa, "Bile-removing fruit, the 
king of fruits ! " and white mulberries to Niiql-t hil-a (i.e., hil 
ast) " Sugared cardamoms are here." 

For plums a cry is Ay safrd-shikan din. Oh plums, a cure Plums, 
for bile!" 

For halvd of dates, Ay halvd-yi kharak.^ Halvft. 

I i.e., iieaveu ; not the QMrdeii of £don. 

* Ndr^ cormp of andr ; pomegranates hre often presoribed by fj^akims. 

8 Qand is loaf sugar, much esteemed by modern Persians, by whom all 
other sugars are rather despised. Some Persians, however, consider loaf 
■ugar unclenn {najis) partly because it is said to be clarified by bones. Nahdt 
•or Bugarcandy has not these objections. There are also a few old-fushioued 
Persians who will not take tea, etc., if it has been purchased from a Hindu. 

* Kharak is a dried date. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Be^igal. [July, 1906r 






Tea and 



(hawked in 

For sweets, Ay pashmak, ay halv^-yi drda, ^ 

DUmffiSn (pronounced D&mgh&n) and SimnUr near Mash-had 
are noted for their pistachio nuts, so Pista-yi Bamgbfln^ mushtariy 
"Pista nuts from Damghun. oh buyer'* is a natural cry, A 
general cry for nuts, melon and pumpkin seeds and other edible ^ 
seeds that are eaten patched and salted is, Mama ^ajil cUlram u 

At the ^Id'i Qurhan rams are usually sacrificed, rarely camels, 
and never kine ^ as in India. It is a common belief that, on the 
Day of Resurrection, the sacrificer will ride from the Judgment 
Plain into Heaven on the very animal he sacrifices at this festival. 
Hence rams are sold to the cry of ShdiJsh-ash hi-gir savHr shau, 
^' Hold it by the horns and ride it/' 

Other common cries are : — 

Ay «rfl*«, " Oh tripe ! " 

JBi-nUshhi-yHd-ishahid-i Karbald, "Drink in memory of the 
martyr of Karbala."* 

ly chGht ! dUr-chin nab^ ! 

Oh tea! and sweet cinnamon 

Ay qamis dUram, parcha dGram, shila dSram^ 
have I, cloths have I, sSlu * have I ! " 

"Oh longcloth 

Fins and 

hawked by 

Ay suzan u sanjaq ; angushtdna, yarOq ! " Oh needles and 
pins ; thimbles, and gold and silver lace ! " , 

Scissors and Ay miqrdz, ay yarHq-i dam-i chUdar^ " Oh scissors ! Oh gold 

embroidery and silver lace for trimminer chadars ! • 

(in viUaff 68 ° 


Antimony, Ay surma-yi sang^ Qy surma-yi sang, "Oh antimony stone ! ' 

Oh antimony stone ! *' 

1 Pashmak is a white sweetmeat like hair or jnte fibre. ^aZvi-yt ardor 
is made of sesame seed, sngar, flour, and butter. These two sweets are always 
sold together. 

In India this sweet is called ildchi-ddna. 

9' Ajtl P, and *ajil il. is a term applied to nuts, almonds and edible seeds : 
it was first used for gazak-i sharab, * anything eaten with wine.' Bi'Shikan 
Impera. " break," is here an adjective or substantive. 

5 The Shi'ahs always sacrifice uninjured males : a gelding or an animal 
with a defective horn or a cat ear would be rejected. Sannis sacrifice all 
three sexes. 

4 i.e., I^usain, slain at Kerbela. He wrs wounded in the mouth hj an 
arrow when he stooped to drink in the Euphrates. 
b Shila is vulgar for shalla. 

6 The Zardushti women wear a special ehddar without yardq, 

1 Sunna-yi javdhir is a valuable ooUyrium supposed to be compounded) 
of jewels. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Some Street Cries of Persia. 285 


iy davd-yi mihr u muhahhat,^ " Oh medicine for love and x,ove 
affection." Philtres. 

Ay pHl-i huz ! Oy pul-t huz,^ " Oh money for goats ! Oh i,ivo goats. 
money for goats ! " 

Ay harra-yi jparvdr ! ay harra-yi parvSr, " Oh fatted lambs ! Small lamlifl 
Oh fatted lambs ! " "" 

Ay gah't kUrt, " Oh ploughing bulls." Bulls 

Ay gdib'i shirt ! dy gdh-i shirty 6y gOh-i shirty " Oh milch qq^- 
cows ! Oh milch cows ! Oh milch cows ! " 

Ay khurus'i Larty " Oh cocks of Lar." * Cooks 

Ay murgh-i tukhmt, " Oh lapng hens ! " Hens, 

Ay jUja ! Hy j'fija,* " Oh chickens ! Oh chickens ! " Chickens. 

Ay hulhul i thy^ffnancUiy Sy hulhul-t pur chahcha ^ " Oh sing- Nightingalei 
ing bnlbuls ! Oh nightingales in full song ! " 

Ay hadiya-yi Qur^dn, *' Oh presents of Qur'an ! " To sell a Qur'&ns. 
Qar'an is impious; hetice it is offered as a present, the re- 
ceiver giving a present of money in return. When a vendor of 
Qur'ans cries his '* presents," the following little comedy is enact- 
ed : The purchaser, probably a woman, will enquire, In Qur*Gn 
chand hadiya mi-kiwdhady " How many presents for this Qnr'an P " 
The reply will heyBt-rizamanduyi Muda,''AB God wills." The 
woman then reverently lifts the volame, kisses it and produces 
some security, telling the " giver " to call again. She next con- 
sults a mulla who perhaps says, ^^ Panj tuman hadiya ddrady 
'* The present you should give is five ^wtnflrw." The "giver" 
calls for his ** present," and, if dissatisfied, he will say, Bt-panj 
tUrnUn hadiya naml'dtham, " I won't make you a present of it for 
five tUmdns.** 

Jews ^ that buy old clothes, broken or discarded articles, cry Old olothes. 
Ana muna ho ? (i.e., kuhna muhna hast ?) " Any old rubbish P " 

A modern cry in Tehran is the " FV^fc, Fwifc .' " of the shoe- Shoe-blaoks. 
blacks — at least so Persians inform me. The origin of the cry 
is doubtful. 

For the streek cries of Cairo, vide Lane's '* Modem Egyp- 
tians," Chap. XIV. 

i Persian form of maffahhat, 

2 Buz is properlj the female : the he-goat is chapish or nan, 

8 Ldr is famoas for its large breed of poultry. Poultry are always 
purchased alive. 

4 Ji^a modern for obsolete chuza t the latter is still in use in India and 

6 Ohahcha is the spring song when the bulbul is in love, as opposed to 
ma-AAv^int a bird-fanoier's term for the low warbling before the oage-bird 
oomes into full song. 

Snoh Jews when hailed are styled Mulld or Khwdia. In Calcutta the 
porohasers of old articles are called hikri-iodla and are Hindus, not Jews. 

Vol. II, No. 7, ] A new Oecko from the Eastern Himalayas. 287 

36. A new Oecko from the Eastern Himalayas. — By N. Annandale, 
D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

Less is known of the herpetology of the Himalayas than is 
•generally realized, and the discovery of a new form even in so well 
explored a locality as the Darjiling district is not surprising, al- 
though far more collecting of Reptiles has been done in this part 
than in most parts of the range. The new species is represented by 
a single specimen recently taken by myself in a European house a- 
Kurseong (5,000 ft. ) . It is a typical member of the genus Oymno 
dactylus, of which two species (both extremely rare) have hitherto 
been recorded from the Himalayas, viz., O. fasciolatus from Simla, 
and O. lawderanus from Kumaon. O. himalayicus, as I propose to 
name the Dai"jiling form, belongs to a group in the genus which 
also includes O. khasiemis from the Khasi Hills and Upper Burma, 
G. m^rmoratws from the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, etc., and 
O. ruhidus from the Andamans. On the whole it seems to be 
more closely related to the Malayan species than to either of 
its other allies. 

Gymxodactylus himalayicds, sp. nov. 

Diagnons — 

Head hirge, rather narrow, depressed, ovoid ; snout slightly 
longer than orbit, obtusely pointed ; forehead concave. Habit 
slender ; digits compressed throughout ; tail slightly longer than 
head and body, rounded, tapering. Dorsal surface of head and 
body granular, with numerous small conical tubercles on the body, 
base of head and hind limbs ; on the back these tubei'cles tend to be 
arranged in 16 irregular lines : they are very much smaller than 
the ear-opening. Ventral scales, small, leaf -shaped, imbricate ; 
about 35 across middle of belly. No lateral fold or enlarged 
scales in its place. Rostral grooved ; nostril between rostral, first 
labial and several small scales ; ten upper and ten lower labials. 
Ear-opening ovoid, slanting, one-third as large as eye. Subdigital 
lamellsB moderate, larger on proximal than on distal joints. Eleven 
prsBanal pores arranged in a continuous, wide, V-shaped series ; 
the scales posterior to them, between the nrms of the V, enlarged ; 
three postanal papillae (in the male) on either side ; base of tail 
swollen below ; no pubic groove ; no femoral pores. Coloration 
-as in 0. marmoratus. 

Dimensions of adtdt male — 

Total length 

... Ill mm 

Head and body 

... 53 „ 


... 58 „ 

Hind limb 

... 25 „ 

Fore limb 

... 20 „ 

Breadth of head 

... 9 „ 

288 Journal of the Asiaiic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

This species is very closely allied to Q, marmoratusy with 
Malayan specimens of which I have compared the type. It may be- 
distinguished by its smaller size (if this is constant), more slender 
habit, narrower head, and larger ear-opening, by the fact that the 
basal joints of the digits are more strongly compressed, and espe- 
cially by the number and arrangement of its pubic pores.- 
From G, khasten^is the absence of a lateral fold will at once dis- 
tinguish it, as its small, conical dorsal tubercles will from O. law- 

I take this opportunity to put on record the occurrence of 
Japalura yunnanensts, Anderson, in Indian territory, having found 
in the Museum a fine male taken some years ago at Buxa, near^ 
the Bhutan frontier of Bengal, by a collector. 

Vol. 11, No. 7.] Notes on the B'reghtca'er Fauna of India. 289" 


37. Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of hidia. No, VIII. — Some 
Himalayan Tadpoles. — By N. Annandale, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 

During a recent visit to Kureeong, which is situated at a 
height of 5,000 feet in the Darjiling district, I was so fortunate 
as to obtain the tadpoles of two of the characteristic Anura of the 
Eastern Himalayas, of a species hitherto not recorded from the 
Indian Empire, and of an unidentified form of interesting 
structure. My visit lasted from May 21st to May 29th, and it would 
seem probable that the species found had spawned about the 
beginning of the hot weather. 

The structural adaptations exhibited by tadpoles which live 
in the small mountain torrents of the Himalayas, are identical with 
those of species occurring in similar situations in the Malayan hillH, 
but remarkably divergent inter se. It so happens that the three 
species which I found living together in such streamlets at 
Kurseong, illusti-ate three different methods by which these 
tadpoles are protected against the incidence of sudden floods. It 
is noteworthy that within the genus Uana a variety of larval types 
occur ; but, as I hope to show in the present communication, the 
peculiarities which are so striking in certain tadpoles, have 
homologies in other species which cannot be detected except during 
life. The first tadpole I describe is not peculiar in any way, but 
it occurs in circumstances which apparently do not call for any 
structural modification. 


1. BcFO HiMALAYANUs, Giinther 

Maximum total length, 27 mm. ; greatest depth of tail between \ 
and ^ of maximum total length, less than twice the depth of the 
caudal muscles; length of tail \\ that of head and body. 
Head flat ; nostril slightly nearer the eye than the snout ; 
eye dorsal, small, by no means prominent ; spiracle sinistral ;, 
pointing backwards and upwards, very inconspicuous. Tail 
obtusely pointed, constricted at the base. Vent in middle 
line. Coloui' almost uniform inky black, slightly less intense on 

the ventral than on the dorsal surface. Dental formula -~ . 
Beak in two parts, an upper and a lower ; both serrated at the free 
edge. Lips fringed at the comers, but not on the posterior or 
anterior edge. 

As regards the structure of the mouth, this tadpole closely 
resembles that of Bufo melanostictus,^ from which it may be readily 
distinguished by its small, sunken eye and flat head. 

1 See 8. Flower in Proe. Zool. 8oc., 1896, p. 911, pi. xliv, fig. 8, and 
1899, p. 911. Giinther regarded B. himalayanus as no more than a rariety 
of this species. 

-290 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 


M. montana ; Bonlenger, in Annandale and Robinson^ Fascictdi 
MaJ^ayenseSy Zool. i, p. 132 ; Annandale, ihid.y p. 275 ; Wehei- in 
Ann, du Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, Suppl. ii, 1898, p. 5. 

The pectiliar float Burronnding the month of this tadpole 
has been described in detail by Prof. Max Weber and by myself. 
The examples from Knrseong agree very closely with those from 
Malaya and Java. I was at first inclined to suspect that the 
Indian specimens might be larvaB of Leptohrachium monUcola and 
that the larvro of this form very closely resembled those of Megalo- 
phrys montana, the genus of the latter not having been recorded 
from Indian territory ; but in many of my specimens the hind legs 
are well developed and show no ti*ace of a web at the base of the 
toes. In one specimen the fore legs are also well developed, and 
the funnel has disappeared except for a ridge along the lower lip 
and a tubercle at each comer of the mouth ; but the tail has 
hardly begun to be absorbed. The funnel has already become 
mnch reduced in size in individuals in which the fore legs are 
almost ready to burst through the skin. The oldest specimen 
.agi*ees, so far as it is possible to say, with Boulenger*s var. aceras. 

8. Rana liebigii, Giinther 

Maximum total length, 56 mm. ; tail thrice as long as head and 
body, its greatest depth ^ of the maximum total length, twice the 
depth of the caudal muscles. Head feebly arched, nostril midway 
between the eye and the snout ; eye small, by no means pix)minent, 
near the dorsal surface ; spiracle sinistral, pointing backwards and 
slightly upwards, small, suri-ounded by a white ring. Tail pointed 
gradually at the tip, not contracted at the base ; vent on the light 
side. Colour variable ; dorsal surface bit)wni8h, marbled in some 
cases with yellow; fin membrane pale, with large, dark pigment cells, 
which in some specimens tend to be airanged in vei-tical bars ; in 
some specimens a dull yellow, mid-dorsal streak at the base of the 


tail. Dental formula J— J. Lips very large, enclosing a consider- 


able cavity ; the low^^ lip with a complete double f linge ; a single 
fringe at the base of the upper lip on either side ; the beak in 
two parts, an upper and a lower, neither serrated. 

4. Rana, sp. 

Length of a specimen without legs, 26 mm. ; tail more than 
twice as long as head and body, its greatest depth ^ of the total 
length and twice the depth of the caudal muscles. Head flat ; nostril 
much nearer the eye than the snoat ; spiracle sinistral, pointing up- 
wards and backwards ; a considerable glandular patch on either side 
behind the eye, which is on the dorsal surface. Tail gradually 
pointed at the tip ; the lower fin disappearing some little distance 
behind the vent, which is in the middle Hue. Dorsal surface uniform 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Notes ofi the Freahioater Fauna of India. 291 



pale grey ; ventnil surface dirty white. Dental formula t-i , 

. * 

Lower lip fringed ; a lai*ge sucker on the belly immediately be- 
hind the mouth. Beak in two parts, an upper and a lower ; neither 

Til is fonn resembles the tadpole of liana latopalmata ^ (which 
also occui-s in the Darjiling district) but differs fi'om it in its 
dental formula, fringed lower lip, and uniform coloration. 


The tadpoles of Bufo himalayanus were found in large num- 
bers at Kurseong and at Darjiling (7,000 feet) in small ai*tificial 
ponds, and at the former locality in a large and comparatively 
still pool of a stream. At Kni-seong young toads, in which the 
tail had pai-tly or completely disappeared, were common, while 
at Darjiling most of the tadpoles were still devoid of external 
fore limbs. The young toads were considei-ably bigger than are 
those of B, vielanostictus at the same stage. 

The other three forms recoixled above were taken in small 
mountain torrents, tlie largest pools of which in many cases did 
not contain more than a few cubic feet of water at the time they 
were examined. The ttidpoles of Jiana Liehigti were also found 
in a larger pool, together with those of Bufo himalayanus 

Although these three forms are adapted for clinging to rocks 
during a flood, the manner in which they are able to do so is not 
the same in all cfises. The larva of Buna liehigii adheres chiefly 
by means of its mouth, the enlarged lips of which, as in the 
tadpoles of sevei*al other species, form a powei'ful sucker, while 
that of the Rana I have left unidentified clings chiefly by means 
of an additional sucker. In the former species, however, the belly 
as well as the mouth is applied to the sui-face to which the tadpole 
is clinging, in such a way that an individual adhering to the side 
of a glass vessel can be seen to have on its ventral surface a large, 
cireular, flattened area, which only needs a raised edge to make it 
into a true sucker Moreover, in the unidentified species the 
margin of the fi-inged lower lip fonns the anterior wall of the 
venti-al sucker. 

The method in which the tadpole of R, liehigii adheres to 
rocks and even climbs upon them, closely resembles that of a small 
Loach (? Nemachilufi sp. ), found in the same sti^ams ; but the Fish is 
able to progi-esH moi-e i*eadily than the tadpole, and not infrequently 
makes its way up the face of a rock completely out of the water. 
In both cases the animal has a suctorial mouth and aids itself in 
clinging to more or less vertical surfaces by applying its belly to 
them yevy closely. By means of this application it is able to 
release the hold of its mouth for brief periods and to wriggle a 

i See Boulenger in Proc. ZooL Soc„ 1893, p. 526, pi. xliii, fig. 8 ; and t-f. 
Liiidlaw, ibid,, UKX), p. 38G, pi. Ivii, figs. 3, 4. 

^92 Journal of the Asiatic Soitety of Bengal, [July, 1906. 

fihort distance forwards or upwai-ds without ceasing to cling to its 
support. In tlie larva of Maua latopalmata, however, and of simi- 
lar forms, the mouth has become, or rather remained, an organ of 
.adhesion of comparatively little power, while a regular sucker has 
been formed on the belly which has apparently no connection with 
the smaller sucker found in a somewhat similar position in many 
tadpoles at an earlier stage of development. 

The tadpole of Megalophrys montana has neither a strongly 
suctorial mouth nor a large ventral sucker, but it is able to make 
its way up the sides of stones in a different manner. The funnel 
surrounding the mouth is probably homologous, to some extent, 
with the enlarged lips of the larvae of such forms as Rana 
iiehigii; but the homology is not complete. As I have shown else- 
where (op. cii.), the horny teeth with which the float or funnel is 
studded have an entirely different structure from those of other 
tadpoles, being distinctly multicellular in origin. The functional 
analogy between this organ and the lips of Rana tadpoles is re- 
mote, and the habite of the larvae differ completely from those of 
the other tadpoles found in the same envii'onment. The latter 
frequent the upper surface and sides of submerged stones, under 
which they hide themselves when alarmed ; but the larvae of M. 
montana remain, at any rate during the day, in comers at the 
extreme edge of the same pools, generally among the vegetable 
debris which collects in such places. Owing to their large and 
extremely muscular tails they can swim more rapidly than most tad- 
poles and have much the motion, as they have the appearance, of a 
«mall Silurid fish. They are able to insinuate themselves with the 
greatest agility into small crevices. Should they be forced into the 
centre of a pool, their funnel immediately expands and they float 
lightly on the surface ; but when they are making their way into 
narrow cavities it is folded together and the enormous lower lip 
entirely covers the mouth and the snout, probably protecting these 
parts from injury. When the tadpole buries itself in the mud, as 
it does in Malaya when its pools dry up, this is also the case. Not 
improbably the peculiar homy teeth aid the funnel in this function 
(although they are not on the exposed surface when it is folded) 
by giving it additional strength. The lower lip also serves, how- 
-^ver, another purpose, which has not previously been noticed. As 
itfl posterior surface, because of smoothness and considerable area, 
is strongly adhesive, the tadpole is able to cling to smooth, vertical 
objects with its assistance, and at the same time to progress up 
fiuch surfaces by vigorous movements of the tail. In this way the 
animal climbs up the sides of stones and probably makes its way 
from one little pool to another. 

Thus in three different species of tadpoles found together in 
small mountain torrents, three different methods of adhesion have 
been perfected. The larvae of Rana Iiehigii adhere by the ventral 
surface of both lips, with the aid of the sirface of the belly ; those 
of R. latopalmata and another species, by means of a ventral suck- 
er; those of Megalophrys vioutana^ by means of the posterior sur- 
face of the lower lip. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] The Milk and BtUter-fat of the iTidian Buffalo. 293 


58. PrcUmiiiary thote on the Chemical JExaminatiofi of the Milk and 
Butter-fat of the hidian Buffalo,— By E. R. Watson, M.A. 
(Cantab.), B.Sc. (Lond.), Officiating Professor of Chemistry, 
Engif^ering Odlege, Sihpur, 

The necessity of a careful investigation of these impoi'tant 
food- substances need scarcely be emphasised. In all countries, 
civilised, in the western sense of the wbixi, it is necessary to care- 
fully supervise the food-supply and to see that it is not deleteri- 
•ously adulterated. As a preliminary it is necessary to very care- 
fully analyse wholesome samples of the various food-stufEs in order 
to set up standards for future comparison. The figures which 
have been arrived at in Europe for the composition of the milk 
and butter-fat of the cow cannot be used as standards in India, 
not even for the products of the cow, still less for those of the 
buffalo. This has been clearly shown by the few analyses which 
have been published in India up to the present. (Food Adul- 
teration, J. N. Datta, in Trans. First Inc^an Medical Congress, 
1894, p. 275 ; Composition of Indian Cows' and Buffaloes' Milk, 
J, W. Leather, in the Agricultural Ledger, No. 19 of 1900, p. 195). 

Pappel and Richmond (Trans. Chem. Soc. 57, p. 752) have 
made an almost exhaustive analysis of the milk and butter-fat of 
the Egyptian buffalo or gamoose. It was natural to suppose that 
the products of the Indian buffalo might approximate in character 
and composition to those of the Egyptian animal, and, therefore, 
constant reference has been made to the results obtained by these 

Throughout the present work the foUo^ving questions have 
been constantly borne in mind : (*) Why is it that buffalo-milk, 
which is richer in fat than cow-milk, commands a lower price in 
the market and is less esteemed as an article of food, and is it 
possible to explain this on chemical grounds ; and (u) is it pos- 
sible to distinguish by chemical analysis between the milk and 
butter-fat of the buffalo and the same articles from the cow. 

I have not attempted the estimation of the different consti- 
tuents in the milk, because this is the side of the problem which 
has already been investigated to some extent. Thei*e was one 
point, however, suggested by a perusal of Richmond and Pap- 
pel's paper, which it appeared of the greatest importance to 
examine. These investigators had found that in the milk of the 
Egyptian buffalo there is no lactose, but a new sugar to which 
they gave the name *tewfikose.' Such an important difference 
from the milk of the cow might explain the popular belief that 
the milk of the buffalo is less easily digested than that of the cow. 
Also it should be noted that the estimations of sugar in milk are 
generally based on the assumption that the sugar is lactose, and 
these estimations would need revision if this assumption were in- 
correct. I have, therefore, isolated a sample of the sugar from 
buffalo-milk for examination. In crystalline form, taste, optical 

294 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906.. 

i-otation, molecular weight and behaviour with Fehling's solution it 
is identical with lactose and different from the 'tewfikose ' described 
by Richmond and Pappel. 

Details of the isolation and ezamifiation of sugar — The milk 
used for this pui-pose was obtained from a buffalo in the village of 
Shibpui' in May 1906.* The method adopted for isolation was iden- 
tical with that employed by Richmond and Pappel {loc. ctt.), viz,, 
precipitation of the pi-oteids and fat by mercui'ic niti*ate solution 
(^Wiley's reagent) neutralising the filtrat* with aqueous potash and 
j3assing sulphui'etted hydit)gen gas to precipitate meixjury salts^ 
filtering and concentrating the filti-ate on the water-bath until the 
sugar crystallised out. It was found necessaiy to wash with cold 
water and to ^crystallise from water in order to fi'ee the sugar 
from ti*aces of potassium niti*ate. The sugar was then dned in a 
desiccator over calcium chloride at the ordinary temperatuie. 
Another sample, whicli proved to be identical in properties, was 
isolated by evapoi-ating the milk to dryness, extracting with ether, 
boiling with absolute alcohol and then extracting the sugar with 
dilute alcohol. The purification fi'om traces of albuminoids of the 
sugai' obtained in this way was somewhat troublesome. 

Optical nttation was determined in aqueous solution : — 
10 pel- cent, boiled solution of the sugar in a 200 mm. tube 
gave aj^=4.10°30'. 

Found. For lactose in 

10 per cent, 

[«]d 52^30' 52^30'. 

Molectdar weight was detennined by the freezing point method, 
0*4670 gms. sugar dissolved in 20 gms. water gave A = — 0*118°C. 

M.W. = 366. 
M.W. of lactose CigHg^Ou + HgO* 360. 

1 have obtained the following results in the examination of 
several samples of butter- fat. Most of these samples I have ob- 
tained fi-om the village of Shibpur, pensonally superintending the 
o])eration of milking, and preparing the butter-fat from the milk 
by allowing the ci-eani to rise and then making into butter by shak- 
ing in a bottle. The butter was melted in the steam-oven and 
the clear fat filtered off. The samples of milk were taken chiefly 
in January and February, 1906, from animals with calves of differ- 
ent acres. 

• I am informed by Mr. Dutt, Professor of Agriculture, Shibpnr College, 
that there are no Mrell-marked breeds of Indian buffalo, and that the names 
Rometimes given merely refer to the localities in which the animals live. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] The Milk and BxiUer-fat of the Indian Buffalo. 29& 

I intend to confirm the figures given in this note by the exa- 
mination of a larger number of genuine samples. 




Reichert-WoUny figare ... 



• •* 

Peroentage of volatile aoids yielded by the fat 
(reokoned as batyrio acid) 








Percentage of solable aoids yielded by fat (reck- 
oned as butyric acid) 



Percentage of insoluble acids 



Iodine absorption value ... 



Most of these results have been obtained by very well-known 
analytical processes. The ratio ^°p^^^^ has been obtained by 
weighing the di^ied potassium salts obtained on evaporating to 
dryness on the water- bath the titrated distillate from the Beichert- 
Wollny process. The weight agreed with the supposition that, 
practically, the whole of the acid in the distillate was butyric. 
Experiments with pure butyric acid showed that, on evaporating 
to dryness on the water-bath an aqueous solution of potassium 
butyrate, there was left the anhydrous salt C4H7O2K. 

These results may be translated into the more easily compre- 
liensible form : — 

The butter-fat consists of the glycerides of the following acids 
in the following proportions : — 

per cent. 

per cent. 

per cent 

Batyric ... ... ... ... 








Non-volatile acids soluble in water 








Palmitic and stearic 



• .• 

§ In the examinatioD of 20 selected samples of Indian bofialo-ghee 
Dr. Datta (Zoc. cit.) had obtained the following valnoB for the Seiohert-Wollpy 
figure :— Mean, 34*6 ; Max., 89*3 ; Min., 80-6. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

These figures may be compared with the corresponding figures 
for (1) European cows ; (2) the Egyptian buffalo. 

European Cow. 





























Non-Tolatile aoid 
Bolable in water 
(oonBtitatioa on- 






Oleic ... 

44 70t 

26 20t 

40 40t 






Palmitio and Stearic 









Saturated acid of 
which Pb. salt i8 
solable in ether 
(oonstitation un- 






• •• 

The following points are noteworthy : — 

1. It cannot be said that the butter-fat of the Indian buffalo 
is more similar to that of the Egyptian buffalo than to that of the 
European cow. This result is unexpected. 

2. The percentage of volatile fatty acids is very high. This 
result was also obtained by Dr. Datta. It is probably the best 
<aiterion for Indian buffalo butter-fat. 

3. The volatile fatty acids are almost entirely butyric. The 
ratio -^^d ^^ ^ ^^^ *^® Indian buffalo ; f for the Egyptian 
buffalo ; f for the European cow. This result, if confirmed by 
further analyses, should prove of the greatest use in recognising 
Indian buffalo butter-fat. At present it appears possible to adul- 
terate buffalo-ghee with a suitable vegetable oil and sell as cow- 
ghee. It should, however, be possible to distinguish the 
buffalo-ghee even in such a mixture by the high ratio of ^^^j-^j. 

* Calcalated from Beicliert-WoUnj standards, together with the ratio 
^r^oldd dodaoed by Duclaux (Oomptes Rendus, cii., pp. 1022, 1077). 

t Calculated from Iodine absorption figures of Rowland Williams (Ana- 
lyst, Jane, 1894.) 

X Calculated from percentage of insoluble acids minus percentage oleic 
aoid. For limits of percentage of insoluble acids, see Wynter Blyth, * Foods,' 
p. 866; alBo Allen 'Commercial Organic Analysis,' Vol. ii, pt. 1, pp. 189 
And 192. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] The Milk and Butter-fat of the Indian Buffalo. 2ffl 


4. Bichmond and Pappel concluded from their analyses that 
there is contained in the bntter-fat of the Egyptian buffalo, the 
glyceride of an acid which they did not identify, which, however, 
does not belong to the oleic series, but of which the lead salt is 
soluble in ether. My work has given results which might be inter- 
preted as indicating the presence of a similar glyceride in the 
butter-fat of the Indian bufEalo. I am not, however, at present 
convinced that these results may not be due to the difficulty of 
getting accurate results by Muter 's method for the estimation of 
olein. If it should be found that such a glyceride is really present 
in considerable quantity, its estimation should prove a valuable 
-criterion of buffalo butter-fat. 

Vol. n, No. 7.] A Paraiite upon a Parasite. 299 

39. A Parasite upon a Parasite, — a Viscam apparently V. articn- 
latuni, Burm.jOn Loranthus vestitos, Wall., on Quercus incana, 
Boxb.^By T. H. Borkill. 

Loranthus vestitus is quite a common parasite in the Simla 
Hill States, on trees of ^ Quercus incana ; and it makes use about 
Simla of other hosts also, such as Quercus dilatata, Lindl., and 
Machtlus odoratissima, Nees {vide Gamble, specimens in Herb. 
Shibpur, and Manual of Indian Timbers, 1902, p. 683) : elsewhere 
it lives on Odina Wodier, Roxb., SchleicJiera trijuga, Willd., Randta 
spp., Elaeagnus spp. and species of Quercus other than Q, incana 
(vide Brandis, Forest Flora, 1874, p. 397). 

Close to Granekihatti near Simla, on a south hill face at 6000 
ft., I found five small plants of a Viscum parasitic on the Loranthus, 
which was parasitic as usnal on Quercus incana. The Viscum 
plants were small, only once branched and not yet in flower : but 
the cushions from which the stems arose were 1-2 cm. in 
diametei\ Older branches had existed and died leaving their 
scars 4-5 mm. across : perhaps they had died in the unusual cold 
of the winter of 1904-05, which did so much damage to mango 
trees in neighbouring valleys.* 

Viscum articulatum is a widespread mistletoe, accommodating 
itself to many hosts. Kurz (Preliminary Report on Forests and 
other Vegetation of Pegu, 1875, p. 43) calls it one of the most 
troublesome of the parasites of the mixed Forests of Lower Burma, 
and Blume and Treub (the former in Bijdragen tot de Flora van 
Ned. Indie, 1825, p. 667, and the latter in Ann. du Jard. hot. de 
,Buitenzorg, iii., 1883, p. 3) say that it is very common at Buiten- 
zorg in Java : it is certainly common in the Malay peninsula, and 
•<sannot be altogether rare in Southern India. A perennial needs a 
wide adaptability to grow both near Simla and in the warm 
forests of the Malay islands. 

I have drawn together the list overleaf of plants known to 
be used as hosts by the Viscum. From it records which appeared 
to belong to V» japonicum, Thunb., and F. ramosissimum, Wall., — 
eoitfased species ^have been excluded. 

Viscum articulatum is there seen to be a well-known parasite 
of its brother parasites : but, as far as I have been able to ascertain, 
its double parasitism has always hitherto been noticed under 
• circumstances of a much heavier or more distributed raiiiful than 
in the outer hills of the North- Western Himalaya, where Euphorbia 
royleana, a couple of thousand feet lower down, attests by its great 
abundance to the dry conditions. 

But this mistletoe is not the only Loranth parasitic on 
another Loranth. Viscum album in Europe is sometimes parasitic 
on Loranthus europeeus {vide Engler, Pflanzenfamilien, iii. pt. 1. 
1889, p. 194; Hemsley in Joum. Linn. Soc. Bot., xxi., 1896, 

^ Some effects of this front are given in a note by Mr. Atha Ram, 
■Indian Forester, zzxii., 1906, p. 24. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

HoBt-plants of Viscum articulatum. 

Nat. Order. 






Ebenaceie h 



Cmpnliferse * 



Acer Campbellii, Hook, 
f. and Tiioois. 

Locality. | Anthority. 




CornnB capitatai Wall. 

Rhododendron arbore- 
nm, Sm. 

DiospyroB Melanoiy- 
loo, Roib. 
Diospyros sp. 
DioBpyros 8p. 


LoranthoB pentandroB, 

Loranthofi pentandroB, 

LoranthuB Bpherocar- 

pna, Bl. 
LoranthuB veBtitus, 

LoranthnB Bpp. 
LoranthuB Bp. , 

QnercoB iDcana, Roxb. 
QnercaB glauca, 

Thnnb. (Q. annolata, 

QaerooB dilatata, Lindl. 
QaercuB Ilex, Linn. 

S. India. 



? N.W. Himalaya. 

Dharwar, S. India. 

Central India. 



Dutch IndieB. 

Dutch Indies. 

N.W. Himalaya. 


N.W. Himalaya. 
N.W. Himalaya. 

N.W. Himalaya. 
N.W. Himalaya. 









J. 8cott.S 







1 Flora Ind. Bat., I., pt. 1, 1868, p. 806. 
< Forest Flora, 1874, p. 897. 

8 On labels of specimens preserved at the Boyal Botanic Gardens^ 

i List of Trees and Shrubs of the Darjeeling District, 1878, p. 66. 
( List of Trees, Shrubs, of the Bombay Presidency, 1902, p. 298. 
^ In Yerhandl. van het BataWaaBoh Genootschap, xvii., 1839, p. 268. 
1 In Joum. Roy. Asiat. Boc., Strnits Branch, xxxiii, p. 184. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] A Parasite upon a Parasite. 301 


p. 307, and Mina-Palambo in Boll, di Entom. Agrar., iii. 1896, p*19, 
quoted from Jost's Jabresber., 1896, i., p. 353) ; Viscum album 
occurs as well on its own kind {vide GTuerin in Rerue de Botanique, 
viii., 1890, p. 275, and elsewhere) ; Ghierin observed it to fruit 
growing on a brother plant ; Viscum tuberculatum, A. Rich., is 
found in Africa parasitic on Loranthus regulars, Steud. ; and 
Viscum tenue, Engl., is found on both Loranthus Schelei, Engl., 
and L. subulatus, Engl., in the high forest of Usambara (vide Engler 
in Bot. Jahrbucher, xx., 1894, p. 81); -while Tupeia antarctica^ 
Cham. & Schlecht.fis sometimes found in New Zealand on Loranthus 
mioranthus^ Hook.f . (J. D. Hooker,New Zealand Flora, 1867, p. 108). 

Of the allied order Santalaceae one species of PhaceUaria was 
collected bj Griffith on a Loranthus at Mergui ; another by Sir 
George Watt on a Loranthus in Manipur (J. D. Hooker, Flora Brit. 
India, iv., 1886, p. 235); a third and a fourth were collected 
by Sir Henry GoUett in the Shan Hills on a Loranthus,^ and on 
Viscum monoicum, Boxb., respectively (Collett and Hemsley in 
Joum. Linn. Soc. Bot., xxviii., 1890, p. 122). 

Viscum articulatum and tenue are leafless, and so are the 
Phacellarias : but Viscum album and tuberculatum are leafy, and so 
is Tupeia antarcticay though not abundantly so. We cannot, there- 
fore, say that double parasitism and leafiness are incompatible : yet 
one would think that a water supply twice fought for, i.e., between 
the first parasite and its host and between the second parasite and 
the first, would be so hardly won as to lead to the need of the 
utmost economy of water on the part of the second parasite. 

Viscum articulatum is a very variable plant and so is Tupeia 
antarciica. Engler says (Bot. Jahrbucher, xz., 1894, p. 80) that 
the African Loranths which grow in moist forests have larger 
leaves than species of the steppes. Molkenboer, a Dutch 
botanist, has hinted that there may be some relation between the 
nature of its host and the form that the parasite takes (Planter 
Junghuhnianae, 1850, p. 107) : Korthals {}oc. cit.) says that the 
more fortunate in circumstances is the Yiscum, the broader and 
more leaflike are its stems. If that be so, then my specimens were 
most unfortunate, for there was in them an almost complete 
absence of wing. 

It is this sdmost complete absence of wing that has made me 
to name mine above as '* apparently Y. articulatum." 

1 This Loranthas was parasitic on a Qneroas. Not a single reoord can I 
find of the complete identification of all three associated plants in reported 
oases of double parasitism. This case and Mina-Ptklnmbo's, above quoted, are 
the most completely reported, but in neither is the Quercus identified. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Elective Qovemment in the Chumbi Valley. 303 

40. c An Old Form of Elective Qovemment in the Ohumbi Valley, — 
By E. H. Walsh. 

An interesting form of elective government exists in the 
<]/humbi Valley which has been in force from time immemorial 
and is probably of very great antiquity. Although at the present 
time its functions are merely the local administration under the 
control of the Jongpons, the Tibetan officials at Phari, it, no 
doubt, survives in its present form from the time when it was the 
independent Government of a small republic state. Until recent 
years the control exercised by Tibet over the affairs of Tromo, 
which is the Tibetan name for the country known to Europeans 
as the Chumbi Valley, has been merely nominal and has consisted 
in the payment of an annual tribute by the Ti'omowas to the 
Tibetan officials at Phari, and the obligation to provide via or 
transport for Tibetan officials visiting the valley, whose visits 

were, however, of very rare occurrence. The Tromo was ( ^5J'^ ) 

are in fact a distinct people from the Tibetans. They never speak 

of themselves as "Tibetans," Po'pa (^^'^') and no Tibetan 

ever speaks of them as Tibetans. Tlieir language, though a 
dialect of Tibetan, contains many distinctive words and fonns, 
which alone points to a sepai»ate origin, and their customs differ 
in many respects. 

Even in Tix)mo itself there are two distinct races, the 
Upper Tromowas, who inhabit the upper poi'tion of the Chumbi 
Valley, and the Lower Ti-omowas, who inhabit the lower or 
southern portion. 

The dialect spoken by these two I'aces differs, and their cus- 
toms also shew marked and characteristic differences, shewing 
their distinct origin. To make this clear I give the following 
extract from the introduction to my vocabulary of the Tromowas 
dialect:* " To shew how these two peoples, living in intercourse 
** with one another, have maintained their distinction in other 
" respects than in dialect, it is only necessary to mention one or two 
" points of difference. Many of the Upper Tromowas are of tlie 
" old Bon-pa religion, which was the religion of Tibet before the 
" introduction of Buddhism, whereas none of the Lower Tromowas 
" are. The Upper Tromowa men wear the pigtail, whei-eas the 
" Lower Tromowa men cat the hair short like the Bhutanese. The 
** Upper Tromowa women wear the hair in two plaits, which are 
"united down the back. The Lower Tromowa women, while 
" making the hair in two plaits, tie these separately round the 
" head and do not let them hang down. In the matter of 
" the men^s dress, too, there was a difference until recent years, 

1 A Yooikbalary of tbe Tromowa Dialeot of Tibetan by E* H. C. WaUb; 
Bengal Secretariat Book Depdt (page ii). 

304 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [ Jnly, 1906^ 

" as the Lower Tromowas wore the Bhutanese form and material 
*^ of clothing ; and though all except the older men have given this 
" up and wear the Tibetan form of dress worn by the Upper Tro- 
" mo was, a few of the older men still wear the Bhutanese form of 
" dress. ^ 

"As to their respective origins, the tradition of the Upper 
" Tromowas is that there were certain original inhabitants who 
** have always lived in the valley from pre-historic times. These 
" are known as Khyim-ser-Rxitca'nang-pa^ * Those within the fence - 
" of the golden house.' Next after these come the Chi-pon Tsang- 
" Jchor, who immigrated here from the Khama province of Tibet. 
'* This is said to have been a veiy long while ago, and there is no 
" history of their coming. A second immigration known as Nam- 
" khen-pa, the * sky knowers,' are said to have come from Sakya, 
" subsequently to the Chi-ponsy though the date of their arrival is 
" also not known. These thi-ee classes have all intermarried and 
" become one people. 

" The Lower Tromowas say that the original inhabitants of 
** the lower valley were called Sakya-pas^ namely, * men of Sakya,* 
" who were probably an ofPshoot of that second immigration into 
" Upper Tromo. Subsequently the JETa-jscw, people of the province 
" of Ha in Bhutan, came in about 400 years ago with a Chieftain 
" named Shab-Dung Lha Rinpochhe, who held possession of the 
" Valley for a time, and they subsequently remained and settled 
" down there." 

The point is of interest as shewing how the Upper Tromowas 
have maintained their racial distinction, which accounts for the 
existence of a form of electoral government peculiar to them- 

Since 1889, a distinct but similar elective local government 
has existed in Lower Tromo into which it was then introduced by 
the Tibetans, on the model, with certain minor modifications, of 
that existing in Upper Tromo, The reason for its introduction 
was that since the Sikhim War of 1888 the Tibetans found it 
necessary to exercise direct control over the Chumbi Valley, and 
found that although the organisation of the Upper Tromo was 
able to supply them with any transport or supplies that their 
officials or ti'oops might require, there was no such organisation 
in Lower Tromo, and they therefore constituted one on the same 
model as that which they found in Upper Tromo. 

As already stated, until recent years. The Tibetan Govern- 
ment interfered very little with the Chumbi Valley, more than 
receiving their annual tribute, and in the fact that more serious 
criminal offences had to be referred for punishment either to the 
Jongpons or to the Government at Lhasa. 

The local administration of Upper Tromo is by two officers 
called Kongdus, who act jointly and are elected for a term of 
three years. The election is made from the Tsho-pas or headmen 
of the villages. These Tsho-pas are themselves elected by their 

1 pp. cit.f p. ii. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Elective Government in the Ghumhi Valley. 305- 

villagers, but when once elected continue to be Tsho-pus unless the 
villagers were to remove their name which would only be done 
on the ground of old age or loss of money or position or anything 
else that would render them unfit to hold the office of Kongdn. 
The number of Tsho-ytas in each village is not limited. 

Once every three years on the 15th day of the 4th month, the 
villagers all assemble at a fixed meeting-place near Galingkha, 
the principal village of Upper Tromo, and 'present to the two 
Kongdtts for the time being, a list of the Tsho-pas of their respec- 
tive villages. For the purpose of election. Upper Tromo is divided 
into two divisions, one of which consists of the upper and lower 
villages of Galingkha and the other of the remaining seven 
villages of the upper valley. The Kongdus are elected alternate- 
ly from these two divisions. 

Fi*om the lists presented by the villagers the two Kongdus 
select the names of the four persons in the other division to their 
o-wn, whom they consider to be the most suitable to be the next 
Kongdus, They then throw with three dice in the name of each 
of the four persons they have selected, and the two who obtain 
the highest throw are chosen as the Kongdus for the coming term 
of three years. 

This ceremony takes place before an old stone altar situated 
under a tree, and sacred to the Ytd-Lha or deity of the locality, before 
which is placed the banner which is the insignia of the Kongdu's 
office. It has no connection with the Buddhist religion, and points 
to an anteHor origin. The two Kongdus thus selected then decide be- 
tween themselves which is to be the Thri-pa (13 ^ ) ^^ Chairman. 

The one who is recognised as having the superior wealth or social 
influence is always chosen, but if the two selected candidates 
should consider themselves equal, the elder man becomes Thri-pa. 
The Thri-pa has the right of keeping the banner in his house. 

The newly-elected Kongdus do not enter on office at once* 
This is done in the eleventh month when another ceremony takes 
place and a yak is sacrificed at the stone altar already mentioned. 
The yak is skinned and the skin is placed in front of the 
altar with the head of the yak resting on the altar, and the new 
Kongdus place their hand on the bleeding skin and take an oath 
on the sacrifice that they will administer justice " even between 
their own son and their enemy." The outgoing Kongdus then 
make over to them their banner, the insignia of their office, and 
with the banner they take over all the rights and powers of the 

The Kongdw say that they do not hold their power from the 
Tibetan Government but from the Yul-Lha, the local deity, 
that they originally got the banner from him and have always 
held their power from him. The administration is thus theo- 
cratic as well as elective, and the god also takes part in the 
selection, through the result of the throwing of the dice befor»^ 
his altar. 

'306 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [July, 1906. 

The duties of the Kongdus to Government are to pay the 
nnual tribute and to provide any transport or supplies that 
the Government may require. This falls under the following 
heads : Tlla — supply of coolies ; mi-hrang — supply of messenger ; 
tao — supply of transport and riding mules and ponies ; khyem — 
supply of yak transport ; tsa-thre — supply of grass ; shiny-thre — 
.supply of wood ; thah-yog — supply of personal servants to officers 
while on tour. % 

The revenue paid to the Tibetan Government consists of 
40 srangs (Rs. 100) for the grazing rights on the Lingma thang 
plain and on the hills ; 120 bundles of bamboos, 60 wooden beams 
and 8 maunds of tsod leaves, which are used for dyeing. To meet 
these and other expenses, the Kongdus assess the land rent, a 
: grazing i-ent, a house tax, which is really a personal tax as it is 
levied on the circumstances of the family and not on the value of 
the house, and a cattle tax. These taxes are assessed by the new- 
ly appointed Kongdus and remain in force for their term of 
office of three years. Should the amount so raised in any year 
not be sufficient to meet expenses, the house tax can be levied 
more than once in the year. 

These funds are entirely under the control of the Kongdus 
:and a large portion of them is spent on entertainment at the two 
^ ceremonies of the election of Kongdus and of their taking over 
charge of their office, at the quarterly meetings of the Tsho-pas 
and on any other special occasion, and in contributions to the 
various village Lha-Jchangs or temples, and towards religious 

The people have absolute confidence in the Kongdus, and as 
they are men of sufficient substance, could recover from them in 
.case of default ; but I was told that such a case had never occur- 
red. The Kongdus, apart from public opinion, are also re- 
strained by the oath taken before the Yut-Lha on taking office, 
and would consider that any bi^each of trust in respect of the 
funds would bring them divine punishment and misfortune. 
They render a quarterly account of expenditui*e to the Tsho-pas, 
who assemble for the purpose. The Koiigdus are exempted from 
land rent and all taxes during the term they hold office, and they 
also receive a present from each village at the ceremony of taking 
charge of their office, but receive no other remuneration. 

The Kongdus also decide all civil disputes and questions of 
family right such as the share of the property which a woman is 
■entitled to if a divorce is granted on her application. They also 
try criminal offences other than thefts, grievous hurt, by which is 
implied loss of a limb, and murder, which have to be referred to 
;the Tibetan officials at Phaii. They also make regulations for the 
allotment of the grazing grounds among the different villages, the 
maintenance of the village forest reserve, and enforce the local 
customs generally. They have the power of inflicting fine or 
'beating. Though they are of the people themselves, their orders 
Are invariably respected. I had nearly a year's experience of the 
working of this system when I was in Chumbi, as all supplies 

Vol. IJ, No. 7.] Elective Qovemmtnt i» the Ghumbt Valley. 307 


and local transport wei'e obtained through the Kongdus of the 
upper and lower valley, and I was struck by the manner in which 
the villagers canned out their orders and supplied the portion of ' 
any requisition which they allotted to a particular village without 
disputing the allotment. 

Each Kongdu has under him four officers known as La- 
yoks, who perform the duties of oixierlies and messengers and 
caiTy the orders of the Kongdu to the Tsko-pas. He has one La- 
yok for each of the Tshos or divisions into which the villages are 
divided for the purpose of grazing rights. The La-yoks hold their 
land rent-free and are exempted from taxes, and also each i-eceive 
a yearly sum of 9 srangs (Rs. 22-8) as salary. 

The land rent is levied on the amount of land held, which is 
estimated from the amount of seed sown on it, and comes to 
about As. 15 per aci^e. For the puipose of the house tax there ai-e 
eight classes which are each assessed at a different rate, varying 
from Rs. 5 for the highest to As. 2 for the lowest class. The class 
in which each household is placed is decided by the new Kongdus 
at the first meeting of the Tsho-pas, who assist them in making the 
assessment, and also report whether any land has changed hands 
fi*om one family to another ; for no one is allowed to part with his 
lands to an outsider. Thus a man of Upper Tromo may not even 
sell or mortgage land to a man of Lower Tromo. Nor is nnyone 
allowed to part with the whole of his land, lest he should leave 
the country and so be lost to the house tax and to the liability to • 
pei-sonal service. 

In the case of tlie grazing giounds, a fixed sum of 5 
tfrangs (Rs. 12-8) is allotted to each of the 19 grazing grounds 
into which the various ranges of hills in the different vil- 
lages are divided. These are allotted by the Kongdus between 
the different villages of the four Tshos gi'oups, and the amount of 
rent paid by each group therefore depends on the number of 
grazing giounds allotted to it. This and the distribution of the 
grazing i-ent to each village is decided by the Kongdns at the 
meeting of the TsJio-pas. 

Another of the duties of the Kongdnsis to regulate the cutting 
of the grass on the Lingma than^r plain, which is the chief grass 
supply for the winter's hay. The plain is closed to gi*azing 
on a fixed day, the 5th day of the 5th month (June), 
and one of the La-yoks is stationed there to see that no 
one grazes cattle or mules upon it. Anyone doing so is liable 
to tine or beating under order of the Kongdus, On either the 
6th or 7th of the 9th month (October), everybody assembles 
f ix)m all the villages and the Kongdus take their banner an d en- 
camp at the lower end of the plain. They then worship the Yul- 
Lhoy and after the cei*emony the Kongdus declare that the gi-ass 
can be cut. Everyone then sets to work at once to cut the grass, 
and the cutting is completed in about a week. This furnishes 
the supply of hay for the winter. 

As has been already mentioned, the Tibetan Government, when 
it wanted to ci^eate an organised administration in Lower Tromo, 

.308 Journal of the Astatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

took the Upper Tromo administration as its model, and the two 
Commissioners deputed (the Ta-Lama and the Lhalu Shapa) in- 
troduced it with certain modifications. 

Although, therefore, the system, as it exists in Lower Tromo, 
is of no historical interest, it is interesting as shewing tihe altera- 
tions which were made from the original system of Upper Tromo, 
and also from the fact that the Tibetan Government gave the 
Kongdus a banner as their insignia of office, similar to that held 
in their own right by the Upper Tix>mo Kongdus, The Lower 
Tromo Kongdus have also, on their own account, adopted some of 
the ceremonies of the Upper Tromowas, except that in respect 
to the Yak sacrifice on the ceremony of their appointment. 

The alterations which the Tibetan Commissioners made from 
the ancient system of Upper Tromo were : The number of Kong- 
dus has been fixed at three instead of two, and they are appointed 
annually and hold their office for one year instead of for a term 
of three years. The elective system by which every village 
chose its own Tsho-pas from whom the Kongdus selected and who 
assist the Kongdus in their assessments, has also been altei^ed. 
Eighteen Tsho-pas were appointed to represent the eleven villages 
of Lower Tromo, and from these the Kongdus are selected in i-ota- 
tion : the first three for the first year, the next three for the second, 
and so on, so that all the list is worked through in six years and 
the office then comes back to the first three again. Any Tsho-pa 
may, however, resign when the village which he represents elects 
the TshO'pa to take his place on the roster, and similarly in the 
case of death. The Tsho-pas are so arranged on the list that each 
jrroup of three represents three different villages ; there can never 
be two Kongdus fox)m the same village at the same time. 

The three Kongdus on taking office elect one of themselves 
as Thn-pa or Chairman, and take over the banner from the out- 
going Kongduf, and the Thri-pa keeps the banner in his house. 
They also take an oath before the banner to administer justice 
truly " even between their own son and their enemy." 

Their duties are the same as those of Upper Tromo. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] OerUianacearum Species Asiaticss. 309 


41. Genttanacearum Species Asiaticas Novas descripsit 
I. H. BuRKiLL sequentes. 

Inter Frigidas, ex affinitate G. ornataa, Wall., et piwcipue 
G. temifoliae, Franch, 

Gentiana ARBTHUSiE. — Platita fontinalis, ceespitosa, 10-16 cm. 
alta, omnino glabra, e medio ramomm floriferoram caulem 
unicum repentem prodncens. Rami floriferi Bubdecambentes, 
hexaphylli, intemodiis quam foliis longioribas : rami stoloniformes 
6-10 cm. longi, bracteati, intemodiis quam bracteis longioribus. 
Folia constanter 6-verticiliata, inferiora ovato-elliptica acuta 
3-4 mm. longa gradatim in superioribus linearibus 10-14 mm. 
longis 1*5 mm. latis transeuntia : verticillus supi^mus in calycis 
basi insidens. Flores solitarii, laete coerulei. Calycis tubus 10-12 
mm. longus, vinoso perfusus, anguste campanulatus margine 
intergro : dentes 6, Imeari-lanceolati, 5-8 mm. longi, 2 mm. 
lati, acuti. Corollae tubus tubuloso-infundibuliformis, 4-5 cm. 
longus, ad os 15-18 mm. diametro : plicsB magnae : lobi 6, del- 
toidei, caudati 5 mm. longi : plicarum lobi ad auriculas sinu- 
atas tot quot petala reducti. Stamina intra fauces delitescentia, 
28-32 mm. longa, ad corollae tubi tertiam partem adnata. 
Ovarium stipitatum, stipite 18-20 mm. incluso 30 mm. longum : 
stylus 1*5 mm. longus : stigmata '5 mm. longa. 

China occidentalis. — In provincice Szechuen districtu Tchen- 
keou-tin, Farges, 253. 

Typus in Herbario Horti Botanici Parisiensis conservatus 

Inter Frigidas, ex affinitate G. cephalanthae, Franch, 
et G. crasssB, Kurz, 

Gentiana Atkinsonii. — Planta subcaespitosa. Oaules decum- 
bentes, plurimi, teretiusculi, castanei, ad 25 cm. longi. Folia 
basalia subrosulata, lineari-lanceolata, apice rotundata, basi acuta 
glabra, maxima ad 10 cm. longa ad 8 mm. lata : folia caulina 
basalibus similia, pleraque 6 cm. longa 6-8 mm. lata, tubuloso- 
vaginata, vagina 6 mm. longa : petiolus 5-0 mm. longus. Flores 
.3-0 ad apices ramorum, quisque inter bracteas duas vaginantes 
subsessilis. Oalycis tubus tubuloso-campanulatus, quinque- 
angulatus, 8-9 mm. longus : dentes inaequales, lanceolati, margin- 
ibus Bcabridi, parum carinati, acutiusculi, 4-7 mm. longi. GorolUe 
tubus 20-22 mm. longus, tubuloso-campanulatus : plicae magnas : 
dentes ovato-deltoidei, 4 mm longi, 3 mm. lati : plicarum lobuli 
iaaoqnilaterales, serrulati, 1 mm. longi. Stamina fauces aeqnantia, 
pauUo infra corollao tubi medium inserta. Ovarium 12 mm. 
-ongom : stylus brevis. Semina reticulata. 

310 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906^ 

China orientalis. — In provinciae Kwang-tung montibuff 
Lofan dictis ad alt. 3000 ped., /. M. Atkinson, 322. 

Floret mense Septembris. Typus in Herbario Horti Botanici 
Regalis Kewensis consei'vatus est. 

Ifiter Aptei^s, ex affinitate G. Walujewi, Eegel et Schmalh. 
et G. decumbentis, Lmn. 

Gentiana PHARiCA. — Planta omnino glabi^. Gaules 1-3, 
subdecumbentes, 8-14 cm. longi. Collts fibrosus. Folia radicalia 
irifundibulo-connata, 3-5-nervia, margine Integra, apice acuta, 
basi Bubacuta, plurima 8-10 cm. longa et 14-22 mm. lata : folia 
caulina similia, at minora, ad 4 cm. longa. Flores 5-7, omnes 
in glomerulo tenninali capitati vel duo inferiores paullo remoti 
ad apices i^monim pedicelliformium producti, viridi-straminei. 
Calyx dimidio-spathaceus, quinquedentatus, fissuras mai*ginibus 
scariosis, 13-18 mm. longus : dentes perparvi, virides, 1-2 mm. 
longi, subulati, basi in angulum acutum exhibentes. Go^'oUse 
tubus 17-20 cm. longus, 8-9 mm. diametro, tubulo8o-cam- 
panulatus : plicae conspicuee : lobi 5, ovati, 4-5 mm. longi, 
4-5 mm. }ati : plicarum lobuli ovati, marginibus 1-2-dentati, 
2 mm. longi. 8tami7ia coroUae tubo breviora, 15 mm. longa, 
ad corolla) tubi dimidium adnata, filiformia. Ovarium ang- 
ustum, nee stipitatum, 10-12 mm. longum : stylus 2 mm, 

Alpes himalaicae orientales. — Ad fines thibetico-sikkim- 
enses, pi'ope Lonok, Younghiishand, 195; Kangma etiamque in 
ripis rivuli Penamong Chu, Bunghoo ; prope Dotho, Dunghoo, 

Typi in herbariis Hoi-torum Botanicomm Regalium Kewensis 
et Calcutteusis conservati sunt. Species haec Oentianm Walujemr 
Kegel et Schmalh., pix)xima est. 

Gentiana Waltoxii. — Planta omnino glabiu, ad 2*5 cm. alta,- 
caulibus 1 vel 2 erectis. Collts fibix)sus. Folia radicalia lineari- 
lanceolata, infundibulo-connata, 3-5-nervia, nervis extimis dimi- 
dium versus evanescentibus, margine integra, basi et apice longe 
attenuata, plurima 10-15 cm. longa 1*5-2 cm. lata : folia caulina 
radicalibus similia at multo minora, ad 4 cm. longa. Flores fere 
sessiles, at inferiores in apice intemodii pedicelliformis 1-3 cm. 
longi insidentes. Calyx dimidio-spathaceus, quinque-dentatus, 
fissurae marginibus scariosus, 18-25 mm. longus : dentes ina^uales, 
Tirides, 2-8 mm. longi, subovati. Corollse tubus longe campanula* 
tus, 3-5 cm. longus, 1 cm. diametro : plicae conspicuae : lobi 5^ 
7-10 mm. longi, lilacini : plicarum lobuli 3-4 mm. longi, ovato-del* 
toidei. Stamina corollce tubo aequilonga : filamenta ad medium 
tubi affixa, filifonnia. Ovarium stipitatum : stipite incluso 2-5 
mm. longum : stylus 2-3 mm. longus : stigmata in aetata recur- 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Gentianacearum Species Asiattcae. 311 


Thibet. — Sine loco indicato, mercenanus Ktngianus, 277, 295, 
1659; in valle rivnli Kyi-chu dicti, prope Lhasa, Walton, 1645; 
Lhasa, 12000 ped, Waddell ; et ad Gyangtse, Walton, 1648. 

Typi in herbariis Horti Botanici Regalis Kewensis et Horti 
Botanici Begalis Calcuttensis conservati sunt. Species hsBc in 
mense Augusti floret ; Oentiange decumbenti, Linn., persimilis est. 

Inter Apteras, ex affimtate G. kanfmannianaa, Beyel et Schmalh., et 
G. dahuricsB, Fisch. 

Gkntiana lhassica. — Planta omnino glabi*a, ad 8 cm. alta. 
Caules 1-6, nniflores, sabdecumbentes. CoUis fibrosus. Folia radi- 
ealia linerari-lanceolata, infundibulo-oonnata, 3-nervia, margine' 
integra, apice rotandato-obtnsa, basin versus attenuata, plurima 
7-9 cm. longa, 8-10 mm. lata : folia caulina anguste elliptica, 
longe vaginato-connata, apice obtusissima, 15-20 mm. longa, 6 
mm. lata. Flores solitarii, inter folia caulina suprema duo fere 
sessiles. Calyx infundibulo-tubulosus, viridi-purpurascens : tubus 
1 cm. longus : lobi subaxjuales, anguste ovati, sinubus rotundatis., 
5 mm. longi. Corollas tubus campanulatus, 15-18 mm. longus, 
4-5 mm. diametix) : plicae magnae : lobi 5, rotundato-ovati, 4 mm. 
longi, lilacini : plicarum lobuli ovati, acuti, 1 mm. longi. Sta- 
viina corollsB tubum a^quantia: filamenta ad tubi medium ad- 
nata. Ovarium vix stipitatum, 1 cm. longam : stylus 2 mm. 

Thibet. — In valle rivuli Kyi-chu dicti, prope Lhasa, Walton^ 

Typi in herbario Kewense etiamque in Herbario Calcuttense 
conservati sunt. Floret mense Septembri. 

Inter Apteras, ex affinitate G. macix>phyllaB, Pall., et Q, tibeticas^ 


Gentian A crassicaulis, Duthie in Herb. Kew. — Planta omnino 
glabra, 30 cm. alta et altior, caulesingulo i an semper ? an plerum- 
queV), erecta. Radices 2-3 incrassati. Collis fibrosus. Caules 
fistulares. Folia radicalia petiolata, longe elliptico-ovata, vagi- 
nato-connata, 5-nervia, nervis inconspicuis sed in apicem ineunti- 
bus, margine integra, basi acuta, apicem versus angustata, at apice 
acuta, minute mucronata, ad 14 cm. longa et 5 cm. lata : vagina 
2-4 cm. longa : petiolus ad 4 cm. longus : foliorum caulinorum 
mediorum petioli vaginato-connati, vagina ampla : lamina e vagina» 
margine expansa obovata, ad 10 cm. longa, apice obtusa : folia 
suprema quattuor involucram formantia, sessilia nee connata, 
mediis lamina similia. Flores 20-30, in capitulum aggi-egati, 
corollae tubo viridi-albescentes livido maculati, lobis lividis. Calyx 
dimidiato-Bpathaceus, transparens, dentibus perparvis indistinctis, 
6-7 mm. longus. CoroUse tubus 12-15 mm. longus, 4 mm. diametro : 

312 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

plicflB conspicuee : lobi ovati, obtusi, 4 mm. longi, 2-2*5 mm. lati : 
plicamm lobi 1 mm. longi, acnti. Stamina coroUaB tubo aequilonga 
ad tnbi mediam partem affixa. Ovarium stipite mellifluo incloso 
S-9 mm. longom, elongatum : stjlns 1 mm, longus. 

China adstralis,— In provincia Yunnan, in pratis humidis 
regionis alpinee- montis Hee-gui-chao, alt, 9500 ped., Delavay^ 
1241 : etiamque in provincia Szechuen, ad Tongolo, Soulie, 676 ; efc 
ad Tachienlu, Pratt, 463. Vidi et enim specimina culta ex Horto 
Botanico Begali Kewense. 

Typi in Herbario Kewensi conservati sunt. Maxime cum 
Gentianam thiheticam. King, congruunt : sed floribus minoribus 
conspicuissime differunt. 

Inter Isomerias ex affinitate G. amoenee, 0. B. Clarke, et praecipue 
G. callistanthae, Oilg. 

Gentiana amplicbater. — Planta omnino glabra, nana, floribus 
magnis inclusis 5-6 cm. alta. Collis non fibrosus. Folia rosulata, 
ovata, 3-nervia, margine aequalia scariosa, apice obtusa, 2-3 cm. 
longa, 15-18 mm. lata, per paria infundibulum formantia, fere ad 
medium connata. Flores duo, subsessiles, alter vetustior, alter 
junior, lilacini. Calyx tubulosus, quinque-dentatus, viridis : tubus 
2 cm. lon£(us, ad os 12 mm. diametro : dentes inaequales, quadrato- 
ovati, scarioBO-marginati, majores 10 mm. longi, 5-7 mm lati, 
minores 5 mm. longi 3 mm. lati, sinubus subquadratis. Corollm 
tubus ventricosus, 4 cm. longus, 15 mm. diametro, amphoriformis : 
plic8B magnsB: lobi ovati-triangulai'es, 6-8 mm. longi, 6-8 mm. 
lati : plicarum lobuli ovati, 4 mm. longi. Stamina corolkB tubo 
breviora : filamenta ad partem dimidiam inferiorem affixa. Cap- 
sula staminibus aequilonga, angusta : stylus 3 mm. longus : stig- 
mata parva. 

Thibet. — Prope Lhasa ad fauces Pembu-la dictas, Walton, 

Typi in herbariis Horti Botanici Regalis Kewensis etiamque 
Horti Botanici Begalis Calcuttensis conservati sunt. Gentiana 
afnplicrater ad G, depressam. Wall., maxime accedit, differt floribus 
majoribus : ad G. callistantham, Diels et Gilg, etiam accedit ; 
foliis differt. 

Liter Isomerias. 

Gentiana amcena, C. B. Clarke, var., major. — Flos major: 
tubus ad 22 mm. longus, 10 mm. diametro. 

Thibet. — sine loco designato, mercenartus Kingianus, 101, 
1658 ; prope fines sikkimenses ad Khambajong, 19(XX) ped. alt., 
Frain, 1653. 

Typi in herbariis regalibus Hortorum Botanicorum Kewensis 
et Calcuttensis conservati sunt. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Q&ntinnacearum Species Asiaticas. 313 

Inter Chondrophyllas, ex affinitate G. pseudo-aquaticae, Kusnezow, 
et G. humilis, atev, 

Genhana PSEUD0-HUMILI8. — Planta nana, ceespitosa, caulibus 

: Bubdecumbentibus ad 8 cm. longie, omnino glabra. Folia radicalia 
ovato-orbiculata, mucronata, ad 4 mm. longa margine cartilaginea: 
folia caulina obovata, recnrva, margine scariosa, per paria 5-8 

. sequidistantia posita, 4-5 mm. longa, 3 mm. lata, vaginato-oonnata. 
Floret solitarii, pedicellati vel snbsessiles, ccerulei. Calycis tubus 

• decem-angulatus, ad angulas minopero cristatus, 5 mm. longus, 
2 mm. diametro, margine asquali ; dentes lanceolati, acuti, dorso 
minopere albo-cristati, albo-marginati, 2 mm. longi. Corollm 
tubus 7 mm. longus : plicae magnae ; lobi ovati, obtuai vel sub- 
acuti, 2-5 mm. longi : plicarum lobuli ovati dimidium lobomm 

.8Bquantes. Stamina fauces attingentia: filamenta supra corollaB 
tubi medium affixa. Ovarium stipitatum 3 mm. longum ; stipes 
vix 2 mm. longus : stigmata antheras attingentia. Capsula longe 
exserta, longe stipitata, fere lenticularis, 5 mm. longa. Gentiana 
intermedia, Burkill MS. in Herb. Kew. 

Alpes himalaicae occidentales etiamque Siberia. — In regione 
himalaica Garhwal, ad Gothing, 13000 ped., Strachey et Winter- 
bottom, 15: in regionis Kulu valle Piti ad Nako et ad C hangar 
T, Thomson : in regionis Chumba districtu Lahul, Hay : intra 
fines Kashmiricas, in districtu cis-indusino Rupshu, 15000-18000 
ped. alt., Stoliczka; et Kargil ad fauces Namika, T. Thomson; 
etiamque prope vicum Kargil boream versus, Stoliczka ; in valle flu- 
minis Indus prope Leb, ad Hemis, Heyde ; inter Leh et Lipshi, 
12000-14000 ped. alt., Stoliczka ; in valle transindusino lluminis 
Shayak prope Karsar, T. ThomsoJi, In Afghanistania, Griffith 
6823 K.D. In Siberia meridionale ad Irkutsk, Vlassow. 

G. pseudo'humilis G. humili habitu persimilis ; differt foliin 

Inter Chondrophyllas, ex affinitafe G. purpuratee, Maxim,, t*t 
G. i*ecurvat«e, C. B, (jlarke, 

Gentiana panthaica. — P/a»<« omnino glabra, ad 10 cm. alta. 
Gaulis herbaceus, ramos solitarios 2-5 gerens: rami caules fei'e 
fiequantes, intemodiis quam foliis longioribus. Folia basalia i-osu- 
lata, ovata, ad 8 mm. longa, ad 5 mm. lata, acuta : folia caulina 
horizontalia at apice pauUo deflexa, deltoideo-ovata, acuta vel 
acuminata, suprema per paiia vaginato-connata. Flores conspicue 
pedicellati, iis Gentianae rccurvatee majores, erecti vel nutantes. 
Calycis tubus 5 mm. longus, infundibularis, 3 mm. diametro, 
5-angularis: dentes e basi semicirculari 1 mm. longa conspicue 
acuminati, acumine 3 mm. longo. Corolla post anthesin crescens : 
tubus 8 mm. longus, fauce 4-6 mm. diametro : plicae magnae : lobi 
ovati, 5 mm. longi, obtusi : lobuli plicarum ovati, eleganter fim- 
briati. Stamina fauce paullo excedentia: filamenta ad tubi 
mediam partem affixa. Ovarium stipitatum, 4 mm. longum ; stipes 

314 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [July, 1906* 

2-5 mm. longus : stylus 1 mm. longus. Onpsula clavata, stipite 
5 mm. longo incluso 7 mm. longa, apice obtusissima. — Qentiuna 
recurvata, Forbes et Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., 
xxvi, 1890, p. 133. 

China australis. — In pix)vincia Yunoan, in pratis ad coUem 
Yen-tse-hay, Delavay. 

Typi in herbariis Horti Botanici Regalis Kewensis Hortique 
Botanici Parisiensis conservati sunt. Species b«ec quam Oenttana 
recurvata robustiorest et floribus major. 

Inter Chondrophyllas ex offimtaie G. pedicellatae, Wail.y 
etiamque aliqucnnodo G. aprica?, Decne, 

Gentiana LiSTERi. — Planta nana, omnino glabra, 4-6 cm. 
alta, erecta, seepe multicaulis, 3-12-flora. Gatdis minutissime 
asper, intemodiis quam foliis saepe multo brevioribus. Folia 
i-adicalia rosulata, late ovata, apice mucronulata, 6-10 mm. 
longa, ad 7 mm. lata : folia caulina suberecta, per paria infundi- 
bulo-connata, ovata, cartilaginea, inferiora margine indurata, 
superiora margine albo-scaidosa, apice muci-onulata, bamata, 
intemodiis cequalia vel longiora. Flores r^ coerulei. Calycis tubus 
5 mm. longus : dentes 3-3 5 mm. longi, subulati, lineares, vix 
oarinati, ei*ecti. Corollse tubus 8 mm. longus, tubulosus ; plicae 
conspicua? : lobi ovati, obtusi, 2*5-3 mm. longi ; plicamm lobuli 
rotundati, fere integri. Stamina ad tubi medium aJQBxa : filamenta 
lineari-Bubulata : antherae fauces aequantes. Ovarium stipitatum ; 
stylus nullus. Capsula matura sublenticular! s ad fauces coroUae 
protmsa, fere 4 mm. longa, et 3 mm. lata. Semina elongato- 
trigona, la?via, 5 mm. longa. 

AiiPES htmalaic^ orientales. — In districtu Darjeeling, in 
monte Tonglu, Lister, King ; et ad oppidum Darjeeling, 6000 • 
ped. vi\i., Atiderson : inti-a fines sikkimensis ad Yakla, J 0000 ped. 
alt., C. JB. Clarke, 27831. 

Infer Chondrophyllas, ex affinitate G. ripaiiae, Karel. et KiriL 

Gentiana albicalyx. — Planta annua, nana, omnino glabra, 
10-11 mm. alta, multiflora. Folia orbiculato-spathulata, conspicu- 
issime albo-marginata, 4-5 mm. longa, 4-5 mm. lata, margine 
albo 0*5 mm. lato. Flores densissime aggregati, purpureo-lividi. 
Calyx tubulosus, quinque-dentatus : tubus scariosus, 2 mm. longus, 
1mm. diametro: dentes orbicu lares, albo-marginati, dorso albo- 
cristati, 1 mm. longi. Corolla tubus 3 mm. longus, 1*5 mm. 
diameti-o, infundibuliformis : plicae sat conspicuae : limbus ex- 
pansus 7 mm. diametix) : lobi viridi-lilacini, ovati, fere 2 mm. 
longi, 1*5 mm. lati : plicamm iobuli inroqualiter bifidi, brevissimi. 
Stamina fauces aequantia : filamenta ad superiorem partem tubi 
nffixa. Ovarium stipitatum ; stylus brevis, vix 1 mm. longus. 
Capsula ovoideo-lenticularis, 2 mm. longa. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] QeiUianacearnnn Species Asiaticse. 315 


Thibet et Alpes himalaicae. — In valle rivuli Jhangkar et 
ad fauces Jhangkar- la dictas, Walsh ; necnon in valle Chumbi 
8000-9000 ped. alt., Searight. 

Floi-et mense Maio. Typi in Herbario Horti Botanici Regalis 
^Calcuttensis conservati sunt. 

Inter C bond rophy lias, ex affiyiitate G. Haynaldi, Kanitz 
( G. BockhtUii, Hemsl. ), et G. micantis, 0. B, Clarke, 

Gentiana sororcula. — Planta annua, csespitosa, omnino glab- 
ra, caulibns plurimis eequalibus erectis vel suberectis. Folta 
radicalia i-osulata, ovata, carinata, apice acuta, mucronata, basi 
obtusa, mai*gine hyalina, 3-7iervia, nervis extimis in margine 
delitescentibus : folia caulina densissima (intemodiis tectis), late 
snbulata, per paria connata, in parte inJFeriori late scai'iose mar- 
ginata, 6-l0 mm. longa, 1*5 mm. lata, superiora majora. Flores 
solitarii, in apicibus ramonim, ? lilacini. Galyx tubidosus, quin- 
qne-dentatus : tubus 6 mm. longus, 2*5 mm. diametro, dentes vei^sus 
quinque-carinatus : dentes foliis caulinis similes, 6 mm. longi, 
sinubus acutissimis. GoroUsa tubus 13-14 mm. longus, 2-2'5 mm. 
diametix), infundibiilifonnis : plicaB sat conspicuaa : lobi 4 mm. 
longi, anguste ovati, acuti ; plicarum lobuli loborum dimidio 
aequales, bifidi. Stamina 11-13 mm. longa: filamenta ad tubi 
dimidiam partem affixa. Gapsula elongata, stipite incluso 7 mm. 

Thibet. — Nee locus nee collector indicati, 307 partim. 

TypuB in herbario Horti Botanici Regalis Kewensis conser . 
vatus. est. 

Gentiana micantiformis. — Planta annua, ctespitosa, omnino 
glabra, caulibns plurimis ineequalibus, subei-ectis vel ieve decum- 
bentibus. Folia radicalia rosulata, late ovata, apice acuta hamata, 
margine indurata hyalina, 4-6 mm. longa, 3-4 mm. lata, 3-nervia : 
folia caulina subulata, per paria breviter vaginato-connata, inter- 
nodiis paullo longioi'a, margine hyalina, 4-5 mm. longa. Flores 
solitai'ii in apicibus ramorum, ccerulei. Calyx tubulosus, quinque- 
dentatus : tubus 4-7 mm. longus, 2 mm. diametix), quinque-line- 
atus : dentes lanceolati, 3 mm. longi, acutissimi, indistincte 
• carinati. ComllaB tubus 8-9 mm. longus, 2 mm. diametro: 
plicsB sat conspicuae: lobi 5, ovati, 2' 5-3 mm. longi, r5 mm. lati, 
subclausi : plicarum lobuli bifidi, dentibus in83qualibu8, 1 mm. 
longi. Stami7ia fauces subaequantia : filamenta ad tubi dimidiam 
partem affixa. Ovarium stipitatum, elongato-ovoideum, corollas 
fauces attingens. Capstda matura conspicue exserta, stipite 
10-12 mm. longo. Semina elongato-ovoidea, longitudinaliter 
striata, punctata neo reticulata, vix *2 mm. longa. 

Alpes himalaic^ orientales. — Ultra fines sikkimensi-thibet- 
anoB in valle prope urbem Chumbi, WnUhy 16, 60; in regione 
Phari dicta ejusdem vallis, Dunghoo, 4586 partim ; in colli supra 

316 Jomfial of the Asiatic Society of Befigal. [July, 1906^ 

hospitium Tangn intra fines Sikkimenses ad 13200 ped. alt., Young- 

Species vemalis, maxime ad Oentianam micantem, spectat. 
Typi in herbariis Horti Botanici Regalis Ke wen sis et Horti 
Botanici Regalis Calcnttensis conservati sunt. 

hiter Chondrophyllas, ex affinitate G. squarrosse, Ledeh. 

Gentiana bryoides. — Planta annua, omnino glabra, caulibus 
1-6 subdecumbentibus. Folia radicalia rosulata, late ovata, apice 
acuta subhamata, basi obtusa, carinata, margine indurata hyalina, 
5-7 mm. longa, 3-4 mm. lata, 3-nervia: folia caulina anguste 
oblanceolata, per paria vaginato-connata, aliquomodo efflexa, apice 
acutissima, internodiis breviora vel rarissime sequilonga, 3-4 mm. 
longa, 1-1*5 mm. lata. Floras solitarii in apicibns ramorum, 
coerulei. Calyx tubulosus, quinque-dentatus : tubus 3 mm. 
longus, 15 mm. diametro, nee cainnatus : dentes efflexi, ovati, 
acuti, subcarinati, 1 mm. longi. Cordlse tubus 5-6 mm. longus, 
2 mm. diametro : plicsB sat conspicuse : lobi ovati, 2 mm. longi, 
1*5 mm. lati, subclausi : plicarum lobuli vix dimidiam partem 
loborum aequantes, margine laciniati. Stamina vix fauces attin- 
gentes : filamenta ad tubi dimidiam partem affixa. Ovarium 
ovoideum, stipitatum. Capsula matura lenticularis, longissime 
exserta, stipite 15-18 mm. longo. Semina ovoidea, angulata. 

Alpes himalaic^ orientales. — Prope fines thibetico-sikki- 
menses supra hospitium Tangu dictum, ad 14500 ped. alt., Young- 
husband, 1635. 

Inter Oentianam squarrosam,, Ledeb., et Oentianam, pseudo- 
aquaticam, Kusnezow, et Oentianam, craitsidoidem, Bur. et Franch., 
mediam tenens. Typi in herbariis Horti Botanici Regalis 
Kewensis et Horti Botanici Regalis Calcnttensis conservati sunt. 

Gentiana Yokusai — Planta erecto-patens, 2-14 cm. alta, sub- 
scabrida. Gauiis erectus, 0-4 i*amo8 basales gerens, etiamque 
3-8 ramos solitarios caulinos it«rum ramiferos. Folia basalia 
rosulata, ovata, uninervia, in anthesin persistentia, subacuta, ad 
22 mm. longa, 8 mm. lata : folia caulina similia at minora, ad 12 
mm. longa, 6 mm. lata, acuta, mucronulata, patentia. Flores 
solitarii, in apicibus ramorum pedicellati, coerulei vel albi.. 
Oalycis tubus 5 mm. longus, quinque-cristatus, 2*5 mm. diametro, . 
cristis parvis : dentes lanceolati, cristati, acuti, 2*5-3 mm. longi, 
CoroUm tubus 8 mm. longus, 3 mm, diametro : plicae sat conspicuce : 
lobi late ovati, obtusiusculi, 2 mm, longi : plicarum lobuli ovati, 2 
mm. longi, dentibus perparvis 1-2 instructi. Stamina coroUae 
tubum excedentia: filamenta .ad tubi mediam partem affixa. 
Ovarium stipitatum, 3-4 mm, longum : stipes 2 mm. longus : stylus 
1 mm. longus. Capsula nunc inclusa nunc exserta, ovoidea vel 
ovoideo-lenticularis, ad 6 mm. longa : semina elongata, striata nee 

Vol. II, No. 7.1 Oentianacearum Species Asiattesa. 317 

punctata. — O, squarrosa, Forbes et Hems ley in Joum. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. XX vi, 1890, p. 135, pro parte. 

China mbdia. — In provincia Kwang-tung, sine loco indicato, 
Wenyon : in provincia Kiangsn ad oppidnm Shanghai, Maingay, 
424 : in provincia Kiangsi ad Kewkiang, Shearer : in provincia 
Hupeh, sine loco indicato, Henry, 7377 ; ad Ichang, Henry, 506 ; 
ad Chienshi, Wilson, 561 : in provincia Szechnen, sine loco indi- 
cato, Henry, 8858 ; ad Liu-hna-tsao, Chung-ching, Bourne ; ad 
oppidnm Tachienlu, Pratt, 388 ; in ripis fluminium Yang-tze- 
kiang et Min, Faher, 295. 

Var. japonica. — Folia basalia erectinscnla, exacte lanceolata 
vel ovato-lanceolata, subacuminata. — Qentiana pedtcellata, Yoknsai> 
Somokn Dnsets, iv, 64. 

JxroNiA ET Core A. — In insula Japonica Nippon, boream ver- 
sus, Hoggs; in districtu Idzu, ad Shuzenzi, ex herb. Sc. Coll. 
Imp. Univ., Tokio ; in districtu Kutsuke, ad Asamajama, Bisset ; 
in distiictu Musashi prope oppidum Yokohama, DicJcinR : ad 
Achisihama, Bisset, 855 ; in montibus centralibus, Maries : regionis 
Coreae ad urbem Chemulpo, Carles ; et in parte occidentali regionis, 
Wykeham Perry. 

Inter Chondrophyllas ex affinitate G. ci^assuloidis. Bureau et 

F ranch., et G. myriocladaB, Branch., et 

G. recurvatflB, C. B. Clarke, 

Gentian A Prainii. — Planta diffusa, pluricaulis, pluriflora, ad 
8 cm. alta, omnino glabra. dichotome pauciramosa 
purpurei, internodiis quam foliis multo longioribus. Folia 
basalia subrosulata, sessilia, elliptico-ovata 1-3-nervia, apice 
obtusa vel rotundata, ad 7 mm. longa, ad 4 mm. lata: folia 
caulina similia, distantia, apice obtusiuscula, basi paullulo connata. 
Flores albi, solitarii, ante et post anthesin nutantes. Calyx 
quinque-sepalus ; tubus 4 mm. longus, quinque-angulatus ; dentes 
deltoideo-acuminati, 1 mm. longi. CorollsB tubus 6 mm. longus, 
fauce 2 mm. diametro ; lobi ovati, obtusiusculi, 3 mm. longi, 
nigro-maculati : plicee sat conspicuas ; lobuli plicarum insequi- 
laterales, 1*5 mm longi. Stamina in tubi parte inferiore inserta, 
parte libera 2*5 mm. longa. Ovarium stipitatum. Capsula 
clavato-lenticularis, exserta, 4-5 mm. longa. Seinina elongata, 

Alpes himalaicj: oriental es. — In regionis Sikkim pascuis 
Pangling dictis, Prainii mercenarius, 20, 121 ; ad Gnatong, Kingii 
merctnarius ; sine loco indicato, Kingii mercenarius, Prainii 
mercenarius, 306. 

Ex affinitate O. recurvatsB, C. B. Clarke; prwcipue differt 
habitu. Typi ad Shibpur conservnti sunt. 

318 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [July, 1906. 

Inter Chondrophyllas, ad Gentianam qnadrifariam, 
Blume, sped at, 

Gbntiana saginoides. — Herha annua, nana, ctespitosa, omnino 

flabra, caulibus plurimis subaequalibuB erectis vel ascendentibns, 
-2*5 cm. alta. Folia radicalia rosulata, anguste ovata, carinata, 
mai'gine hyalina indnrata, apice subacnminata, ba«i obtuBa, 
trinervia, nervis lateralibus snb apicem evanescentibus, 6-7 
mm. longa, 2*5 mm. lata: folia caulina lanceolata, carinata, 
margine hyalina indnrata, apice acutissime acuminata, 3-4 mm. 
longa, 1 mm. lata, intemodiis longiora. Flores solitarii, terminales, 
? coerulei. Calyx tubulosus quinquedentatus ; tubus 4 mm. longus, 
vix 1 mm. diametix), sub-carinatus : dentes foliis caulinis similes, 
1*5 mm. longi, '5 mm. lati, sinubus subacutis. Gorollse tubus 4 mm 
longus, tubulosus : plicce sat conspicuae : lobi 2 mm. longi, ovati, 
acuminati ; plicarum lobuli loborum dimidio aequi longi, ince- 
qualiter bifidi. Stamina fauces attingentia; filamenta ad tubi 
dimidiam partem affixa. Gapsula sublenticularis, 3 mm. longa, 
longe stipitata, faucibus exserta. 

Alpes himalaicae occidentales. — In districtu Kamaon ad 
Soonderdhunga, 10000 ped alt., Andersofi. 

Mense maio floi'et et fructificat. Habitu formee alpinsB 
javanicae Gentianae quadrifariae a eel. Koodersio descriptae 
(Naturkundig Tijdschrift van Ned. Indie ix., 1906, p. 258) similis 
est. Typus in Herbario Hoi-ti Botanici Regalis Calcuttensis con- 
servatus est. 

Inter species sectionis Comastomatis maxime G. tenellae, 
Frieg, affinis. 

Gkntiana DuTHiEi. — Herha nana, erecta, simplicicaulis, uni- 
flora vel biflora, omnino glabra, 2-4 cm. alta. Folia radicalia 2 vel 
4, spathulata, 2 mm. longa, vix 1 mm. lata, berbacea : folia cau- 
lina lanceolata, acuta, minutissime aspera, oculo nudo enervia, ad 
4 mm. longa, ad 1-5 mm. lata, intemodiis permulto breviora. 
Flores ? lilacini. Calyx brevissime infundibularis, quadrisepalus, 
minutissime asper : infundibulum 1 mm. longum, ecarinatum : lobi 
lanceolato-ovati, exacte acuti, 3 mm. longi, 1-5 mm. lati, basin 
versus angnstati. Corollse tubus 4 mm. longus, tubuliformis, nee 
plicatus, faucibus gbiber ; lobi 4, ovati, obtusi, 2 mm. longi. 
Stamina paullulo infra fauces inserta ; filamenta brevia, 1-1*5 
mm. longa ; antherae fauces attingentes. Ovarium elongato- 
ovoideum, 3-3*5 mm. longum : stylus perbrevis, vix distingnen- 

Alpes himalaic^ occidentales. — In regione Tebri-Garbwal 
ad viculum Cbinpul, infra monte Bandarpunch 12000 — 13000 ped. 
alt., Duthie, 461. 

Floret mense Augusto. Forsan O. t&nella varietas est. Typi 
in Herbariis ad Shibpur et Saharanpur conservati sunt. 

Vol. II, No. 7.1 GefUianacearinn Species Anaticae. 319 


Inter species sectioms Crossopetali. 

Gbntiana detonsa, Rottb., var. ovATO-DEf.TOiDEA. — Folia cau- 
lina ovato-deltoidea. Q. detonsa, Rottb. ; Forbes et Hemsley 
in Jouni. Linn. Soc. Bot. xxvi, 1890, p. 127, pro parte. 

China media et borealis. — In provincia Hupeh occidentalis, 
Wilson, 2551 ; pixjpe oppidum Hsingshan, Henry, 6522 A ; prope 
oppidum Paokang, Henry, 6522 : in provincia Kansu orientem 
versus, Pofanin. 

Typi in Herbario Horti H^galis Botanici Kewensis conser- 
vati sunt. 

Gentiana detonsa, Rottb., var. ldtea. — ^An varietas, an species 
^istincta ? Foliis varietati Stracheyi, C. B. Clarke, similis ; pedi- 
cello breviori etiamque floribus luteis differt. 

China austealis. — In provincia Yunnan, ad oppidum Yun- 
nanfu, Duclotix, 234. 

Typus in Herbario Hoii;! Botanici Kewensis conseiTatus eat. 

Inter Ophelias, ex affinttate S. purpurascentis, Wall,, et prascipue 
S. pubescentis, Franch, 

Swebtia cincta. — Uerha 80-100 cm. alta, ramosa. Oaulis 
sti'amineus, fistulosus, indistincte quadin-lineolata. Folia lanceo- 
lata, petiolata, acuta, basin versus attenuata: lamina ad 8 cm. 
longa, ad 10>J2 mm. lata, ad anthesin infima delapsa : petiolus 
ad 10 mm. longus. Flores nutantes, pedicellati. Cafycis birsnti 
tubus 2 mm. longus ; lobi anguste ovati, 9 mm. longi. CoroUaa 
tubus perbrevis, 1 mm. longus : petala o\ ata, tenuissima, sepal is 
paullo longiora, 8-9 mm. longa, 5-6 mm. lata, uni-foveolata 
supra foveolam maculis tribus notata : foveola subrotunda, calva, 
ad fauces coroUae posita. Stamina 6-7 mm. longa : filamenta e 
basibus latis cyatham formantibus lanceolato-acuminata. Ovarium 
breviter stipitatum, stipite 1 mm. longo, elongate -ovoideum : 
stylusl'Smm. longus: stigmata brevia. /Sewina plurima. Swertia 
j>urpurascens, var., vida^o-cinda, Franchet in Bull. Soc. Bot. 
France, xlvi, 1899, p. 34. 

China australis. — In provincia Yunnan ad oppidum Yunnan- 
fu, Budoux, 318 ; ad Yuanchang, 7000 ped. alt., Henry, 13216 : 
ad pedes monti Maeulchan, Delavay, 4269. 

Typi in Herbariis Horti Botanici Parisiensis et Horti Botanici 
Regalis Kewensis conservati sunt. 

Liter Ophelias, maxime ad S. Chiratam, Ham., speciat, 

Swertia tonoluensis. — Herha habitu SwertisD Chairateo per- 
similis, ad 25 cm. alta vel forsan altior, omnino glabra. Radix 
brevis, oblique terram penetrans. Caulis singulus, erectus, in 
parte [superiori ramosus, rotundato-quadrangularis, anguste 

320 Jofinial of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906^ 

quadri-angulatns, alia per paria approximatis. FoUa infima in 
anthesin delapsa : folia media ovato-elliptica, vix connata, sessilia, 
ad 5 cm. longa, ad 2 cm. lata, apice obtnsa, intemodiis longiora^ 
5-7-nei*via: folia snperiora deltoideo-ovata, qninque-neryia, in- 
temodiis breviora : folia suprema fere lanceolata, parva. Flares 
tetrameri in paniculam racemiformem ter et itemm ramosam 
dispositi, vix conspicui, pedicellis 6-10 mm. longis filiformibns. 
Sepala oblanceolata, libera, ad 5 mm. longa, nee paten tia. GoroUfe- 
tubus 1-1' 5 mm. longus : petala sepala pauUulo excedentia, 
3-4 mm. longa, ovata, subacuta, bi-foveolata, ad medium lineolata: 
foveolsB approximate, ovatse, mai-ginibns basali excepto membrana 
longe fimbriata cinctee. Staminum filamenta basin versus paullulo 
expansa, inter lobos corollsB ad os tubi annexa: antherse verssr 
tiles. Ovarium ovoideum, 3 mm. longum : stylus brevis : stigmata- 
antheras attingentia. Gapsula matura plerumque nutans, dis- 
tincte ex calyci exserta, aliquomodo rostrata, ad 8 mm. longa, pur- 
pureo-nigra. Semina aurantiaca, subglobosa, testa minutissime 

Alpes himalaic^ orientales. — In regione Sikkimensi vel 
in districtu Darjeeling sine loco indicato, Kurz, King ; in districtu 
Darjeeling ad fines nepalenses in cacumine montis Tonglu ad 
10000 ped. alt., T. Thomson^ C B. Clarke, Burkill ; in declivitate 
montis Tonglu versus orientem ad 9000 ped. alt., T. Thomson. 

Typi in Herbaiiis Hortorum Botanicorum Regalium ad Kew et 
ad Calcuttam conservati sunt. Floret tempoi^e pluvio in mense 
Angus ti vel Septembri. Flore et habitu SwerticB Ckiratm Ham.,, 
similis est : capsulis longioribus et caulibus alatis difFert. 

Inter Ophelias ex affi7ntate S. puniceae, HemsL, 
et S. longipedis Franch. 

SwERTiA YUNNANENSis. — Planta erecta, ramosa, multiflora, ad 
25 cm. alta, glabra. Caulis subquadrangularis, stramineus. Folia 
linearia, ad 25 mm. longa, 1-2 mm. lata, basi connata, subpetiolata, 
apice acuta, ima minima ad anthesin decidua. Flores pallide 
lilacini, sat conspicui, pedicellati pedicellis filiformibns. Sepala 
quinque, filiformia, ad 7 mm. longa, paten tia. Petala 8-9 mm. 
longa, lanceolato-ovata, acuta, bi-foveolata : foveola quaeque 
squama 3-4-dentata tecta. Stamina 3-4 mm. longa. Ovarium 
elongatum, staminibus paullo longius : stigmata in ovario sessilia. 

China australis. — In provincia Yunnan ad oppidum Meng- 
tze in montibus herbosis ad 6000 ped. alt., Henry, 9293 A, Hancock, 7, 

Floret mense Novembri. Typi in Herbario Horti Botanici 
Regalis Kewensis conservati sunt. 

SwERTiA HiCKiNii. — Planta erecta, pauci-ramosa, ad 36 cm. 
alta, glabra. Oaulis quadrangularis, purpurascens. Folia lanceo- 
lata, subpetiolata, ad 20 mm. longa, ad 6 mm. lata, acuta, uniner- 
via ; infima minima, ad anthesin decidua. Flores ad 25, inter- 

Vol. II, No. 7.] GetUtanacearum Species AsiaticSB. 321 

Ophelias conspicua, pedicellati. /Sepa^a quinque, lineari-lanceolata 
ad 6 mm. longa, 1-1*5 mm. lata. Petala lanceolata, acuta, 6-9^ 
mm. longa, bif oveolata : foveolsB f ei*e ad petalomm bases positie, 
ungiiiciiliformes, pilis 1-2*5 mm. longis marginateB pradcipne ad 
marginem snperiorem. Stamina 6 mm. longa. Ovarium ovoi- 
denm, staminibus seqnilongnm : stigmata sessilia. 

China media — In provincia Ghekiang, Eickin. 

Typus in herbario Horti Botanici Begalis Kewensis conser- 
vatus est. 

Inter Ophelias distinctisstma. 

SwERTiA HiSPiDiCALYX. — PUintti annua, hispida prsecipue in 
sepalis. Canles subquadrangulares, 5-15 cm. alta, sat foliosa. 
Folia anguste ovata vel lanceolata, subamplexicaulia, saape mar- 
ginibus revoluta, 10 15 mm. longa, 2-4 mm. lata, rara ad 20 mm. 
longa et 8 mm. lata, uninervia, marginibus in angulas caulis 
decurrentibus, apice acutissima. Flores in apicibus intemodionim 
ad 5 cm. longorum producti, pallide lilacini. Sepala libera, ovata, 
acuta, hispida, 4-7 mm. longa, 2-4 mm. lata. Corollas tubus 
perbrevis : lobi ovati, acuti, biglandulosi, 6-8 mm. longi, 4-5 mm. 
lati, basin versus pili pauci gerentes. Stamina asqualia : filamenta 
ad fauces inserta 5-6 mm. longa : anthersB versatiles, evertee. 
Ovarium angnstum : stylus longus : stigmata antheras paullo 

Thibet. — Sine loco indicate, mercenarius Kingianus, 311, 369,. 
1633 ; urbis Lhasa boream verus in faucibus Phembu-la dictis, 
Walton, 1608 ; et orientem versus in valle fluminis Kyi-chu, Walton, 

Var. major. — Planta ad 18 cm. alta, glabrior. Flores forsan 
albi. Ovarium ovoideum. 

Thibet. — Ad castmm Gyang-tse, Waltoti, 1609. 

Vau. minima. — Planta diffusa, glabra, 4-6 cm. alta. Stylvs 

Thibkt. — Prope fines sikkimenses ad castmm Khamba-jong 
dictum, Younghushand, 293. 

Inter Ophelias, ex affinitate S. angustifoli©, Ham,y 
et S. corymbos«e, Wight. 

SwERTiA EXACOiDES.— fllerfta robusta, erecta, pluriflora, ut 
videtur ad 15 cm. alta, glabra. Caulis 3-4 mm. diametro, 
quadrangularis, viridis, angulis minopere alatis. Folia ovata, ad 
5 cm. longa, ad 25 mm. lata, basi libera sessilia, apice obtusa vel 
acutiuscula. Flores in paniculam latam laxam dispositi, teste 
mercenario rubri (ut crederem lilacini), sat conspicui, pedicellati, 
pedicellis fere filiformibus. Sepala quattuor, naviculari-ianceolata,^ 

322 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bmiyal. [July, 1906, 

ad 6 mm. longa, patentia. Petala 7-9 mm. longa, ovata, sub- 
acuta, unif oveolata, supiu minutissime pubemla ; f oveola squama 
operculata, foveolae margine superior! densissime brevissime 
tentaculato etiam squamae margine tentaculato. Stamina 3-4 m^m. 
longa. Ovarium staminibus paullo longius : stigmata in ovario 
sessilia. O'tpsula matura 10 mm. longa : semina permulta, fei^ 
sphaerica, minutissime punctata. 

Burma orientalis. — In montibus shanicis ad castrum Fort 
Stedman, Abdul Huk, Kingii m^rcenaiins, 

Typus in Herbario Hoiiii Botanici Regalis Calcuttensis 
conservatus est. Floret mense Novembri. Maxime ad 8. 
anguHifoltam^ varietatem pulcheUatn accedit. 

SwERTTA PAUPERA. — Herha gracilis, erecta, nee ramosa, pauci- 
flora, 10-15 cm. alta, glabra. Caulis tenuis, subquadrangularis, 
sti'amineus. Folia ima anguste elliptica : alia linearia ad 2 cm. 
longa, intemodiis dimidio breviora, 1 mm. lata, basi libei^ sessilia, 
apice acuta. Floies 4-12, laxe cymosim dispositi, albidi, sat 
conspicui, pedicellati, pedicellis filiformibus. Sepala quattuor, 
naviculari-lanceolata, ad 4 mm. longa, patentia. Petala 7-8 mm. 
longa, ovata, subacuta, unif oveolata : f oveola squama operculata, 
m«rgine superiori et squamae mai'gine inconspicue minutie tenta- 
culatis. Stamina 3-4 mm. longa. Ovarium elongatum, staminibus 
eaquilongum vel paullo longius : stigmata in ovario sessilia. 

Burma. — In districtu Mandalay versus Maymyo in terris 
pinguibus montium shanicorum, Badal Khan, Kingii m^rcenarius, 

Typus in Herbario Horti Botanici Regalis Calcuttensis 
conservatus est. Floret mense Novembri. Ad Swertiam angusti- 
foliam, var., pu^cheUam accedit : distinguitur jam prima scrutati- 
one habitu et foliis. 

Inter Pleuix)gynes distincta. 

SwERTiA SIKKIMENSI8. — Planta subc8Bspitosa, ad 12 cm. alta, 
omnino glabra, multiflora. Bamd, straminei, apicem versus sub- 
quadrangulares, quisquis sex pares foliorum gerens. FoHa anguste 
lanceolata vel fere linearia, sicco marginibus recur vis, acuta, 
sessilia, intemodiis eequalia vel paullo longiora vel paullo breviora, 
ad 2 cm. longa, ad 5 mm. lata, at enim pleraque 2-3 mm. lata, 
uninervia. Flores pallide coerulei inter Pleurogynes mediam 
tenentes, pedicellati : pedicelli filifonnes. Calycis tubus 1 mm. 
longus: lobi lineares, 7 mm. longi, acutissimi, uninervia. Gorolla 
10-12 mm. longa in alabastro et post anthesin anguste voluta : 
lobi ovati, acuti, bicolores. Stamina 4-5 mm. longa, ad corollae 
tubi basin inserta. Ovarium staminibus aequilongum : stigmata 
in tertia parte suprema decurrentia. Gapsula matura petalis, 
eequilonga. — Pleurogyne sikkims^ms, Burkill in Herb. Kew. 

Alpks himalaic^. — Begionis Sikkim in monte Kinchinjhow, 

Vol. 11, No. 7.1 Oentianacearum Species Asiaticas, 32*^ 


ad 160<»0 ped. alt., Hooker, etiamqae ad 17000 ped. alt., Gammte ; 
ad Tangu in valle flnminis Lachen, Hooker^ Prain ; ad Yeumtong 
in valle flu minis Lachung, Hooker; ad Samdong viculum (nescio 
qnem ) in Sikkira snperiore, Hooker ; ad viculum Giagong, Prain ; 
ad Nyi pi'ope Toku, Kingu mercenaritis ; ad Jongri 13500-15000 
ped. alt., T. Afidernon : prope fines districtus Darjeeling ad 
Phallut, Kurz, Regionis Bhutan ad viculum Kungmet, Dunghoo, 
295. In i^gione Kunawar, Vicni-y. 

Inter Pleurogynes, ex affiniiate S. brachy anther©, Knoblaiich, et 
S Clarkei, Knoblauch. 

SwBRTiA CHUMBiCA. — PI ant a fid 10 cm. alta, omnino glabra,, 
diffuse ramosa, ramis plensque solitariis nee per paria productis 
Gaules rigidi, tenuissimi. Folia obovata, petiolata vel subsessilia, 
5-8 mm. longa, 3 mm. lata, uninervia. Flores solitarii, ad apices 
intemodiorum 2-5 cm. longorum producti. Galyx quinque-sectus, 
3-3*5 mm. longus : sepala obovato-spathulata. GoroLlse ccerulece 
tubus perbrevis, 1 mm. longus ; lobi lanceolato-ovati, 5 mm. longi, 
3 mm. lati, modo S. carinthiacae bicolores. Stamina ad basin 
petalorum affix a : filamenta 2 mm. longa : antheras versatiles. 
Ovarinvi sessile, elongato-ovoideum, filamentis aequilongum : stig- 
mata ad ovarii mediam partem decurrentia. Pleurogyne chumbictiy 
Burkill in Herb. Kew. 

Alfes HiMALAiCJi ORIB.NTALES. — Ultra fines sikkimensi-thibe- 
tanos sine loco indicato, mercevaritis KinyianuSy 308 partim ; in 
valle urbis Chumbi ad Tah-loom, mercenarius Kinyianv^ 581. 
In i-egione Sikkim sine loco indicato, Gave, 2028, 4252 ; ad Hewla- 
hangi, Prainii mercf^nartus, 200. In regione Nepal veraus fines 
sikkimenses ad paludem Moza pokhri prope fauces Kangla, 
Kingii mercenarivs. 

Floret mense Augusti. Tjpi in herbariis Hortorum Botani- 
comm Regalium ad Kew et Calcuttam conservati sunt. 

Inter Pleuix)gyne8, ex affinitate S. carinthiacie, Qriseb, 

SwERTiA LiiOYDioiDES. — Planta ad 14 cm. alta, erecta, omnino- 
glabra. Ganlis e radice singulus, parum ramosus, castaneus, niteus. 
Folia oblanceolata, sessilia 8-10 mm. longa, 3 mm. lata, uninervia. 
Flores solitarii, ad apices intemodiorum longorum producti. Galyx 
qninque-sepalus : sepala lineari-lanceolata, 5 mm. longa, 1 mm. 
lata. Gorollte tubus perbi-evis, 1 mm. longus : lobi 8-10 mm. 
longi, modo S. carinthiacae bicolores. Stamina dimidio peta- 
lorum sequilonga. Ovarium staminibus multo longius, 8 mm. 
longum, sessile : stigmata fei*e ad basin decurrentia. Gapsu'a 
matura petalis eequilonga. Pleurogyne Uoydioides^ Burkill in Herb. 

Thibrt. — Prope fines sikkimenses, ad castinim Khamba-jong, 
Prain, 1637. 

.324 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [July, 1906. 

SwBETiA CABINTHIACA , Griseb., var. APGHANICA. — Planta ad 
10 cm. alia, multicaulis. Floras longissime pedicellati. Swertia 
^p., Griffith, Posthumous papers, ii., 1848. p. 306, no 1050. 

Afghanistania. — Ad pedes montis Hajiguk, 11400 ped. alt., 
Griffith, 1050. 

Tres varietates habet Pie rogytie carinthiaca : una typica 
europsBa sic crescit ut folia omnia subradicalia sint, caxdibus 
ei'ectis : secunda, var., stelleriana, Griseb., planta diffusa est, et 
folia ejusdem partim subradicalia partim caulina sunt : tertia var. 
ajyhanica, a varietati stelleriana distinguiter pedicellis longis- 
simis. Varietas americana pusilla, A. Gi'ay, nil nisi stelferianae 
fonna est. 

Swertia deltoidea. — Planta ad 25 cm. alta, erecta, omnino 
glabra. GauUs subquadrangularis, purpureo-castaneus, foliorum 
pares 6-10 gerens et enim ramos fere tot quot folia. Folia 
deltoideo-ovata, sessilia, basalia ad anthesin delapsa, media ad 
15 mm. longa ad 10 mm. lata, acuta, mucronulata, nervis 
.3 inconspicuis, intemodiis 3-4-plo breviora. Flores conspicui, 
numerosi, ad apices pedicellorum 1-1'5 cm. longorum positi. Sepalu 
quinque, 8-10 mm. longa, lanceolata, acuta, fere apicem versus 
carinata. Corolla calyci duplo longior : tubus perbrevis : lobi 
ovati, acuti, fere acuminati, modo S. carinthiacee bicolores. Fila- 
menta 6-7 mm. longa. Ovarium antheras eequans : stigmata ad 
ovarii mediam partem descendentia. Pleurogyne deltoidea, Bur- 
kill in Herb. Kew. 

China occidextalis et Mongolia. — In provincia Chinense 
Szechuen, inter oppida Tachienlu et Chentu, Hosie; et adTachi- 
enlu, Farges, Mnssot. In Mongolia prope Urga, CamphelL 

Inter Pleurogynes distincta. 

Swertia gamosepala. — Planta diffuse ramosa, ad 14 cm. alta, 
omnino glabra. a wZw foliorum pares 4-6 gerens et ramos tot 
quot folia, purpureo-castaneus : rami erecto-patentes. Folia sae- 
pissime obovata, 12 mm. longa, 5 mm lata, sessilia, apice 
obtusiuscula vel infima rotundata, uni-nervia, intemodiis 3-8-plo 
breviora. Flores longe pedicellati, sat conspicui. Calycis tubus 
2-3 mm. longus : lobi lanceolato-ovati vel ovati, obtusi vel apice 
rotundati, 3-4 mm. longi, uni-nervii nervis conspicuis. Petala 
calyci duplo longiora, ovata, acuta, bicolores : tubus perbrevis. 
Stamina 7-8 mm. longa. Ova^'ium 4-7 mm. longum : stylus 1-3 
mm. longus : stigmata apicalia, nee decurrentia. Pleurogyne 
gamosepala, Burkill in Herb. Kew. 

China occidentalis. — In provincia Szechuen, inter oppida 
Tachien-lu et Chentu, Hosie, etiamque ad Tongolo, Soulie, 682, et 
ad montes Tcha-to-Shan prope Tongolo, Soulid, 345. 

Typi in Herbariis Horti Botanici Regalis Kewensis et Horti 
Botanici Parisiensis conservati sunt. Par videtur speciem banc 

Tol. II, No. 7.] Qentianacearum Species Asiaticse. 825 


Swertiam, sectionem Pleurogjnen, nominare quod stigmatibas 
latei'alibus exceptis charactereB generis habet. 

Inter Swertias distincttssima, et sectionem novam 
twmine S tapfian am j?roj>o^ut. 

SwBRTiA. Stapfii, — Planta nana perennis, ad 6 cm. alta, 
■omnino glabra. Bhizoma tenne, horizontale, scariosum, radicans, 
in canlem floriferam (flore singulo) ascendentem transeuns, et 
rhizoma novum ex axilio folii cujusquam inter inferiora gerens. 
CauUs floriferus obcure quadrangularis, internodiis plerisque 
foliis BubeBquilongis. Folia 8-10, late spathulata, per paria vix 
vel brevissime vaginato-connata, ad 12 mm. longa et 6 mm. lata. 
Flores oonspicui, ante anthesin nutantes, aperti 3 cm. diametro. 
Sepala 5, crassiuscula, insequalia, lanceolata vel lanceolato-ovata, 
apice rotundata, basi parum inter se conjuncta, 7-9 mm. longa, 
2-3 mm. lata. CoroUas tubus 1-2 ram. longus. Petal a obovata, 
apice rotundata, 18-20 mm. longa, 8-9 mm. lata, 7-nervia, 
bifoveolata, foveolis sub-basalibus membrana parva pectinato- 
iimbriata pileatis. Stamina ad tubi marginem inter lobos 
inserta: filaraenta filiformia, 10-12 mm. longa : antherae versatiles, 
3 mm. longaB. Ovarium elongatum, 12-15 mm. Ion gum : stigmata 
apicalia vix decurrentia. Swertia n. sp., Stapf. MS. in Herb. Calc. 

Thibet australis. — Sine loco indicate, mercenanus Kingianus 
532, 334. 

Inter Eu-swertias distt?icta. 

Swertia Younghusbandii. — Planta erecta, unicaulis, 3-22 cm. 
iilta, glabra. CauUs stramineus. Folia plurima radicalia, 2-4 
<;aulina lanceolata, inferiora subsessilia vel petiolata, caulina 
^essilia, 1.5-3 cm. longa, 3-6 mm. lata, acuta. Flores in apicibus 
pedunculorum longorum producti. Sepala lineari-lanceolata, acut- 
issima, 10-14 mm. longa, 1.5-3 mm. lata. Corollse tubus lutete 
perbrevis, 1 5 mm. longis : lobi 15-18 mm. longi, anguste ovati, 
ad marginem exteriorem viridi-lutei, infra bi-glanduliferi, longe 
fusco-barbati. Stamina ad corollsB tubi basin inserta : filamenta 
8-10 mm longa : anthen© versatiles, lividae. Ovuritim elongato- 
•ovoideum, 5 mm. longum : stylus nullus. 

Thibrt. — Ultra fines sikkimensi-thibetanos sine loco indicate) 
mercenariuf KiiigianvA^ 1632 ; ad castrum Khambajong, ad 15000 
ped. alt., Prain 1622, Younghushayid, 297. 

Inter Eu-swertias, ex affinitate Swertiee marginatee, Schreuk. 

Swertia Souli^i. — Planta erecta, ad 12 cm. alta, glabra. 
Collis ob foliorum delapsorum basibus brunneus. CauUs singulus, 
fitramineus. Folia quattuor basalia obovata, petiolata, reenrva, 
apice obtnsa, basin versus longe angustata, 3-5-nervia, ad 5 cm. 

326 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Hengal. [July, 1906. 

longa, ad 1 cm. lata : petiolus ad 1 cm. longas : folia caulina duo^ 
paria, elongato-ovata, acuta, sessilia, ad 2 cm. longa, ad 
8 mm. lata. Flares, 5-7, pedicellata : bractece imsB foliis caulinm 
Bimiles at paullo minores. Sepala lanceolata, libera, acutissima, 
uni-nervia, ad I cm. longa Petala lanceolata, 12-14 mm. longa, 
acutiuscula, bi-foveolata : foveolsB pilis 3 mm. longis cinctse. 
Stamina 6 mm. longa. Ovarium 4 mm. longum : stylus 1 mm. 
longus. -Si. margviata, Franchet in Bull. Soc. Bot. France xlvi, 
1899, p. 312. 

China occidbntalis. — In provincia Szechuen ad oppidum 
Tachien-lu, Soulie, 614. 

Typus in herbario Horti Botanici Parisiensis conservatus est. 

SwERTiA suBSPEOiosA. — Planta J 2 cm. alta, glabra, eiecta, 
Caiilis singulus, apicem versus subquadrangularis. Folia sub- 
i*adicalia quattuor, elliptico-ovata, longa per paria vaginato- 
connata, petiolata, basin versus angustata, apice obtuse rotundata, 
7-nervia: lamina 4-5 cm. longa, 15-18 mm. lata: petiolus 2-4 
cm. longus. Folia caulina desunt. Flores ad 10, aggregati, 
bracte» imae magnee, deltoideo-ovat®, l-nerviae, 15 mm. longse, 
6 mm. lat«e, acutiusculsB : pedicelli ad 1 cm. longi. Sepala anguste 
lanceolata, acuta. Petala obovata, 15 mm. longa, 6 mm. lata, 
obtusa, bi-foveolata ; foveolffi marginatee pilis in margine superior! 
brevibus in marginibus aliis longiusculis : series pilonim etiam 
bi-evium supra filaraentorum insertiones videtur. Stamina ad 
petalorum bases inserta, 8 mm. longa. Ovarium ovoideum, 7 mm. 
longum : stigmata subsessilia. 

China occidenlalis.— In provincia Szechuen inter oppida 
Batang et Tachien-lu, Hosie. 

Typi in herbio Horti Botanici Regalis Kewensis conservati 

SwERTiA SPKCiosA, Wall., var. Lacei. — Planta erecta, multi- 
flora, strictior, habitu S. punctatee, Baumg., similis. Folia caulina 
inferioi-a intemodiis longiora, lanceolato-ovata, acuta. Flores iis 
S. specios£e typicse paullo minores. 

Alpks HiMALAicJi) occiDENTALES. — In regioue Chamba ad fauces^ 
Sach dictos, 11000 ped. alt., Law, 1221 ; in i^gione Kashmir ad 
Gulmarg, 8000-9000 ped. alt , Buthie, et ad fauces Lowari dictos, 
9000 ped. alt , Oatacre, 17336 ; in districtus Hazara valle Khaghan 
ad 9000 ped. alt., Liayat, 19948. 


Nuper mihi i^patriato ad valetudinem recuperandam circa- 
Gentianaceas praBcipue Gentianinas asiaticas investigare occasion 
data fuit : atque apud Londinium, ubi mihi D. Prain benevolenter 
specimines multos thibeticos praebuit, iterum in herbario Kewense 
et in Museo Britannico laborare licuit. Ex Londinio ad Lutetias- 

Vol. II, No. 7.] GentiafMcenrum Species Asiafiom, 327 


Parisioram transivi, et permnltas plantas Ghinenses aliasque 
inspexi. Postea in Indiam reditus collectiones amplas in hortis 
regalibns ad Shibpnr, prope Galcnttam, et ad Saharanpur exami- 
navi, et simolac collectionem Garoli A. Barber benigne commissam 
ex India meridionali. 

Nnnc nt mox dissertationem majorem de distributione geogra- 
phica per terras asiaticas omninm Oentianinamm faoilius 
proponere possim, disoriptiones elaboratas noyarom specierum 
prsDcedentes edidi. 

Bestat nt illis amicis (D. Prain, W. B. Hemslej, J. F. Dnthie, 
S. le M. Moore, E. G. Baker, A. Finet, A. T. Gage, C. A. Barber, 
H, Martin Leake) qui mihi in hoc opere auxilio faemnt, gratias 
justas et maximas agam. 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Stoertiam novam japonicamy 9tc» 329 


42. Sweritam novam japonicam ex affinitate Swertin tetrapteraa, 
Maxtm., desoripserunt Spbncer Lb M. Moobs et I. H. Bubkill. 

SwEBTiA BisSETi. Herha yerisimiter annua, ultra-spitbamea, 
glabra. Caulia erectns, rariramosns, paucifoliatns, obtase qnadri- 
angalatuB : ramnli ascend entes. Folia sessilia, oblongo-lanceolata, 
obtnsa, basi leyissime oordata, at videtur tri-nervia, crassinscnla, 
omnia speciminis nnici solummodo obvii opposita, modioe 1-2 cm. 
longra et 5-^ mm. lata, in sicco olivacea sabtns paUidiora. Flares 
(P lutei) tetrameri, in coiymbis brevibns snblaxis nlnrifloris 
ramnlos coronantibas digesti, humectati circa 8 mm. diametro : 
pedicelli gracillimi, quam flores saspissime longiores, 5-10 mm. 
iongi. G^yois lobi lanceolati, acnti, 4 mm. longi. OoroUm tubus 
1 mm. longus : lobi oblanceolato-oblongi, obtusissimi, 6 mm. longi., 
medium paollnlo infra uni-foveolati ; foveola glandulosa ovata, supra 
distincte marginata, infra evanescens, circa '75 mm. longa: 
Filamenta omnino filiformia, apicem versus leyissime attenuata, 
8 mm. longa : anthereo ovato-oolongSB, 1 '2 mm. longss, connectivo 
brevissime producto : loculi inter se paullulum inesquales. Ovarium 
oblanceolato-obloDgum, 4 mm. longum: stylus nullus: stigmatis 
lobi lineares, '5 mm. longi. Gapsula ignota. 

Japonia, in insula Yezo (V. E. Einch ex J. Bisset). Tjpus in 
Herbario Musei Britannici oonservatus est. 

Vol. tl, No. 7.] Anthropological Supplement, 33l 

43. Anthropological Supplement. 

1. An old Reference to the Bhotias. 

Father Bodolfi Aquaviva, in a letter to the General of his 
Order, dated April 1582, states that he and his colleagues had dis- 
covered a new nation of Qentiles called Bottan, situated beyond 
Lahore and towards the river Indus. They were a nation very 
well inclined and given to good works. Moreover they were white 
men and there were no Mahommedans among them. It was to 
be hoped therefore that if the Fathers of an apostolic fervour were 
sent among them, there would be a great harvest of Gentiles. The 
Italian of this letter is to be found in Bartoli, p. 48, ed. Piacenza, 
1819, and there is a translatioa by General Maclagan in his paper 
oQ Jesuit Missions, in our Journal for 1896, p. 55. General MTac- 
lagan apparently supposes that Bottan is the same as Patban, and 
refers in a note to a description of a Gabul tribe by Father Mon- 
serrat in the Orienta Conquista. Apparently the passage he 
refers to is that which appears in the Bombay reprint of 1886 as 
Conquista I, Division II , of the second volume No. 63 and p. 104. 
He idso remarks that in the books of the period there seems to be 
some confusion between Pathans and Bhutanis. But Bottan can- 
not be Pathan, for the people were Hindus and not Mahommedans. 
I submit, therefore, that the Bottanese of Aquaviva must be the 
Bhotias of Almora and British Garhwal described in a recent 
Memoir of our Society by Mr. Sherring. It is true that the 
locality as described by Aquaviva does not agree, but he may have 
easily been mistaken on this point. Possibly too by " beyond 
Lahore " he meant further from Italy, i.e., to the north-east of 
Lahoi*e, and by the Indus he may have meant one of its tribu- 
taries. If his Bottan is the same as Bhotia, his reference is inter- 
esting as perhaps the earliest European reference to the tribe. 
He may, however, simply have meant the Tibetans. 

H. Bbvbbidok. 

2. Note on a Quatrain of * JJmar4-'Khayyam* 

The following quatrain is chanted by dervishes in Persia at 
the gates of great people as a wnming against pride. A musician 
informs me that in accordance with the usual Oriental practice, 
the singer modifies the air reproduced below, by means of an 
endless variety of " grace-notes, in a manner which it would be 
impossible to indicate on the written score without overloading 
the simple ** motives ** beyond recognition. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Jnly, 1906. 



e l f.f f i e f \ i nitirrp ^ 

cr l rf ll 'Ln l T^tjj'g l rgto^ 

^j^if^ iS »^l^ J^ ^A .-, 33^ f;^^<i **-^ (^^ w*»3 

I saw a raven seated on the waUs of X^s, 

Before it lay the skull of Kaika^ns ; 

To the sknll it kept saying, " AfsHs ! AftsUs ! 

Where is Bnstam, where Eaiqnbad, where Eaika^fts P '* 

In Whinfield's *Umar-i-Khayyam, this quatrain (No. 277) 
reads : — 

" I saw a bird perched on the walls of X^s, 
Before him lay the skull of Kai Kawus, 
And thus he made his moan, 'Alas, poor king ! 
Thy drums are hushed, thy 'laiums have rung truce/ " 

D. C. Phillott. 

3. A Persian Nonsense Bhyme. 

Persians delight in mimicry, and the following clever non- 
sense, impossible to translate satisfactorily, was composed by an 
IkbUnd, a friend of the present writer, in ridicule of the sermons 
of certain learned divines. A Persian preacher, who has any claims 
to scholarship, first delivers a sentence in Arabic, and then translates 
it into Persian, mouthing the words and speaking with an exagger- 
ated accent : more attention is paid to rhyme and alliteration than 
to sense :— 

^ I have failed to discover £be meaniDg or allasion o£ Qu2f-i/i r&^* 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Anthropological Supplement 333 


. ^1^ Oa*.I ^J^ A4A lU. jA • ^bl CA^f vy'^P- ^ »fi*-»^^d J ^»; vS^I 

O^pu.^ ^J Uf 8 1 Jl^ C**-l^3 ^b ;«> • ^'-^.i Ca^I 4£;LJ| I vtt»j|^ ^J> 

• Imji «X*li^ A) O^t tOsai. ijU. AJI^ ^jf J UJl^ A> CA^t 

D. C, Phillott. 

4. ^ j^Tofa on t&e Mercantile Sign Language of India, 

In the open-air markets of India, where idle spectators are by 
ancient custom entitled to increase the noise and confusion of bar- 
gaining, secrecy in dealing would be impossible were it not for some 
simple code of manual signs known to all Indian brokers and mer- 
chants. The signs are simple and distinctive, and mistakes are hard- 
ly possible. Suppose, for instance, it is a horse that is to be bar- 
gained for at a fair : the unit in this case would be a hundred 
rupees. The buyer and seller extend their right hands, over 
which one of them casts a concealing handkerchief or the end of 
his coat or pagri. The seller will, of course, at first indicate an 
exhorbitant figure ; the buyer, one much lower than he intends to 
give. If the difference between the two sums is very great, it is 
usually an indication that the negotiations will terminate abruptly. 
Now, suppose that the buyer wishes to offer Rs. 266 ; he grasps 
the forefinger and the second finger of the seller's hand to express 
two units or two sums of a hundred rupees. He next doubles up 
the third finger to express half the unit, or rupees fifty : total 
Rs. 250. The value of the fingers now drops from Rs. 100 to 
Rs. 10 : he, therefore, to add ten to the fijrure expressed, grasps 
the forefinger and makes the price Rs. 260. The second finger 
doubled up adds half, or Rs. 5, and makes the sum Rs. 265. 
The value of the fingers now drops from ten to one : he, therefore, 
grasps a forefinger and makes the price Rs. 261. 

The bystanders, though in complete ignorance of the sums 
asked and refused, take an active part in the proceedings and 
champion the cause of the buyer — at least if the buyer be a Sahib, 
" Qhar k& dMuihman^ enemy of your own house,'' they say to the 
seller, " why don't you sell P " 

Mules are, in the Panjab, generally owned by Khatris ; so when 
it is a mule that is being bargained for, the proceedings are pro- 
longed and the excitement sometimes becomes excessive. The 
seller is thumped violently on the back, and pushed and shaken 
till he breaks away in a huff. He is then foroioly brought back, 
sulky and frowning, and made to extend his hand and continue 
the negotiations. When the bargain is concluded he breaks into 
smiles. Apparently everybody nas been acting a part and tho- 
roughly enjoying it. 

^Hrat, " face "^m.o.). « DuUgh T. " ■tookingfi." 

834 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Juljr, 1906. 

The code described above is known to horfie-dealers through- 
out the Pan jab, and probably throughout India. 

Amongst iewellera, cloth merchants, and perhaps other trades, 
there are variations in the code. Amongst them also, a single 
finger signifies a unit of one, ten, a hundred, or a thousand rupees. 
If the unit be one rupee, the words " Tih rupiya hai " are said as 
the finger or fingers are grasped : if the unit be ten, " dahSyt " ' ; 
if a hundred, " sau *' : if a thousand, " hazSiry Half a unit is 
expressed by extending a forefinger along the palm of the other 
person's hand: thus to indicate Rs. 15 the dealer would first 
express Rs. 10 by grasping one forefinger and exclaiming 
" dahOft,^' and then would either extend his forefinger along the 
other's palm to indicate half or Rs. 5, or else grasp all five 
fingers of the other s hand to express the same number. The 
lowest fraction is four annas, which is called mdsha. To express 
Rs. 1-8 the dealer would grasp a forefinger saying, '*Yth rupiya 
hai" and then grasping the forefinger and second finger say, 
'^Tih masha." Fractions of four annas each are also expressed by 
pi*essing between the forefinger and thumb the joints of the 
other bargainer's forefinger. Thus the first joint, when so 
pi*essed, indicates foui* aunas, the second joint eight annas, and 
the base of the finger twelve annas. 

How far has this or a similar code spread P Is it known in 

Central Asia, or indeed anywhere beyond Indian limits P It may 

be known in some of the parts of the Pei-sian Gulf, but it is not 
known in the interior, neither to Arabs nor to Persians. Even the 
Arab horse-dealers who visit Bombay do not employ it. 

D. C. Phillott. 

5. The Meaning and Origin of the Phrase " Nuri Muhammad *' 
among the Malays of the Patani States. 

In my account of the religion of the people of the Patani 
States (Lower Siam) who call themselves indifferently " Malays " 
(Orang Malay u) or Muhammadans (Orang Islam ), I made no at- 
tempt to explain a phrase that 1 had heard among them, but mere- 
ly gave its common use and ostensible meaning in Malay, this 
meaning being the one attached to it by the peasants of the 
district. The phrase was Nuri Muhammad, which appears to 
signify " Muhammad's parrot " or " parrots," the word nuri 
or nJri being a usual one and having given rise to the 
English '* lory," though by no means confined to the section of the 
parrots so called by Europeans. (See Fasciculi Malay enses. Anthro- 
pology, II, p. 37.) As there is, properly speaking, no plural in Malay, 
and as the possessive follows any other case without inflection 
or particle, Nuri Muhammad appears at first sight to be straight- 
forward Malay ; but the conception which the phrase expreMea 

i Yalgarly corrapted into ^/ia,t (2/^). 

Vol. II, No. 7.] Anthropological Supplement. 335 

in Patani is so alien to primitive Malay thou(2rht — and the Patani 
folk are among the most primitive of the Malays — that a foreign 
ongin woald not be surprising To the Patani peasant his Nuri 
Muhammad is very mach what his " conscience " is to an unedu- 
cated Christian, except perhaps that it is regarded from a slightly 
more concrete point of view. It is a being which was described 
to me as sitting in the heart of every Mussalman (one individual, 
that is to say, in the heart of each believer) and preventing him 
fiom becoming wicked, apparently by i^epeating the precepts of 
the Prophet as a parrot might do. It was further identified with 
the " White Jinns " or " Muhammadan Jinns " {Jinn Puteh or 
Jinn Islam), which in British Malaya are generally regarded as 
independent spirits. But as most of man's dealings with 
his powerful inferiors the spirits are, according to the Malays, 
of a somewhat doubtful morality, implying theft, injury to enemies 
or at any rate to the souls of animals, unlawful excitation to 
love, and the like ; and as the White Jinns are incapable of sin, it 
follows that these particular spirits are of little account, seldom men- 
tioned and probably seldom remembered except in remorse. The 
White Jinns are th^only moral beings in the lesser mythology of 
the Patani, Malays. Allah and the Angels (see Skeat, Malay Mugic, 
p. 98) are away in the heavens and trouble themselves little about 
mundane affairs, while man comes in contact at every turn 
with the minor ghosts, demons, imps and fairies which people 
the air, the earth and the waters and animate the whole of nature 
^-dead (according to our ideas) or living. 

I have long suspected, therefore, that " Muhammad's Parrots " 
might be of the kin of Allah and the Angels, and I would now Bug- 
gest th&t Nuri Muhamviad J like so many phrases in Malay, is Persian 
or Arabic mispronounced and misunderstood ; in short, that it 
is a corruption of the well-known theological expression Nur-i- 
Muhammad, Hughes in his Dictionary of Islam explains this 
phrase (literally *'the light of Muhammad") as meaning the spirit 
of Muhammad, which exisf ed before the creation of the world. Else- 
whei e (Notes on MuJuimmadanism) the same author compares it with 
the " divine Word which was made flesh." Col. D. C. Phillott tells 
me that though this is the correct theological interpretation of the 
expression, it is frequently misunderstood by ignorant Mussalmans. 
some of whom explain it as the physical light which radiated from 
the countenance of the Prophet. NuVy meaning light in either a 
literal or a metaphorical sense, occurs in Malay writings (Hee 
Wilkinson's Malay-English Dictionary, s.v,), but I do not think that 
it enters the vocabulary of the Patani peasant, whom the Persian 
% would certainly puzzle. 

N. Annandale. 

Vol. 11, No. 8.] 


Genttana Hugelit, Qriseb,, redescrihed 


44. Genttana Hugelii, Griseb., redescrihed. — 5y Otto Staff, Ph.D. 
Communicated fci/ I. H. Bukkill. 

Baron Karl von Hiigel travelled in the North -Western 
Himalaya in 1835, jonmejing from Simla via Bilaspur, Jnala- 
Mukhi, and Jama to Srinagar, thence returning to the plains via 
Mozufferabad and Hussein Abdal : he collected plants among other 
objects, and the collection which he made lies in the Hof- Museum 
at Vienna. Grisehach described and dedicated to him a species of 
Gentian which he had obtained in what he calls ** High Tibet/' 
probably meaning thereby the range to the south of the valley of 
Kashmir which he crossed l)y the Pir Panjal pass, 11,400 feet 
above the sea-level. But Grisehach did not describe the plant 
quite accurately ; and subsequent writers have been puzzled 
by what is stated, especially by the statement that the seeda 
are winged. The following is a re-description of the plant from 
the half-dozen preserved specimens, which were kindly lent to ma 
at Kew for the purpose. The drawings have been made by 
Miss Smith of the Kew staft. 

538 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Augast, 1906. 

Gentiana Hiigelii, Griseb. 

Annua 9-10 cm. alta, glaberrima. Folia infima (paria 2-4) 
rosalata, superiora internodiis 1*5-2 cm. longis separata, sessilia, 
elliptica vel elliptico-oblonga, obtusa, plerumque minute apiculata. 
majora nd 2"5 cm. longa, ad 1*5 cm. lata, crassiuscula, margine 
carfcilagineo. Flores capitato-fasciculati, rarins in ramis accessoriis 
vel caulibus depanperatis solitarii ; bractese exteriores capituli sub- 
rotund ae, apiculatee, foliossB, ceeteree angustiores tenuiores, calycibus 
semper breviores Calyx subovoideo-oblongus ; tubus 1 cm. longus, 
tenuiter membranaceus ; lobi ovati vel elliptico-ovati, acuti vel 
obtusi, ad 4 mm. longi, superne herbacei, cartilagineo-marginati, 
sinubus interjectis angustis. Corolla circiter 17 mm. longa ; tubus 
oblongus, basin versus atfcenuatus, 14 mm. longus, intus infra 
lobos fimbriatus fimbriis 2-5-3 mm. longis ; lobi ovati obtusius^uli 
vel subacuti, 3-5 mm. longi, plicis interjectis in lobos ovutos 
laciniato dentatos 2*5 mm. longos prodnctis. Arttheras lineares, 2*5 
lin, longBB; filamenta 4-5 mm. Tonga. Ot;a7ittm obovoideum, vertice 
2-crisfcatum, crista denticulata ; stylus nuUus ; stigmata linearia, 
superne dilatata, 2-5 mm longa, revoluta. Oapmla obovoidea, 
clavata, 8 mm. longa, superne 4 mm. l»ita, 2-cristata cristis mem- 
branaceis denticulatis ad 1*5 mm. latis. Semina oblonga, 0*8 mm. 
longa, exalata, testa leevi. 

'' Hoch Thibet " (Herb. Mus. Palat. Vindob). 

Vol. II, No. 8.1 BMiomancy, etc., am<yngHt the Pernuns. 339 

45. Bibliomancy, IHvinaticyiiy Superstitions, amongst the Persians, — 
By L[BUT. Colonel D. C. Phillott, Secretary to the Board of 
Examiners, Calcutta, 

(a) IstikhHra tj\.^X9»\ * signifies asking divine direction as to 
any course to be pursued about which the seeker is doubtful, by 
-opening the Qur'an and finding the answer on the right-hand page. 

The seeker first repeats the Suratu-l-Fdtihah or the "Opening 
chapter of the Qur'an," the SUratu-l'Ikhlos on the declaration of 
God*8 unity (chapter 112), and the 58th verse ^ of the Suratu-l- 
An^Sm or " The Chapter of the Cattle '* (6th chapter), three times, 
and then opens the Qur'an. Sometimes seven $alawat are repeated 
in addition. Or else the seeker first ^i' §alawnt vn-firistad, i.e., he 

«ays three times 0-»*uo Jf ^J^J «>*«uo ^^o lU ^^f " Oh God, bless 

Muhammad, and the family of Muhammad. He then says one At- 
hamd {i.e., the Fdtiha or opening chapter), and three Qui huto^ Hlah, 

and lastly the Jya-yi MaffitihU'l-Ghaih, which is the 58tli verse 
of the sixth chapter, the " Chapter of the Cattle." Then saying 
Alldhumm^ istakhir-ni^^ " Oh God, choose for me," the book is 
opened at random by the forefinger of the right hand, and the top 
line of the right-hand page is selected. If no verse begins in this 
line, the seeker turns back and goes to the beginning of the verse. 
Verses issuing commands or expressing piety, etc., are propitious. 

Another method is, after opening the book as above, to count 
the number of times the word Allah occurs on the page, and then 
to turn over (forward) the same number of pages and again count 
the same number of lines from the top ; then if no verse com- 
mences in that line to read forward and take the first verse that 
occurs after that line. 

The answer is of course often extremely vague. In addition 
to the above, the Persians, even the most irreligious, generally 
take an istikhara from the tathih or "rosary."* The i^a^i'Aa is 
recited three times and nny two beads are taken hold of at 
random. As the first bead between these two points slips through 
the finger, the seeker says Suhiffin'^-llah, " Glory to be God." As 
the second is slipped, Al-hamd^ VilWh, " Praise be to God " ; as the 

1 l»ti!clkdra.y lit. '* asking favonrs." The istikt^ra that the Prophet taught 
was a prayer asking for guidance. 

The seeker for nn istil^dra goes to a mulld, who takes no fee— except 
perhaps an offering of sweets or fruit. 

One form of bibliomancj in England is to take an omen from the first 
word of the first person heard reading the Scriptures. Taking an omen from 
a Bible suspended by a key is still common. 

* ^aldt tjLs is properly any prayer, being the Arabic equivalent of 

namdz : by the Persians, however, the word has generally a special signi- 

8 Incorrect Arabic for ^tr-m, " choose for me." 

^ There are several ways of making this istiMLdra, One way is merely 
a game of '* odds and evens.'* 

340 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [August, 1906. 

the third is slipped, JI9 Wa In^^ — ^'' don't do it." These expressions 
are repeated in this order till the last bead is renched. According 
as the first, second, or third expression falls on the last bead, the 
reply is favourable, indifferent, or negative, i,e , Mkuh^ miyilna, ya 

From laziness, the Fdtiha is in practice usually recited only 
once. This form of istijchara takes little time or trouble — for 
most Persians carry a rosary in their pockets as a kind of play -thing 
— and is resorted to on the most trivial as well as on the most 

senous occasions. 


{h) Tafapid^ J5 ^^ " auguring," is generally applied to seeking 
a fSl or " omen " from Hf^fiz. A volume of the Diwan of the poet 
is held in the left hand and some such words as the following are 
said: — Yfl Khwfija Hdjiz-i ShirSzi ! tu kdshif-i har rSz-i ; hardy 
md, hiyn va yak faUi viundaih-i h^l hiyandozt,* " Oh Khwaja Hafiz 
of Shiraz ! thou art the revealer of hidden things : come and give 
us a good omen " ; or Ya JQiw^ja Rfijiz-i Shirazi tura hi-haqq-i Shakh-i 
Nah&t qaiam mi-diham hi knll-i ahval ra dar in kitflh-i khud 
mu'ayyan knu, " Oh Kbwaja Hafiz of Shiraz ! I adjure thee by 
ShaUi-i Xabat ^ to point out in this book of thine all I have to 
do." The book is then opened. The eyes are closed when doing 
so, and the volume is opened at hazard ^ ; the first line of the right- 
hand page is taken, and the seeker then turns back to the beginning 
of that ghazal. If the omen is favourable, the ghazal following it is 
also read: this is called the Shahid-i gJnazal-i avval "The con- 
firmer of the first ode," and if propitious, is acted on in preference 
to the first. 

The Persians also consult astronomers and geomancers "^ 
before starting on a journey, closing a bargain, or even changing a 
sleeping-room in a house ; they believe, too, in lucky faces, fortunate 
numbers, and unlucky days. 

Geomancy is supposed to have been discovered by Daniel. 
Geomancers, therefore, before casting say, " Yd Hazrat-i DanydiL'* 

(c) The 13th of $afar, the second month in the Muslim 
calendar, and the 13th of the Nauruz, are specially ill-omened 

1 Wa la, the first words of the formula, Wa la Ilah9 illa'llah. 

2 " Shall I or shall I not take a pnrge ? '* out come the beads. Many 
B European doctor, anxious to perform a critical operation, has fretted and 
famed because day after day the beads declared the day to be unfavourable. 

3 Fdl girifian, " to seek an omen" ; tafiVul zadarij** interpreting or acting 
on the omen." 

♦ There is no fixed formula. 

6 Shdkh-i Nahdt^ lit. "slip of sngar-candy " ; the name of the beloved of 
^?afi{5 : the word 8hdH gives the idea of something tall and willowy. 

« By running the nail of the forefinger of the right hand throngh the 
top edges of the leaves, the book being held in the left hand by the back, 
front edges towards the sky. 

1 Munajjim, •' astrologer," and *ilm-i nujum, " astrology " ; falaJci, 
"astronomer"; and Hlm-i hai^at, ** astronomy." Rammdlf ** geomancer " ; 
*«7m-i rami, " geomancy" ; and rami anddl^tan, " to divine by geomancy"; 
%ich-i fdlv Jeashidan, " to cast a horoscope." Fdlgir is applied to any pro- 
fessional omen-taker. 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Btbliomancyy etc., amongst the Persiafis. 341 

-days ^ ; the 5tli and 13th of every month less so. To avoid the 
evil thafc might overtake them were they to i*emain indoors, all 
Persians, on the 13th of the Nauruz^ leave their homes and spend 
the day in the open air from sun-np to sun-down. Disaster follows 
a quarrel during these hours. On the last Wednesday of $afar 
boys and girls jump over a fire.* 

Omens are also taken from birds, animals, the number of 
times a person sneezes, the crossing of a threshold with the right 
or left foot first, and many other ways. 

Persians have a firm belief in the evil eye, chashm-i had or 
^^hashm-zakhmfi Anyone may be possessed of the evil eye without 
knowing it> Some superstitious people even say, '^Md shopAllah'" 
when admiring their own countenances in a mirror, thus warding 
•off the evil efifects of their own admiring eyes. 

Blue wards ofE the evil eye, and for this reason valued animals 
are adorned with beads of this colour. Also the isjpand^ wild rue 
seed, burnt in the fire has a like virtue. 

Prettj children are often purposely kept dirty and unkempt 
and are further guarded from malign influences by amulets, ta'viz.^ 

Carpets are generally woven by 'the tribes' people with some 
small defect in the pattern, to avert the evil eye. 

Strange to say, a pig * in the stable will ward off the evil eye 
from the horses and mules. 

Certain cities, the houses of MullOs^ British Consulates, a 
stable, etc., all constitute sanctuary or hast. The writer once saw 
a soldier clinging to a big gun in the square of Kerman, declaring 
it was hast. However, in spite of his protestutions he was forcibly 
removed by the Governor's farr&shes. 

The time of Nau Ruz is a general holiday. People make 
picnics for 13 days, and every master is supposed to present his 

1 Manhua or had. 

2 The Prophet died in the month of ^afar. It is supposed that the Last 
Day will fall on the last Wednesday of this month. 

8 The Shah has the right to see every woman in the kingdom unveiled, 
and the royal glance is fortnnnte. The mujtahida have the same right, being 
considered mdhbram. 

4 In mard had-chashm ast^ or ehashm-i shiir (or shiim) ddrad (m. c.) : 
" this man has the evil eye "; in ghaMif zahdn-aah shum ast (m. c.) : *' this man 
always prophesies unlucky things." 

5 Bdzu-hand, a charm mnde by writing a text, wrapping it in bulbar or 
scented leather, which is then bound on the child's arm. An amulet is also 
•called iilism or " talisman." 

Dam-rdhi, more commonly sar-rdhl, is money expended in chanty on the 
threshold by a departing traveller to insure a safe return. 

In India some Muslim women bind a coin on the arm of a departing 
relative, to be expended in charity on his safely reaching the journey's end. 

9 Tweedie mentions a wild boar being kept in the stables at Baghdad. 
Some say the breath of a pig is good for horses. In *Arabistin, pig's fiesh is 
said to be eaten under the name of gusfand-i Faranifi. Ham in Persia is 
sometimes called guaht-i hulhulf a name said to have been invented by a 
telegraph clerk 

The Baluchis of Bampnr in Persian Baluchistan, a very different-lookiDg 
r^e to the fine people near to the Dera ^azi f^in Frontier in India, eat 
wild pig and also foxes. 

342 Journal of the Asiatic Society of B&tigal. [August, 1906. 

servants with one month's pay. The chief of a Dervish sect wilt 
auction certain sights, such as the Governor's Palace, the British 
Consulate, etc., to his followers. The purchaser erects a tent and 
blows a horn and refuses to move on unless given a satisfa<;toiy 
sum over the sum he paid for the site. 

Persians attribute misfortunes to the revolution of the heavens, 
to the ** evil eje " of time, to the world, etc.^ 

The influence of the heavens on the fortunes of man appears^ 
to be an ancient supeistition dating back to a pre-Islamic period. 
It has been supposed that Persians attribute their ills to the 
heavens to avoid the appearance even of attributing misfortune to 
the Deity. This is not, I think, the case, for the Persians still 
believe that the revolution of the skies actually affects man's fate. 
Muslims who wish to avoid the appearance of ascribing ill to the 
Deity, attribute the occurrence to Fate, Qazap, Qadar or Taqdir. 
In the religious drama of Qusain, the sky is accused of being the 
author of bis misfortunes. 

The following poetical quotations exemplify this belief ; — 

Ay charih-i falak ktarahi az kina-yi tust. O. K. 

" Ah ! wheel of lieaven to tyranny inclined." 

{Whin. Trans: Buh. 26.} 

In charih-i jafS-pisha-yi * Hit hunydd 

Hargiz girih-i kdr-i kas-i ra na-gushGd 

Harja ki dil-i did ki dagh-i darad 

Bdgh'i dfgar-i bar sar-i On d^j^i nihad, O. K. 

" The wheel on high, still busied with despite. 
Will ne'er unloose a wretch from his sad plight ; 
But when it lights upon a smitten hearf, 
Straightway essays another blow to smite." 

{Whin, Trans. Sub. 154.) 

Jy charhh chi karda am turOj rSst bi-gfiy, 
Paivasta figafida-i marO dar tak u puy ? 0. K. 

" Oh wheel of heaven, what have I done to you 
That vou should thus annoy me P Tell me true." 

{Whin. Trans. Bub. 499,) 

Chan lala bi-Nau- Uuz qada^ gir bi-dast 

Bd lala-rukh't agar turci fur^at hast 

Mai nUsh bi-khurrami ki in charkh-i kabud 

Nagah tur& chu bGd gardanad past. O. K, 

" Like tulips in the spiing your cups lift up. 
And with a tulip-cheeked companion, sup 
With joy your wine, or e'er this azure wheel 
With some unlooked-for blast upset your cup." 

( Whin. Trans. Bub. 44.) 

i Falak, DunyS, Zamann^ ' Dahi\ Gardun, Charktf Chaehm'ial^m'i 
viiina, etc. 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Bulbophyllum Burhilli. 343- 


46. Bu^hophyllum Burhilli, a hitherto U7ide9crihed species from 
Burma. — By A. T. Gage. 

Amongst the plants collected by Mr. I. H. Burkill, Reporter 
on Economic Products to the Government of India, during his 
tour in Burma in the early part of 1904, and presented by him 
to the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta, was a small orchid found 
growing in an open forest of teak, bamboo and Strychnos, near 
the town of Mya-wadi in the Amherst district, between the 
Dawna hills and the Siamese frQntier. Quite recently this orchid 
iiao nuvrvitni in tbe Calcutta Botanic Garden, and, as it has been 
found to be a hitherto unknown species, the following description 
of it is offered : — 

BuLBOPUYLLUM BuRKiLLi, Gage, sp. nov. — Typus eb icon in 
herbario horti botanici regalis calcuttensis. Bhizoma tenue, circa 
1*5 mm. ci^ssum ; radices filiformes, circa 1-3 mm. longte, pallide 
virides, glabrae, ccespitosee. Pseudo-hulhi approximati, ovoidei, 
circa 1 cm. longi, 9 mm. cmssi, pallide virides, glabri, unifoliati. 
Folia subsessilia, elliptica vel elliptico-oblonga, apice acufca, basi 
obtusa, 3-4'3 cm. longa, circa 1 cm. lata, crassiuscula, glabra, 
integra. Pedicelli solitarii, uuiflori, e basi ascendentes, 2-3 cm. 
longi, pallide- virides, rubro-punctati. Bracteolss 2-3, minuta9, 
basi lares. Sepala subsequalia, integra, triangularia, acuta, 
viridia, obscure 5-nervia, 1 cm. longa, 6 mm. lata, lateralia in 
columnsB pede adnata. Petala minuta, 2-2*5 mm. longa, 0*5 mm. 
lata, oblonga, acuta, integra, alba, purpureo 3-nervia. 
LaheUum sessile, trigonum, integrum, recurvatum, viride, 25 mm. 
longum, 18 mm. latum, basi incurviter bi-denticulatum, supra in 
meaio depressum, infra canaliculum medium marginibus postice 
incurvatis exhibens. Golumna brevis, apice et antice bi-denticu- 
lata. Anthera oblonga ; poUiuia 4, duo interiora minora. Copsula 
non visa. 

BuBMA Inferior. — In silvis prope oppidum Mya-wadi in 
pago Amherst et baud procul a finibus siamensibus, Burkill ! 

Adopting the divisions of tlie Eu-bulbophyllum section of 
the genus as given in the Flora of British India, this species would 
come into subsection A. " Flowers solitary " (F. B. I. v., 753), 
and the second division of that section. " Column with two long 
teeth or spines at the top" (F. B. I. v., 756). Under this, five 
species are described, viz : — B. leopardinum, Lindl., B, Oriffithii, 
Reichb. f., B. Dayanum, Reichb. f., B. memh rani folium, Hook, f., 
B. monUiforme, Parish & Reichb. f. 

Of these, the first two and thjJ^-^t two have the lip stipitato. 
B. leopardimim and B. memhranifblium are remarkably like each 
other ; and it is difficult to get hold of distinguishing characters. 

:344 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [August, 1906. 

The following artiOcial key is an attempt to facilitate the recogni- 
tion of the species : — 

Lip stipitate — 

Leaves large, 7-20 cm. long 

Columnar spurs stout ... B. leopard inurn. 
Columnar spurs long, 
falcate ... ... JB. memhrafiifolium. 

Leaves small, less than 7 cm. long 
Pseudo-bulbs ovoid ; flow- 
ers 2'5 cm. in diam. ... B, Oriffithii. 

Pseudo-bulbs pisiform ; 

flowers 8 mm. in diam. B. viouiliforme. 

Lip sessile, trigonous — 

Flowers ciliate ; petals 

red ... ... 5. Dayanu m , 

Flowers eciliate ; petals 

white ... ... 5. Burkilli. 

Of the Burmese species, B. Burkilli is nearest to B, Dayanum 
agreeing with it in the size of. leaf, the absence of a scape, the 
sessile trigonous lip with incurved uncinate basal auricles and 
short columnar teeth. B. Burkilli is, however, a smaller plant 
than B. Dayanum, and hns smaller flowers than the latter. Of 
the Siamese species so far described B» mona7ithos, Ridley, (Joum. 
Linn. Soc. Bot. xxxii., p. 271) appears to be nearest to the species 
now described, from which it differs amongst other things in having 
a lanceolate flat lip, yellow with a purple spotted base. Although 
for Indian botanists who may confine themselves to the Flora of 
British India the position assigned to B. Burkilli above has the 
advantage of convenience, it probably with more correctness 
should be placed in Ridley's Monanthaparva section^ which 
includes one-flowered Bulhophylla of small size. 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Notes on some Mare and Interesting Insects, 345 

47. Notes on Some Bare and Interesting Injects added to the Indian 
Museum Oollection during the Tear 1906-06. —By C. A. Paiva, 
Entomological Assistant, Indian Museum. With a prefatory 
note by N. Annandale. 

So little is known regarding the distribution of the Insects of 
India that exact records of carefully identified and labelled speci- 
mens are still important. No apology, therefore, need be made 
for communicating the present paper to the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal. It is within my knowledge that all the identifications 
have been made with the greatest cai*e and that the localities and 
dates attached to the specimens are authentic. I should like, 
howeyer, to call the attention of the members of the Society to 
one aspect which the publication of such a paper bears. The 
records given are only those which add something new to what 
has been already published. With a few exceptions they depend 
on collections made hastily and at odd moments during the course 
of a month by two collectors who have a great deal of other work 
to do ; and these collections were not made in inaccessible parts 
of India, but in Calcutta and the Darjiling and Pumeah districts. 
This paper may therefore be said to illustrate our ignorance of 
Indian Entomology. It contains no identifications of species 
hitherto unnamed, not because specimens of new species did not 
occur in the collections on which it is based, but because such 
specimens have been referred for determination and description, 
whenever possible, to specialists in Europe and America. I would 
enter a plea for the study of the distribution of the common 
Insects of India. The publication of those volumes of the 
'* Fauna of India ** series which have already appeared, has made 
this study possible, as regards several interesting groups, for the 
naturalist who has no very great expert knowledge but is prepared 
to devote time and patience to the labelling and identification of 
his specimens. 

N. Annandale, 

The following notes contain records of some rare and interest- 
ing specimens lately added to the collection of the Indian 
Museum. The majority of them belong either to the Hymenoptera, 
or the Hemiptera. As regards the former group I have followed 
the nomenclature of CoL Bingham, and as regards the latter that 
of Mr. W. L. Distant, in the volumes of the " Fauna of British 

I am indebted to Dr. N. Annandale, Officiating Superin- 
tendent of the Indian Museum, who has read through the 
manuscript, for his numerous suggestions and corrections. 

346 JbiirnaZ of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [ Augast, 1906. 



Ite^iBmA collsxiB, Fahricius, Entom, Syst, ii. (1798), p. 64: 
Lepisma collaris, Bvrmeister, Handh. d. EtUom. v. 2 (1838), p. 457 : 
Lepisma niveofasciata, Templeton in Trans. Entom. Soc. y. 3 ( 1H43), 
p. 302 : Lepisma ooUariB, Oervais, Walk. Ms. Apt. v. 3 (18^X 
p. 453 : Lepisma cincta, Oudemane, Weher^ ZooLog. Ergebnisse y. 1 
(1890), p. 80, t. 6, fig 1 : Acrotelsa coUaris (Pabr.), K. Escherich, 
Bibliotheca Zoohgica, xviii. (1905), p. 107, figs. 43a-6, and pi. I. 
fig. 3. 

This large Fish Insect -was obtained bj Dr. N. Annandale in 
Calcutta. It may be quite common in houses among old books, 
etc., but very few specimens have been collected in Southern Asia 
In fact this is the first one recorded from India. It has a very 
wide distribution, having been recorded from the West Indies, La 
Guayra, Curacao, Maracaibo, Dahoma, the Seychelles, Java, Ceylon 
and Madagascar. 



Pebiplaneta biogulata, De Sauss. MS. 

There is a specimen in the Indian Museum Collection, 
labelled by de Saussure as " P. hiociUata, female larva," together 
with two others which were collected by Dr. N. Annan£ble at 
Chakradharpur, Chota Nagpur, under stones in March, and 
several from Java (Forbes). 

Some of these specimens are in all probability adult wingless 
females, as there can be seen in nearly every one at the sides of 
the mesonotum and metanotum, small pieces separated by distinct 
sutures, which are traces of rudimentary alar organs. The 
specimen sent to M. de Saussure was in a very bad condition and 
two of the spots were covered by the metanotum. 

As the species does not seem to be described in print, 
I append a diagnosis of it. 


Black, shining, wingless, elliptical, smooth, with six yellow- 
ish brown spots above. Head extending very slightly beyond 
the anterior margin of the pronotum ; black, narrowest between 
the antennsa, and with two minute creamy spots near the 
inner margins of the antenna! cavities. 

Antennao black, becoming brownish towards apex, filiform 

Vol. II, No. 8.] Noie9 on same Bare and Interesting Insects. 847 

and moderately pilose tbrooghoui their length ; abont half the 
length of the body. Eyes small, black, with very minute grey 
spots, scarcely visiole, being ooye]:>ed by the pronotam. Pronotnm 
black, hood-shaped; anterior margin slightly arched, lateral 
margins rounded, with a slight fold anteriorly, near the region of 
the eyes ; posterior margin nearly straight. Abdomen beneath 
black. Cox» smooth, flat, black, with a few minute spines above 
and several larger ones below. TibsB very spinose, tarsi more or 
less setose, the last joint lighter in colour than the preceding 
joints, ending in a pair of simple claws. 

The six spots are arranged as follows, a pair on the disc of the 
mesonotum, a pair at the base of the abdomen, and a pair near the 
apex of the abdomen. 

The apex of the abdomen is furnished with a pair of 
'^torpedo** shaped cerci, which are black, smooth on the inner 
surface, densely pilose outwardly. 

Total length, 17-20 mm. Maximum breadth of the pro- 
notnm, 8*5 mm. 

Localities — 

Chota Nagpui*, Chakradharpur : {AwMndale)^ Vizagapatam, 
and Java {Forhe-). 

A specimen from Vizagapatam, which has been named by de 
Saussure, is in every respect similar to those from Chakradharpur, 
except that the colour of the eyes is a little different and that 
they appear more conspicuous in the South Indian specimen. 
These differences cannot be of much importance, as in the Javan 
specimens the colour of the eyes is not constant, being nearly 
white in one specimen. The change may be due to preservation. 



Bingham in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Eymenoptera^ i., 

p. 171. 

A specimen of this rare species was obtained by the Museum 
collector in Calcutta. It agrees with Col. Bingham's description 
in every respect and I have no doubt about its identity. 

The only other specimen hitherto recorded, is the one in 
Rothney's Indian collection. This specimen is not perfect, 
having, as Col. Bingham states, " no head, and being otherwise 
damaged.'' There are two others in the Dudgeon oollection now 
in the Indian Museum. They are from the Kangra Valley. 

348 Journal of the AnaHc Society of Bengal, [Augnst, 1906. 


Sphex NIV0SU8 (Smith). 

Bingham in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Hymenoptera, i., 

p. 244. 

On examining the Hymenoptei'a whicli was received by the 
Indian Museum from the oeistan-Afghanistan Commission, 
I found a Sphegiid which looked interesting, being qaite different 
to those which one is accustomed to see in the plains. On further 
examination and comparison, I identified it as Sphex nivosta. 
It is the only specimen now in the Indian Museum collection, and 
from Col. Bingham's note on it, there does not seem to be more 
than one specimen in the collection of the British Museum. The 
locality recorded by him is "Northern India," which is rather 
vague. Smith and Cameron g^ive the same vague locality as 
Bingham. Bothney, during the many years he spent in the 
North -West Provinces (now the United Provinces), does not seem 
to have obtained even a single specimen. 

Ampulex novabj:, Sauss. 

Bingham in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Hymenoptera, i., 

p. 256. 

Along with PompilM hecate. Cam., the Museum collector 
obtained a single specimen of this species in Calcutta. There are 
two (a cf and a 9) in the Dudgeon collection now in the Indian 
Museum. These are from the Kangra Valley, 4500 feet, and were 
taken in December, 1899. 

Colonel Bingham states that he had no specimens before him 
when compiling his monogi^aph on the Indian Hymenoptera for 
Blanford^s " Fauna." 

The only localities hitherto i-ecorded are Darjiling and 
Hongkong. Among the unidentified specimens of Ampulex in the 
Indian Museum Collection, there is a series of specimens from 
Bangalore, which I have also identified as A. novara. 

Judging from the localities mentioned, this species appears to 
have a very wide range. 


Bingham in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Hymenoptera, i., 

p. 320. 

A single specimen of this little Sphegiid was obtained by 
Messrs. Richardson and O 'Sullivan of the Indian Museum, during 
a recent visit to Siliguri, N. Bengal. 

Vol. II, Ko. 8.] Notes an some Bare and Interesting Insects. 349 

It is doubtless a rare species, and very little is at present 
known about its distribution, Barrackpore, near Calcutta, having 
been the only locality I'ecorded hitherto. 

Edmbnks conica (Fabr.), var. 

Bingham in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Hymenoptera, i., 

p. 343. 

Two peculiar specimens (a cf and a 2 ) of a Eumenid were 
recently obtained by the Museum collector in Calcutta. They 
agree with Col. Bingham's description of this species as 
I'egards both size and form, but their coloration differs remarkably 
from that of the description, as well as from that of the specimens 
in the Indian Museum collection. 

In the female the head instead of being yellow is red. It is 
very nearly the same colour as the antennae. The posterior 
poiibion of the mesonotum is very much darker than the anterior, 
being very nearly brownish-black. 

The base of the petiole is black and it has also a subapical 
well-defined black transverse band above. The transverse medial 
band on the second abdominal segment above is entire, not 
medially interrupted. 

The bases of segments 3-6 above are also black, but cannot 
be seen distinctly, owing to the overlapping of the anterior 
segments. The apical margins of segments 3-5 are very narrowly 

In the male the head is the same colour as the female, viz,, 
red. The posterior portion of the mesonotum is very much 
darker than the anterior, being nearly black. The second abdominal 
segment appears to have two transverse black bands above, but 
on closer examination the second band near the apical margin is 
seen to be in reality the black transverse band on the basal 
margin of the third segment seen through the semi-transparent 
dorsal plate of the second abdominal segpnent. The third to the 
fifth abdominal segments have at their bases above, transverse 
blackish-brown bands. The sixth abdominal segment has at its 
base, above, a medially interrupted yellowish transverse band 
followed by a dark brown transverse fascia, and its apex very 
narrowly reddish-yellow. The seventh abdominal segment above 
has at its base a ti-ansverse dii*ty yellow band, with the apical 
half brown enclosing a slightly reddish-yellow spot. The abdo- 
men beneath is much lighter in colour. 

350 Journal of the Ahaiic Society of Bengal, [Aogast, 1906. 



Binghamy in 61anford*s Fauna of BnU'sh India, Hymenoptera, i., 

p. 397. 

Several specimens were obtained bj Dr. N. Annandale at 
Knrseong, 5000 feet, E. Himalayas, where it is rather common, in 
May, along with a nest, which was found attached to a boulder 
on the side of a hill. 

There is a slight difference between these specimens and 
those described by Colonel Bingham. The post-scutellum, 
instead of having a square dark-red spot at each lateral angle is 
entirely red ; this difference being perhaps varietal. 

The nest resembles that of Polistes hehraeus to a very 
marked degree. 

The following is a list of Hymenoptera obtained on or near 
the Perso-Baluch Frontier, by the collector attached to the 
Seistan Boundary Commission (1903-05) under Sir A. H. 
McMahon. There are several other species which I have been 
unable to identify, some of which may be new. 

SphegidaB : — 

Notogonia subtessellata (Smith), 
Sceliphron bilineatum (Smith), 
Sphex nivosus (Smith), 
Stizus rufescens (Smith), 
Bembez trepanda, Dalhb. 

Eumenidm: — 

Eumenes dimidiatipennis, Sauss. 

Vtspida : — 

Polistes hebrsBus (Fabr.), 
Vespa magnifica, Smith, 
„ orientalis, Linn. 

Apid» : — 

Crocisa ramosa, Lepel, 

Anthophora quadrifasciata (Villers) 

Formicidm ;— 

Myrmecocystus setipes, Forel. 

Vol. tr, Kn. 8.T Notes an some Bare ani Interesting Insects. 351 



Stobthecoris N10RICBP8, Horv. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, i, 

p. 78. 

In the old Indian Mnsemn collection there was only one 
very badly damaged specimen, which was from the Dhnnsiri 
VaUey and was obtained by Col. Grodwin-Ansten. It is 
labelled " Scotinophara tarsaUs P " Its condition is too bad to 
allow of comparison with the specimen which is here noted and 
which was oollected by me at Pumeah, N. Bengal, in May last. 
A second specimen has been obtedned by Dr. N. Annandale at 
light on tne 16th July in Calcutta. The other Indian localities 
from which this species has been recorded are the Khasi Hills 
(Ghennell) ; and Sibsagar (OolL Diet). It has also been reported 
from Java and Borneo, and may possibly be found to extend 
through Burma to the Malay Peninsula. 

In life it is so much like dry grass that it cannot be easily 
seen, and even when on the ground it escapes notice. Diligent 
search may prove a wider distribution of the species. 

SciOGORis iNDicus, DfLlL, and Sgiogoris lewisi, Dist. 

DiHani in Blanford*s Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, i., 

p. 126. 

There were no specimens of the above two species in the 
Indian Museum collection, but I obtained several of the genus in 
the Pumeah District in May last, and on comparison with the 
descriptions given by Distant, I have identified two as S. indicus 
and eight as 8- lewisi, 

ti, indicus has rather a wide range in India, having been 
recorded from North India {British Mus.), Malabar {OolL Dist ), 
andCoonoor {Brit, Mus,), 

8, lewiii seems to be . less widely distributed. The only 
localities mentioned by Distant being the Khasi Hills {Ohenndl), 
and Ceylon {Lewii), 

^80HR0€0RIS cstlokicus, Dist. 

Distant in Blanford^s Fauna of British India^ Bhynchota, i., 

p. 163. 

Among the many Insects I collected in the Pumeah District 
in May last, I was fortunate enough to get one specimen of this 

352 Journal of the Asiaitc Society of Bengal [Augagt, 1906, 

species. It is the first that has been recorded from India proper. j 

and is the only one now in the Indian Museum collection. The i 

type specimen is in the British Museum and was collected by I 

Mr. E. B. Green in Ceylon. There is no other locality on record. / 
It is quite possible that the species may be found in any part of 

Megtmenum seyebini, Berg. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India^ Bhynchota i I 

p. 287. ' " I 

A specimen was obtained at Kurseong by Dr. N. Annandale 
in May last. There were none in the Indian Museum Collection, 
although there were several of if. inerme, M, brevicome, M, parr 
allelum, and M. subpurpurescens. These five species are the only 
ones as yet recorded from India. 

Urolabida dniloba, Stil. 

Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota, i., 

p. 306. 

New to the Indian Museum collection and obtained by 
Dr. N. Annandale at Kurseong in May. 


Stenogephalus lateralis, Sign. 

'Distant in Blanford's Fauna of British India, Bhynchota^ i., 

p. 406. 

Obtained by me in the Pumeah District in May. It does 
not seem to be very common there. I obtained only one specimen. 
It has hitherto been recorded from Bombay and Madras {Coll. 
Dist,)y and Ceylon